Flag of Hungary
The flag of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország zászlaja, more commonly Hungarian: magyar zászló) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green. In this exact form, it has been the official flag of Hungary since May 23, 1957. The flag's form originates from national republican movements of the 18th and 19th centuries, while its colours are from the Middle Ages. The current Hungarian tricolour flag is the same as the republican movement flag of the United Kingdom (used since 1816) and the colours in that form were already used at least since the coronation of Leopold II in 1790, predating the first use of the Italian Tricolour in 1797.
|Use||Civil and state flag|
|Adopted||May 23, 1957 (as state flag)|
June 19, 1990 (reaffirmed)
|Design||A horizontal triband of red, white and green|
Variant flag of Hungary
|Use||Civil flag and ensign|
|Adopted||August 18, 1957 (as civil ensign)|
|Design||A horizontal tricolour of red, white, and green|
Variant flag of Hungary
|Use||Unofficial state flag[note 1]|
|Adopted||October 10, 1995|
|Design||A horizontal tricolor of red, white and green with the state coat of arms in the center.|
Variant flag of Hungary
|Adopted||March 15, 1991|
Variant flag of Hungary
The modern flag of Hungary originated from the national freedom movement from before 1848, which culminated in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The revolution was not only in opposition against the monarchy but also the Habsburg Empire, as well as to form an independent republic. Accordingly, the Hungarian flag features a tricolour element, which is based upon the French flag, as a reflection of the ideas of the French revolution; while red, white, and green are colours derived from the historical Hungarian coat of arms, which have essentially remained in the same form since the mid-15th century, with exception to some minor differences, and were marshalled from arms that first appeared in the late 12th and early 13th century as arms of the Árpáds, Hungary's founding dynasty. The stripes are horizontal rather than vertical to prevent confusion with the Italian flag despite the banner in that form predating the Italian tricolour by at least 7 years, which had been designed after the French flag. According to other data, the recent form of the Hungarian tricolour had been already used from 1608 at the coronation of Mathias II of Hungary and following coronations.
Folklore of the romantic period attributed the colours to virtues: red for strength, white for faithfulness and green for hope. Alternatively, red for the blood spilled for the fatherland, white for freedom and green for the land, for the pastures of Hungary. The new constitution, which took effect on 1 January 2012, makes the ex-post interpretation mentioned first official (in the semi-official translation: strength (erő), fidelity (hűség) and hope (remény)).
As described above, the red-white-green tricolour clearly emerged as a sign of national sovereignty during the 1848–1849 revolution against the Habsburgs. Hungarian volunteers and Émigrés fought for the social movement and wars of Italian unification under the banner for Garibaldi. After the revolution in Hungary was defeated, the tricolour flag was prohibited by the Austrian Emperor; after the Compromise of 1867, however, the tricolour became not only legal, but also the official flag of Hungary. The flag had the so-called minor arms (also known as the Kossuth coat of arms) of Hungary with archangels as supporters were used as a badge on the flag. This configuration was used until the end of the Habsburg Empire in 1918.
After the fall of the Habsburg Empire, the years 1918 to 1920 were highly turbulent, and several hard-to-trace minor changes took place. The red-green-white tricolour stayed the same, but small differences emerged in terms of the badge. A short interlude and exception was the 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic, which lasted for four-and-a-half months; it used a solid red banner.
It seems that from 1920 to 1944–1945 the tricolour displayed the minor arms of Hungary, but the version without them was also used.
Between 1946 and 1949 the crown was removed from the top of the arms serving as the badge.
With the onset of Communist rule in 1949, a new coat of arms featuring a Communist red star was placed on the flag as the badge.
During the anti-Soviet uprising in 1956, revolutionaries cut out the Hammer and Sickle emblem and used the resulting tricolour with a hole in the middle as the symbol of the revolution. For some months the new government changed the flag to bear the minor arms without the crown as the badge again.
In 1957, during the Stalinist restoration after the revolution was defeated by the Soviet Red Army, the new government created a "new" coat of arms, which however was never officially put onto the flag. Therefore, the official flag of Hungary has been a pure red-white-green tricolour since 1957.
After the fall of communism in 1989 there was no need to change the flag, as it did not bear any communist insignia.
There was a recommendation of the Committee of Symbols in the 2000s, that the coat of arms should be part of the state flag, while the national flag should remain plain (as is the status quo). This has not been implemented in law, though in case of most state use the arms are legally permitted on the flag (see below).
Exact description and legislatureEdit
The Hungarian Constitution does not explicitly state anything about the width:length ratio of the flag; but, there is a law from 1957 that is in force stating that seagoing merchant vessels shall hoist the red–white–green tricolour in 2:3 ratio.
Summarized, this would mean:
- A red–white–green tricolour. Actually many variations might be used though according to 1995/LXXXIII §11 (3) "(3) In cases specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), the arms and the flag can be used also in their historical forms.", as (1) reads as: 1995/LXXXIII §11 (1) "(1) For the purpose of declaring their belonging to the nation, private persons can use the arms and the flag, subject to the limitations in this law."
- red–white–green tricolour, ratio 1:2 (by decree from 2000). According to 1995/LXXXIII §11 (4), the official coat of arms of Hungary might be placed onto it as a badge.
- White background with green red alternated flammulette ("flame tongues", triangles with wavy edge) border, coat of arms in the center, embraced by oak branches from the left, olive branches from the right. Ratio not defined. ( 1995/LXXXIII §8 (1) )
- 2:3 (ratio defined by 1957 law) red-white-green tricolour (there is a merchant fleet)
- Unknown or unspecified;
- White background with green red alternated triangle border, coat of arms at 1/3 of the flag, nearer to the pole. Ratio not defined. ( 1995/LXXXIII §8 (2) )
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1869 to 1874 with the Hungarian small coat of arms.
A variant of the flag of Hungary, used between 1896 and 1915, while part of Austria-Hungary.
Flag of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, used briefly in 1919.
Flag of Hungary, used between 1946 and 1949 and between 1956 and 1957 with the Kossuth coat of arms.
This flag, from which the Rákosi era coat of arms has been cut out, became the symbol of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
Government ensign of Hungary, used between 1957 and 1990.
Head of state standardsEdit
- The official Hungarian state flag does not contain the Hungarian coat of arms, but the variant defaced with the coat of arms is often used during solemn occasions.
- "1957. évi II. törvény a Magyar Népköztársaság Alkotmányának módosításáról" [Act II of 1957 on the Amendment of the Constitution of the Hungarian People's Republic]. hu.wikisource.org (in Hungarian). Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "1990. évi XL. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmányának módosításáról" [Act XL of 1990 on the Amendment of the Constitution of the Hungarian Republic]. Törvények és országgyűlési határozatok (in Hungarian). Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- "51/1957. (VIII. 18.) Korm. számú rendelet a magyar tengeri kereskedelmi hajók lobogójáról" [Decree of the Government No. 51/1957. (VIII. 18.) on the Ensign of the Hungarian Maritime Merchant Vessels]. hu.wikisource.org (in Hungarian). Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "1995. évi LXXXIII. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság nemzeti jelképeinek és a Magyar Köztársaságra utaló elnevezésnek a használatáról" [Act LXXXIII of 1995 on the usage of the national symbols and name of the Hungarian Republic]. Törvények és országgyűlési határozatok (in Hungarian). Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- "A Magyar Honvédség új felségjelzése és hadilobogói" [The new insignia and war ensigns of the Hungarian Defence Forces]. Haditechnika. 25 (3): 3–4. 1991.
- The Weakening of Absolutism: The War in Italy and the Hungarian Émigrés.
- Halasz, Ivan; Schweitzer, Gabor (16 March 2011). "National and State Symbols in the Hungarian Legal System (Excerpts)" (PDF). Legal Compass: 3.
- The Fundamental Law of Hungary
- Magyarország Alaptörvénye
- The Constitution of the Hungarian Republic
- Law 1995/LXXXIII
- Law 2000/XXXVIII
- Volker Preuß. "Flagge Ungarns" (in German). Retrieved 2002-12-10.
- Horváth, Zoltán (1995). A zászlók kialakulása és fejlődése a kezdetektől napjainkig [The formation and development of flags from the beginning to the present day] (in Hungarian). Budapest: Zászlókutató Intézet. p. 13–14.
- Csákváriné Kottra, Györgyi (2011). Magyar zászlók a honfoglalástól napjainkig (in Hungarian). Budapest: Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum. p. 18–19. ISBN 978-963-09-6494-4.
- "Árpád-házi királyi zászló a 12. sz. végétől". Magyar Nemzeti és Történelmi Jelképek (in Hungarian). Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Az Árpád-házi királyok családi zászlaja". Magyar Nemzeti és Történelmi Jelképek (in Hungarian). Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- Csákváriné Kottra, Györgyi (2011). Magyar zászlók a honfoglalástól napjainkig (in Hungarian). Budapest: Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum. pp. 19–21. ISBN 978-963-09-6494-4.
- Miniature[page needed] in Chronicon Pictum (c. 1370).
- "Anjou-királyi zászló". Magyar Nemzeti és Történelmi Jelképek (in Hungarian). Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Anjou Kings Flag (1301-1382)". Flags of the World. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- Somogyi, Győző (2011). Magyar hadizászlók (in Hungarian). Budapest: Cser Kiadó. p. 22. ISBN 978-963-278-194-5.
- Somogyi, Győző (2011). Magyar hadizászlók (in Hungarian). Budapest: Cser Kiadó. p. 25. ISBN 978-963-278-194-5.
- Somogyi, Győző (2011). Magyar hadizászlók (in Hungarian). Budapest: Cser Kiadó. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-963-278-194-5.
- Horváth, Zoltán (1995). A zászlók kialakulása és fejlődése a kezdetektől napjainkig (in Hungarian). Budapest: Zászlókutató Intézet. p. 14.
- Somogyi, Győző (2011). Magyar hadizászlók (in Hungarian). Budapest: Cser Kiadó. p. 38. ISBN 978-963-278-194-5.
- Csákváriné Kottra, Györgyi (2011). Magyar zászlók a honfoglalástól napjainkig (in Hungarian). Budapest: Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum. p. 33. ISBN 978-963-09-6494-4.
- "Rákóczi fejedelem zászlaja". Magyar Nemzeti és Történelmi Jelképek (in Hungarian). Retrieved 15 March 2019.