Chronicon Pictum

The Chronicon Pictum (Latin for "illustrated chronicle", English: Illuminated Chronicle or Vienna Illuminated Chronicle, Hungarian: Képes Krónika, Slovak: Obrázková kronika, German: Illustrierte Chronik, also referred to as Chronica Hungarorum, Chronica Picta or Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum) is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the 14th century. It represents the great international artistic style of the royal courts in the court of King Louis I of Hungary. The codex is a unique source of art, medieval and cultural history.

Chronicon Pictum, Mark of Kalt, Kálti Márk, King Louis I of Hungary, Hungarian, medieval, chronicle, book, illumination, illustration, history
The first page of the Chronicon Pictum. King Louis I on the throne, below the Hungarian Anjou and the Hungarian coat of arms.

The chronicle's full name is: Chronicon pictum, Marci de Kalt, Chronica de gestis Hungarorum (Illustrated Chronicle, Mark of Kalt's Chronicle About the Deeds of the great Hungarians).

History of the chronicleEdit

The chronicle was written by Mark of Kalt (Latin: Marci de Kalt, Hungarian: Kálti Márk) in 1358, with the last of the illuminations being finished between 1370 and 1373.

The chronicle was given by the great Hungarian king Louis I to the French king Charles V, when the daughter of Louis, Catherine, was engaged to Charles's son Louis I, Duke of Orléans in 1374.[1] The chronicle was then given to Serbian despot Đurađ Branković as gift from the French king Charles VII. The chronicle was copied in 1462. Between 1458 and 1490, it was still in Hungary, in the court of King Matthias,[2] and later lost, possibly spending some time in Turkish possession.[1] There is evidence to suggest that in the second half of the 15th century the chronicle was in Hungary, it also contains several handwritten Hungarian and Latin entries from the 15th and 16th centuries, even in three places with Turkish writing in Hungarian. From the fact that it contains Turkish comments related to Hungary, the researchers concluded that between the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 17th century, the codex was owned by a Hungarian who knew Turkish very well. The chronicle may have fled Vienna from the Ottoman occupation in the 16th century. From the 17th century, it belonged to the court library in Vienna. Sebastian Tengnagel mentions it in the manuscript catalog of the court library from 1608 to 1636. The chronicle reappears in the first half of the 17th century in royal archives of Vienna by unknown means, which is why it is also referred as the Vienna Illuminated Chronicle. As a result of the Venice Cultural Convention, the chronicle returned to Hungary in 1934. The manuscript is now kept in the National Széchényi Library in Budapest (Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, Budapest).[1]

IlluminationsEdit

The 147 pictures of the chronicle are an inexhaustible source of information on medieval Hungarian cultural history, costume and court life, they also represent the most important records extent of Hungarian painting in the 14th century. The artistic value of the miniatures is quite high, and the characters are drawn with detail and with a knowledge of anatomy.[3] The chronicle contains 147 miniatures: 10 larger images, 29 images in the width of the column, 4 smaller images at the bottom of the page in a round medallion shape, 99 images enclosed in initials, and 5 initials without images. In addition, there are 82 ornaments at the margin.

The images are listed in the same order as their appearance in the chronicle.

Page Illumination Description
Page 1

King Louis on the Throne
  • King Louis I sits on a mosaic-decorated canopy throne with turrets in the middle in a leaf-decorated frame. His crowned head leans slightly to the right, his face around the mouth and chin is worn on the miniature. He holds a scepter in his right hand and an orb in his left hand. He wears white gloves. Her reddish-brown striped dress is covered with an ermine lining and cloak. On his right are armored knights in western costumes with swords and shields, on his left is a group of oriental, long-dressed figures with bows, arrows, and sabers. The weapons of those standing to the left of the king are royal insignia according to Eastern custom.

Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Page 2

The Historiographer
  • In the initial "S", Mark of Kalt, the author of the Chronicon Pictum. The dress that the storyteller wears in the picture is not exactly monastic, but more ornate, as it has a gold border. A bearded man sitting in front of a mosaic-decorated pulpit is writing in a codex. There is a writing instrument in his right hand, and he holds down the sheet of parchment with a scratch knife in his left hand. His inkstands are attached to the edge of the pulpit.

In the 1358th year of Our Lord’s birth, in the eighth of the ascension of the same Lord, I started this chronicle on Tuesday about the old and new deeds of the Hungarians, their origin and growth, their triumphs and courage...

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[4]
Page 5

The Miraculous Deer
  • In the initial "A", the hunt of the miracle stag. A group of dogs hunting, in the foreground a leading figure: Hunor or Magor. In the left background is a forest towards which a deer is heading.

It happened one day after they had gone hunting, in the wilderness a stag appeared before them, this was chased into the swamps of Maeotian...

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[5]
Page 7

The First Arrival of the Hungarians in Pannonia
  • Initial "A" with floral and leaf ornamentation. Below it, a heavily worn miniature is occupying the entire width of the text in a simple frame. In the background there are castles on tops with residential towers. The Huns, considered by the chronicle to be the ancestors of the Hungarians, enter from the right in the foreground: armored knights on horseback, a chief in costume among them. One of the knights carries a flag protruding from the frame of the picture, the Turul, the legendary bird of the Hungarians is on the flag, which the illustrator here depicts as a falcon or eagle-like black bird on a red background. In the middle, there are men and women carrying children, and baggy packages on their backs, then there are women and children on wagons covered with tarpaulins, behind them, there are warriors riding on camels.

In the 373th year of Our Lord’s birth, in the time of Emperor Valens and Pope Celestine I, in the Six Ages of the World, the Huns living in the Scythia multiplied, they got together and appointed captains from among themselves: Béla, Keve the son of Csele of the Zemény clan, and Kadocsa, Attila, Keve, Buda the sons of Bendegúz of the Kadar clan, and then they decided to push into the western regions. Ten times one hundred thousand warriors were chosen from the one hundred and eight tribes, that is, ten thousand from each tribe, leaving the rest of the Huns in Scythia to protect their seat and country from the enemy. They also chose a judge from among themselves, a man named Kádár of the Torda clan, to handle the trials of the disputants and to punish thieves, rogues and evildoers, yet in such a way that if the judge gives an unfair sentence, the community can nullify it, and depose the erring judge and the captains whenever they want. This legal custom was kept by the Huns, namely the Hungarians, until the time of Grand Prince Géza, son of Taksony. For before the Hungarians were baptized, the messenger's voice shouted throughout the camp, rallying the Huns in this way: "The word of God and the whole community, that each one, armed or as he is, should appear exactly at the appointed place, to listen to the order and advice of the community." And whoever disregarded the commandment and did not give a sufficient reason for it, according to Scythian law, was cut in two with a sword, exiled, or mercilessly pushed into ordinary slavery.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[6]
Page 10

King Attila on the Throne
  • In the initial "A", Attila as the first Hungarian king. Attila is sitting on a throne with a cloak, crown, orb, scepter in a royal ornament.

In the 401st year of Our Lord’s birth, in the 28th year since the arrival of the Hungarians in Pannonia, according to the custom of the Romans, the Huns, namely the Hungarians exalted Attila as king above themselves, the son of Bendegúz, who was before among the captains. And he made his brother Buda a prince and a judge from the River Tisza to the River Don. Calling himself the King of the Hungarians, the Fear of the World, the Scourge of God: Attila, King of the Huns, Medes, Goths and Danes…

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[7]
Page 11

King Attila
  • In the initial "P", King Attila.
Page 13

King Attila
  • In the initial "P", Attila, the warrior king has a crown on his head, a saber on his right hand, and an orb on his left hand.
Page 14

Attila is Besieging Aquileia

Seeing this, King Attila called his soldiers together and said: “Look this, my fellows! This stork has already felt what the future will bring: we will destroy the city, she is already fleeing so as not to be lost there with the citizens. So be more valiant in the battle tomorrow and you will see that the city is lost!” After he could not take the city by any war machine, he now gave orders with Scythian insight and asked one-one saddle from one million of his valiant warriors, he stacked them under a huge pile under the wall, and commanded that the saddles be set on fire: their flames and heat cracked, demolished the walls and towers. Seeing this, all the citizens left the city and fled to an island in the sea, near Aquileia, and determined to stay there forever, and it is called Venice to this day.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[8]
Page 14

King Attila
  • In the initial "C", King Attila with a crown, sword, and the Turul bird in his shield.
Page 15

Foundation of Venice
  • In the initial "U" (V), In the foreground, the fleeing inhabitants of Aquileia are rowing in a boat in Italian costume. The city depicted in the background could be Aquileia, or rather Venice built on lagoons near the sea shore. According to the text, the inhabitants of Aquileia first fled to a sea island and then founded Venice on the island of Rialto.
Page 16

King Attila and Pope Leo
  • In the initial "D", Attila is meeting with Pope Leo. The armored Attila is on a white horse with his soldiers, he looks at the figure floating above his head.
Page 21

The Arrival of the Hungarians in Pannonia
  • The image shows several scenes at the same time. In the middle, Árpád tastes the water of the Danube from a drinking horn, the Hungarians are shouting the name of God three times, Kusid stands on his left with a drinking pot in his hand. On the left, Svatopluk is sitting on a throne, he receives Kusid, the ambassador of the Hungarians. The kneeling stableman of Kusid holds a white horse with a golden saddle. In the middle from the right, Árpád rides on a white horse with six captains and armored spear fighters. On the right in the foreground, a group of women and children comes from a road. The background of the whole picture is a rocky mountain landscape with castles, shepherds are driving cattles on the rocks.

Előd, Hungarian Chieftain

Álmos, Hungarian Chieftain

  • Below the main illustration, in the initial “A”, Álmos, Grand Prince of the Hungarians holds a sword, and a Turul shield in his hand. (It is not entirely clear whether Álmos or Árpád is the leader depicted.)
Page 21

The Arrival of the Hungarians in Pannonia
  • The image shows several scenes at the same time. In the middle, Árpád tastes the water of the Danube from a drinking horn, the Hungarians are shouting the name of God three times, Kusid stands on his left with a drinking pot in his hand. On the left, Svatopluk is sitting on a throne, he receives Kusid, the ambassador of the Hungarians. The kneeling stableman of Kusid holds a white horse with a golden saddle. In the middle from the right, Árpád rides on a white horse with six captains and armored spear fighters. On the right in the foreground, a group of women and children comes from a road. The background of the whole picture is a rocky mountain landscape with castles, shepherds are driving cattles on the rocks.

In the year of 677 after the incarnation of the Lord, 104 years after the death of King Attila of Hungary, in the time of Emperor Constantine III and Pope Zachary - as it is written in the Roman chronicle - the Hungarians came out the second time from Scythia.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[9]
Page 21

The Arrival of the Hungarians in Pannonia (Detail)
  • Árpád tastes the water of the Danube from a drinking horn, the Hungarians are shouting the name of God three times, Kusid stands on his left with a drinking pot in his hand.
Page 21

Álmos, Hungarian Chieftain
  • Below the main illustration, in the initial “A”, Álmos, Grand Prince of the Hungarians holds a sword, and a Turul shield in his hand. (It is not entirely clear whether Álmos or Árpád is the leader depicted.)

Ügyek's son Előd, fathered a son by the daughter of Eunodubilia in Scythian land, whose name was Álmos, because a bird in the shape of a falcon appeared in his mother's dream when she was pregnant, a rushing stream sprang from her womb, it grew, but not in its own land, and from this it was prophesied that glorious kings would come from her loins. Because dream is “álom” in our language, and the birth of that boy was prophesied by a dream, that's why he was called Álmos.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[10]
Page 23

The Seven Captains
Page 23

Árpád, The First Captain
  • In the initial "F", Árpád, Grand Prince of the Hungarians stands with a sword and Turul shield.

And this Captain Árpád had a special dignity in Scythia, it was the custom of his clan, according to the Scythian law and tradition, that he went alone before those who went to war and those who retreated, saying, therefore he was the first to enter this land before the other captains going to Pannonia.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[11]
Page 25

Szabolcs, The Second Captain
Page 26

Lehel, The Fifth Captain

Bulcsú, The Sixth Captain

Örs, The Seventh Captain

Page 32

The Arrival of Different Clans to Hungary
  • Pointed, wooded countryside with castles in the background. In the foreground, figures in different garments march to denote different ethnic groups.
Page 33

The Hungarians Are Destroying Bulgaria
  • In the initial "A", from the left there is a group of Hungarian riders with their leader, on the right there is a mountain landscape with two castles and a walled area.
Page 34

Captain Lehel and Bulcsú Front of the German Emperor
  • In the initial "R", the story of Lehel's Horn. On the left, the emperor is sitting on a bench. In front of him, Lehel is on the right, behind him there are Bulcsú and German soldiers. Lehel strikes the emperor's head with a long golden horn, so its blood drips down his face. According to the chronicle, Lehel was captured after the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, Lehel asked his horn at his last wish, striking the German emperor to death. According to the chronicle, he was Emperor Conrad.

At that place the famous captains, Lehel and Bulcsú were also captured, and taken in front of the emperor. When the emperor asked, why they are so cruel against the Christians, they replied: "We are the revenge of the highest God, sent to you as a scourge. You shall imprison us and kill us when we cease to chase you." Then the emperor called them: "Choose the type of death you wish." Then Lehel replied: "Bring me my horn, which I will blow, then I will reply." The horn was handed to him, and during the preparation to blow it, he stepped forward of the emperor, and hit the forehead of the emperor so strongly that the horn is broken and the emperor died instantly from this one strike. Then Lehel said to him: "You will walk before me and you will be my servant in the other world!", as it is a common belief within the Scythians, that whoever they killed in their lives will serve them in the other world.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[12]
Page 36

Duel of Botond and the Greek Warrior in Front of the Gates of Constantinople
  • On the left, a group of Hungarian cavalry soldiers, led by leader Apor on a white horse. In the middle, a duel between Botond and a Greek warrior is in front of the walls of Constantinople. Botond and his horse are blurred. Botond, getting off his horse stabs his sword in the chest of the declining Greek. Emperor Constantine VII and his wife, Helena Lekapene watch mourning the events. In front of the city gate is a fragment of the wall overturned by Botond.
Page 36

Captain Apor
  • In the initial "U" (V), Captain Apor, the leader of the Hungarian army wears a Turul bird as a crest on his flag, shield and chest.
Page 37

Birth of King Stephen
  • On the right, we can see into a room of a palace, in the background of the room is a curtain woven with gold. In the foreground, Sarolt, Stephen's mother holds the naked baby in her lap, the baby Stephen has a halo around his head. Sarolt has a crown on her head, she accepts a golden crown from the martyr Saint Stephen with her right hand. According to legend, the Saint Stephen prophesied to Sarolt that a son would be born who would become king. The illustrator obviously deliberately depicted the two scenes far apart in time in one picture. A group of noble women stand in the background on the right. On the left, in the hall connected to the room, men and women are waiting in groups.
Page 38

Grand Prince Géza
  • In the initial "P", Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians is sitting on a green marble throne, he holds an orb and scepter in the hands. He has the red hat of the leaders on his head.
Page 38

The Decapitation of Koppány
  • On the left, King Saint Stephen is riding on a white horse with a halo, he is accompanied by knights. On the right, a group of soldiers, Vencellin had just beheaded Koppány, Duke of Somogy who revolted against Stephen.
Page 39

King Saint Stephen in Military Ornament
  • In the initial "S", King Saint Stephen, the young warrior king stands on rocky ground. His armor is covered with Árpád stripes, a red and white striped dress. He holds a royal crown on his head, and around the halo. Saint Stephen holds a flag on his right and a shield on his left, both have the trimount with the double cross coat of arms symbolizing the apostolic king.
Page 40

King Saint Stephen Captures Gyula
  • King Saint Stephen captures his uncle, Gyula, the ruler of Transylvania. On the right, front of the rocky-forested mountains, King Saint Stephen is sitting on a white horse with the double cross coat of arms on his chest, and a royal crown and halo on his head. He points with a warning and commanding gesture to the captured and handcuffed Gyula, whose hand is bound by a knight. On the left, knights of Stephen are chasing Gyula's warriors.

After when Saint Stephen had been deemed worthy, and won the crown of the royal majesty by divine order, he waged a famous and profitable war against his maternal uncle named Gyula, who at that time ruled the entire Transylvanian country with his own power.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[13]
Page 40

King Saint Stephen on the Throne
  • In the initial "P", King Saint Stephen is sitting on a green marble throne with a halo around his head, he holds an orb and scepter in the hands.
Page 41

The Victory of King Stephen over Kean, Duke of the Bulgarians and Slavs
  • King Saint Stephen defeats Duke Kean. He has a halo around his head. His hauberk was decorated with the double cross coat of arms. In the background, Hungarians are chasing fleeing Bulgarian warriors who are wearing oriental clothing.
Page 41

King Stephen in Royal Regalia
  • In the initial “P”, King Saint Stephen is in royal regalia. On the king's chest is the Hungarian double cross coat of arms, on his head is a crown and halo, in his right hand is a scepter, and in his left hand is an orb.
Page 42

The Foundation of Saints Peter and Paul Church of Óbuda
  • The kneeling King Saint Stephen and Queen Gisela hold the scaled-down copy of the church of Peter and Paul of Óbuda as a symbol of the founding of the church. The rocky soil adorned with trees and flowers.
Page 44

Prince Emeric’s Funeral and the Blinding of Vazul
  • In the foreground, two men place the body of Prince Saint Emeric, dressed as a prince, in a marble coffin. King Saint Stephen standing in front of the coffin rests his right hand on his face, he expresses his pain with this regretful gesture. While Queen Gisela watches the scene unfolding in the background, where the bound Vazul lies in the mountains, on a rocky terrain decorated with a castle in the background. Vazul's hand is held by a soldier sitting on his leg, and Sebös, Queen Gisela's emissary, pushes out his eyes. On the left, three hooded figures are riding: the emissaries of King Stephen, who are coming to free Vazul.
Page 44

King Stephen Encourages Prince Andrew, Béla and Levente to Flee
  • In the initial "P", King Saint Stephen lies sick in bed with his upper body naked, raising his right hand in warning towards the three princes standing next to the bed: Andrew, Béla and Levente.
Page 46

King Stephen's Funeral
  • In the initial "B", the funeral of King Saint Stephen. Two young men place the king's body in a marble coffin. Four bishops perform the ceremony. The praying Queen Gisela stands at the foot of the coffin. From the right, some mourners.
Page 47

King Peter
  • In the initial "P", King Peter Orseolo is in armor, holding a sword in his right hand and a royal crown in his left.
Page 47

King Peter Is Driven Away by Samuel Aba and His Soldiers
  • In a rocky, forested area, on flowery ground, Hungarian horsemen led by Samuel Aba are chasing King Peter Orseolo, who is holding a crown in one hand.
Page 48

King Samuel Aba
  • In the initial "A", King Samuel Aba is in armor, holds a sword in his right and a royal crown in his left hand.
Page 50

Battle of Ménfő: Victory of Emperor Henry III Over King Samuel Aba
  • Battle of Ménfő in 1044, the Germans are on the right side led by Emperor Henry III, the Hungarians on the left side led by King Samuel Aba. A group of Hungarian warriors, the supporters of King Peter leave him. The Hungarian flag with Árpád stripes falls to the ground with the broken rod, while the winning German flag flies high decorated with the German eagle. On the right side of the picture Emperor Henry III, gives thanks for victory, on the left a soldier executes King Samuel Aba.
Page 50

Battle of Ménfő: Victory of Emperor Henry III Over King Samuel Aba (Detail)
  • King Samuel Aba reaches towards the crown, while a soldier stabs his heart.
Page 50

King Aba’s Envoy Delivers a Letter Written in Favor of Peace to the German Emperor
  • In the initial "S", King Samuel Aba's envoy delivers a letter written in favor of peace to the German emperor Henry III. The scene depicted here precedes the previous miniature, the Battle of Ménfő.
Page 53

King Peter Gives Hungary as a Vassal to the German Emperor
  • In the initial "S", from the right, King Peter Orseolo gives a gilded spear to Emperor Henry III who sit on the throne, acknowledging him as his overlord. Five noble youths bring gifts.
Page 54

Prince Béla’s Duel With the Pomeranian
  • In the initial "B", Prince Béla pushes his opponent, the Pomeranian off the horse which is about to collapse with his lance. Among the princes Andrew, Béla and Levente who fled first to Bohemia and then to Poland, Béla fights instead of the Polish prince and his sons. He fights a duel againt the duke of the Pomeranians, who refused to pay their annual tax, and Béla wins.
Page 59

King Peter’s Blinding, Prince Andrew Takes the Crown
  • In the initial "P", in a wooded area, a soldier in full armor kneels on the body of King Peter Orseolo lying on the ground and gouges out his eyes. Next to Peter's head is the fallen crown. Bishop Beneta is standing on the left and holds out the crown to Prince Andrew.
Page 60

Coronation of King Andrew
  • In the initial "P", in the center, King Andrew is enthroned in an ornate dress, holding a scepter in his left hand. Two bishops place the royal crown on his head, while a third bishop kneeling on the left gives him a sword. (The picture shows three bishops perhaps because, according to the text, only three bishops survived the Vata pagan uprising in 1046.)
Page 61

The Destruction of Emperor Henry’s Ships at Pozsony
  • In the initial "E", under the castle of Pozsony, Emperor Henry III stands with two knights on a scuttled boat on the Danube, which fills with water. Two desperate men are in another drilled and sinking boat.
Page 64

The Scene of Várkony: The Crown and Sword
  • In the initial "P", King Andrew crowned his son, the five-year-old Solomon. King Andrew calls on his brother, Béla, who is entitled to the succession, to choose between the crown and the sword. The picture depicts two scenes: in the right, Prince Béla is standing in front of the door, to whom Ispán Miklós advises him to choose the sword. In the same picture, Prince Béla is standing in the room at the foot of the bed in which King Andrew is lying sick. Andrew's two main men stand behind the bed and his son, Solomon, with a crown on his head. On the step of the bed lies the sword, which represents dukedom, and the crown, which represents royalty.
Page 67

Prince Béla Wins the Crown
  • In the initial "D", on the left, two lords remove the crown from the head of the young Solomon. King Béla is standing from the right, with an apple of state in his left, an gray nobleman (the text says bishop) hands him the sword, while another places the crown on his head.
Page 69

German Emperor Henry IV Brings Solomon Back to Hungary
  • In the initial "R", the cathedral of Székesfehérvár with its four towers is on the left in the background. On the right, Emperor Henry IV is at the head of an army of soldiers, with the royal crown in his right, and his brother-in-law Solomon in his left. He leads Solomon by the arm.
Page 71

King Solomon and His Younger Brother Prince David
  • In the initial "R", on the left, King Solomon is with a crown, scepter, and an orb. On the right, Prince David is with a princely hat, shield and sword.
Page 72

Prince Ladislaus Is Fighting a Duel With a Cuman Warrior Who Kidnapped a Girl
  • In the initial "P", Battle of Kerlés in 1068, Prince Ladislaus is fighting a duel with a Cuman warrior. He has a halo around his head. The kidnapped girl has a crown on her head and stands behind the Cuman warrior. In the background, the Hungarians, King Solomon, and Prince Géza are chasing the fleeing Cumans in a rocky mountain landscape.
Page 74

The Capture of Belgrade and the Distribution of the Spoils of War
  • In the initial "P", in the background, the castle of Belgrade besieged by the Hungarians rises on rocks, which is set on fire by a Hungarian prisoner girl with a torch. On the left, soldiers look up at the burning castle. In the foreground, they are dividing the spoils of war: Count Vid, King Solomon's favorite sits at a table and divides the booty into four parts. Standing next to the table are: King Solomon, Prince Géza and Ladislaus, the latter with a halo.
Page 78

The Feud Between King Solomon and Prince Géza
  • In the initial "I", King Solomon is enthroned with a crown and scepter in a room closed with a brown carpet hung in front of a pedimental of a building. To his right stands Count Vid, who stirs up strife. He holds two swords in a scabbard. On the righ, Prince Géza stands in the background, to whom three ambassadors hand over the Greek emperor's sealed letter. This also increases Solomon's envy.

He encouraged him not to delay, but rather to hasten the matter, and excited the king with this proverb: "Just as two sharp swords cannot fit in one scabbard, so you two cannot rule the same country." Count Vid's angry words seduced the king, causing hatred and strife to boil within him.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[14]
Page 78

The People of Niš Pay Homage to King Solomon and Prince Géza
Page 81

Prince Géza and Abbot Villermus
  • Abbot Villermus of Szekszárd's monastery puts on a knight's disguise on his naked upper body, and leading a horse equipped in the same image, he stands in front of Prince Géza to wake him up from his sleep and encourage him to flee. Behind the lying prince, at his head, stand the two traitors, Petrud and Bikas.
Page 81

Escape of Prince Géza
  • Prince Géza flees with his soldiers, followed a little further by his two disloyal knights, Petrud and Bikas, who raise their shields as a sign of betrayal, but Solomon's soldiers, not knowing this sign, cut them down.
Page 83

The Vision of Prince Ladislaus
  • On the left is Prince Géza on a white horse, on whose head a descending angel places a crown. On the right, also on a white horse, is Prince Ladislaus, who amazed at the celestial phenomenon, looks up with outstretched arms. According to the text, only Ladislaus sees the vision, and he tells it to Géza , who vows that if the vision is fulfilled, he will build a church in that place.
Page 85

The Battle of Mogyoród
Page 87

The Vision of King Géza and Prince Ladislaus
  • In the initial "P", King Géza and Prince Ladislaus are embracing each other, they stand next to the Danube at Vác. King Géza holds an orb in his hand, Prince Ladislaus has a battleaxe. According to the text, they are talking about where to build the chruch vowed for victory. On the right, a deer is standing among the trees with candles burning at the end of his antlers. On the left, in the background, knights are standing, who aim at the deer with an arrow. According to the text, at the place where the deer gained a foothold, King Géza founded the church.
Page 89

King Solomon Again Asks for Help From the German Emperor
  • In the initial "P", Emperor Henry IV is enthroned on the left, with a crown on his head and a scepter in his left hand, Solomon kneeling in front of him grasps the emperor's right hand with both hands. In the foreground is the royal crown on the ground. Three courtiers stand behind Solomon.
Page 91

The Escape of King Solomon
  • In the initial "A", in the background on the right is the castle of Pozsony, from whose walls warriors look down. In the foreground on the left is King Géza, Prince Ladislaus is on a white horse at the head of his knights, a shield with double cross on his left, a sword on his right. There is halo around his head, above him an angel (the text says two angels) floats with a fiery sword. On the right, the half-visible figure of King Solomon fleeing on horseback, looking back at his pursuers, holding a sword in his right hand and a shield with red and white stripes (Árpád stripes) in his left.
Page 92

The Coronation of Ladislaus the First
  • King Saint Ladislaus is standing in an ermine-lined cloak, with a sword in his right hand, and an orb in his left hand. Two angels place the crown on his head, which is held by two bishops. The coronation of King Saint Ladislaus was in 1077.
Page 93

King Saint Ladislaus, the Knight King
  • In the initial "A", King Saint Ladislaus is in a full knightly armament, the double cross coat of arms on his chest, and a royal crown and halo on his head. He holds an axe in his right hand, and an orb in his left hand.
Page 98

The Ruthenians Pledge Allegiance to King Ladislaus
  • On the left, King Saint Ladislaus sits on the throne surrounded by his knights. On the right, some Ruthenians in hats is kneeling in supplication, led by their prince, who placed his hat at the king's feet.
Page 98

Siege of Kraków
  • In the initial "P", in the background, the Kraków castle rising on the banks of the Vistula, from the walls of which a soldier looks down. In the foreground, on the left, King Saint Ladislaus leans on a shield with the Árpád-striped coat of arms with his left, and holds a sword in his right. In the foreground, on the right, a soldier sprinkles flour from his leg armor on the piled ground, and the one behind him also sprinkles flour. According to the narration of the chronicle, the inhabitants of the castle, seeing that the besiegers still have plenty of food, voluntarily surrendered the castle.
Page 99

Construction of the Nagyvárad's Church
  • In the background, the Nagyvárad's church under construction rises next to trees, on which a mason is working with a trowel, the stones are lifted up to it with the help of a pulley, and in front of him is mortar in a round bowl. In the foreground, on the banks of the Körös, another construction worker is mixing mortar. On the right, in the foreground, King Ladislaus stands with a raised hand and a haloed head.
Page 99

King Ladislaus Receives Ambassadors
  • Blurred miniature in the initials "P", King Ladislaus is with two attendants on the left. On the right is four attendants, the first of whom hands the king a letter with a bowing gesture. According to the chronicle, the foreign envoys wanted to ask Ladislaus to be the leader of the First Crusade.
Page 101

Funeral of King Saint Ladislaus
  • The picture depicts a scene not mentioned in the text of the chronicle, but present in all known versions of the legend of King Ladislaus, when the carriage carries the king's body without horses towards the burial place he desired, the church of Nagyvárad. The body of King Saint Ladislaus lies in a four-wheeled cart, with a crown and halo on his head, a scepter and an orb in his hands. The carriage pole protruding from the picture clearly shows that there are no horses tied in front of the carriage. On the right is a group of admirers, in the background is the Nagyvárad church built by Ladislaus.
Page 101

The Coronation of Coloman
  • In the initial "C", Bishop places the crown on the head of King Coloman, who is depicted as a hunchback in accordance with the tradition preserved in medieval chronicles. The coronation of King Coloman was in 1095.
Page 105

King Coloman and Prince Álmos in Front of the Church of Dömös
  • In front of the Dömös monastery founded by the prince, the hunchback King Coloman and his younger brother Prince Álmos extend their hands to each other as a sign of reconciliation, and a priest places his two hands in blessing on their arms.
Page 105

The Hunt in Csór
  • In the initial "D", in a rocky landscape, in a forest, Prince Álmos is riding with two attendants who are followers of King Coloman. At his horse's feet, a hawk is holding a crow by the neck, and a barking dog is running towards them.

The king let the prince go in peace to hunt in the Bakony. He sent two of his serfs with him under the pretext of honoring him, but he secretly trained them to carefully probe the prince's soul: to report to the king if the prince was intrigued against him. The prince arrived in Csór, released his falcon, and it caught a crow. The prince then said to the serfs with a simple spirit: "What if the crow swore to the hawk that it would not caw again if the hawk let it go?" But they answered thus: "Even if the crow were to swear, the hawk wouldn't let him go, but the crow couldn't swear either, because he's a foolish animal." The prince's words were reported to the king that night. The prince went to Bakony to hunt, but immediately left them and ran to Passau again to ask for help from the German king.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[15]
Page 106

The Blinding of Prince Álmos and His Little Son Béla
  • On the left in the rocky landscape, King Coloman is sitting on the throne, he orders two soldiers to blind Prince Álmos and his son Béla, and to castrate the boy. On the right in the background, Prince Álmos is lying on the ground, a soldier gouging out his eyes. The blinded child Béla is front of Prince Álmos, the soldier kneeling next to Béla castrates a dog instead of him.
Page 106

King Coloman Wants to Capture Prince Álmos
  • In the initial "A", in the foreground, the seriously ill King Coloman orders Benedek to capture Prince Álmos. In the background, Prince Álmos seeks refuge at the altar of the church in Dömös, from where Benedek still wants to drag him away. On the side, three monks stand with swords in their hands to prevent Prince Álmos from being taken away.
Page 108

The Coronation of Stephen II, Coloman's Son
  • In the initial "P", two bishops crown the young Stephen, who holds an orb in one hand and a scepter in the other. Two courtiers are standing in the background on the right. The coronation of King Stephen II was in 1116.
Page 113

The Assembly of the Realm of Arad
  • King Béla II and his wife Queen Helena are sitting on the throne at the assembly of Arad in 1131. The Queen orders the execution of the magnates who advised the blinding of child Béla II during the rule of King Coloman. On the right, a group of executed and to be executed, behind them a soldier raises his huge sword.
Page 114

King Béla II
  • In the initial "R", King Béla the Blind in a royal ornament with a crown, an orb, and a scepter.
Page 117

Coronation of King Géza II
  • King Géza II is enthroned on the left, two bishops are placing the crown on his head. Meanwhile a young man, most likely Géza's eldest brother, the later usurper Prince Ladislaus with a princely hat leads a white horse by the reins and hands Géza the royal sword.
Page 117

King Géza II in Royal Regalia
  • In the initial "R", the standing figure of King Géza II is with a hauberk, with a crown on his head, a scepter in his left hand, and a shield with his right hand.
Page 119

German Emperor Konrad III and French King Louis VII March through Hungary with Their Crusader Army
  • The route of the Second Crusade through the Kingdom of Hungary. There are rocky mountains, in the background there is a forest on the left, a church surrounded by a wall on the right. In the foreground, Emperor Conrad III of Germany is marching on horseback with an imperial crown, he holds a shield with a single-headed eagle coat of arms in his left hand. King Louis VII of France is riding behind him with a crown at the head of his crusaders. On the right, there are Hungarian warriors on horseback on a deep road, led by an archer who is ready to shoot.
Page 120

King Géza II of Hungary and King Louis VII of France
  • In the initial "C", King Géza II of Hungary is in royal regalia on the right and King Louis VII of France stands on the left. The featuring of the two kings together is a sign of the good relationship that the chronicle emphasizes in contrast to the truculent behavior of the German crusaders.
Page 121

The Coronation of Stephen III
  • In the initial "L", King Stephen III is sitting on the throne with the orb, a bishop places the crown on the head of the king. On the right, a Hungarian magnate with a pointed hat gives the sword of the country to the king. There is a pyramid-shaped mountain in the background. King Stephen III is depicted as an adult man in the chronicle, however he was only 15 years old when he was coronated. The coronation of King Stephen III was in 1162.
Page 121

Prince Ladislaus, the Usurper of the Throne and the Stealing of the Crown
  • On the left, Prince Ladislaus, son of King Béla II is sitting, a courtier whispers something in his ear. Two bishops are standing in the middle, one of them holds a royal crown in his hand. In the background, a figure is riding also holding a crown in his hand.
Page 122

The Usurper Prince Stephen
Page 122

King Béla III
Page 122

Coronation of King Emeric
  • King Emeric is enthroned with a scepter and a crown, two bishops place the crown on his head. The coronation of King Emeric was in 1196.
Page 123

King Emeric
  • In the initial "C", King Emeric is with a crown, scepter and an orb.
Page 123

Coronation of King Ladislaus III
  • On the left, a bishop places the crown on the head of King Ladislaus III, who is standing in front of the throne, with clasped hands and slightly bowed. A bishop is standing on the right, a courtier is standing between them. Ladislaus was five years old when he was crowned, and the illustrator depicts him as an adult man. Because the author of the chronicle did not name the counterking Ladislaus to Ladislaus II, that is why he lists this Ladislaus as second, even though he was third in the list of kings.
Page 123

King Ladislaus III
  • In the initial "P", King Ladislaus III is with a crown, scepter and an orb.
Page 123

Coronation of King Andrew II
  • On the left, King Andrew II sits on the throne, a bishop places the crown on his head, and an another bishop stands next to him. On the right, the king's daughter, Saint Elizabeth stands with a halo, and two of his sons, certainly the later King Béla IV and Prince Coloman.
Page 124

King Andrew II
  • In the initial "H", King Andrew II in a royal regalia.
Page 124

King Andrew II at the Head of His Crusader Army
  • In the initial "P", King Andrew II rides on the rocky river bank at the head of his knights, one of whom carries a red flag with the Hungarian double cross coat of arms.
Page 125

Coronation of King Béla IV
  • In the initial "R", King Béla IV is crowned by a bishop on the throne. The king's younger brother, Prince Coloman hands him the sword of the country.
Page 125

The First Arrival of the Mongols
  • In a rocky landscape, six Tatars on horseback chase King Béla IV, who is fleeing with his men. The Tatars are dressed Cuman clothes with sabers.
Page 126

The Fight of King Béla IV of Hungary with King Ottokar II of Bohemia
Page 126

King Béla IV
  • In the initial "P", King Béla IV in a royal regalia.
Page 126

Flagellants
  • There is a rocky background landscape with churches, in the foreground, four flagellants moving from left to right, two of them have naked torso and two of them flog themselves bloody.

At the same time, in the year 1263rd of the Lord, the people were running everywhere whipping themselves.

— Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum[16]
Page 128

The Second Mongol Invasion
  • Second Mongol invasion of Hungary, battle between Tatars and Hungarians on a gold background. On the left, there are two female figures among the Cumans, and on the right, a third one is seeking protection from a Hungarian knight.
Page 143

The Defeat of King Charles in the Campaign Against Basarab
  • Battle of Posada in 1330. From above, the Vlachs, who are wearing sheep fur cloth and fur caps, the Cumans who are wearing long caftans, roll rocks and shoot arrows at the Hungarian army marching in a rock gorge between high mountains, so part of the Hungarian army dies with Dezső Szécsi, who wore the king's armor and a crowned, ostrich-headed helmet to cover his escape. King Charles I escapes with two faithful men in the foreground. The painter depicts the fleeing king on a white horse with a crown on his head and a shield with a crest.
Page 146

Victory of Basarab Over the Royal Army
  • Battle of Posada in 1330. The repetition of the theme is shown on page 143. The Vlachs are dressed in sheep fur, the Cumans are wearing long caftans, roll rocks and shoot arrows at the Hungarian army marching in a rock gorge between high mountains. On the right in the foreground, King Charles I escapes on horseback with his soldiers.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Pražák, Nechutová, Bartoňková (1988). Legendy a kroniky koruny Uherské (Legends and chronicles of Hungarian crown). Prague: Nakladatelství Vyšehrad. pp. 340–346.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Dercsinyi, Dezső (1964). A Képes krónika és kora (The Chronicon Pictum and Its Age) (in Hungarian). Budapest.
  3. ^ CEU Press. "The Illuminated Chronicle: Chronicle of the Deeds of the Hungarians from the Fourteenth-Century Illuminated Codex".
  4. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  5. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  6. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  7. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  8. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  9. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  10. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  11. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  12. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  13. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  14. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  15. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm
  16. ^ Mark of Kalt: Chronicon Pictum https://mek.oszk.hu/10600/10642/10642.htm

External linksEdit