Vaduz (German pronunciation: [faˈdʊt͡s] or [faˈduːt͡s] ,[2] High Alemannic pronunciation: [faˈdot͡s])[3] is the capital of Liechtenstein and also the seat of the national parliament. The city, which is located along the Rhine River, has 5,696 residents.[1] The most prominent landmark of Vaduz is Vaduz Castle, being perched atop a steep hill overlooking the city. It is home to the reigning prince of Liechtenstein and the Liechtenstein princely family. The city's distinctive architecture is also displayed in landmarks such as the Cathedral of St. Florin, Government House, City Hall, the National Art Gallery, as well as the National Museum. Although Vaduz is the best-known town in the principality internationally, it is not the largest; neighbouring Schaan has a larger population.

Vaduz
Panoramic, Government building, Castle of Vaduz, Tre Cavalli (literally Three Horses) sculpture, Rotes Haus (literally Red House), Cathedral of St. Florin, Liechtenstein Museum of Fine Arts, House of Parliament
Flag of Vaduz
Coat of arms of Vaduz
Location of Vaduz
Map
Vaduz and its exclaves in Liechtenstein
Vaduz and its exclaves in Liechtenstein
Coordinates: 47°08′28″N 9°31′16″E / 47.141°N 9.521°E / 47.141; 9.521
CountryLiechtenstein
Electoral districtOberland
VillagesEbenholz, Mühleholz
Government
 • MayorPetra Miescher (VU)
Area
 • Total17.3 km2 (6.7 sq mi)
Elevation
455 m (1,493 ft)
Population
 (31-12-2019)[1]
 • Total5,696
 • Density330/km2 (900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
9490
Area code7001
ISO 3166 codeLI-11
Websitewww.vaduz.li
View of Vaduz from space
Panoramic view of Vaduz

Etymology Edit

The name of Vaduz had been first recorded as de Faduzes. The name of the settlement, like most other towns in the Rhine Valley region, is of Romance origin. The name can be traced back to Old Rhaeto-Romance root auadutg, meaning aqueduct, which in turn evolved from the Latin aquaeductus.[3]

History Edit

Vaduz is mentioned in historic 12th-century manuscripts as Faduzes. In 1322 a mention of the castle is made, which was sacked by the Swiss in 1499 during the Swabian War. The entire city was also destroyed.[citation needed]

In the 17th century the Liechtenstein family was seeking a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag. However, since they did not hold any territory that was directly under the Imperial throne, they were unable to meet the primary requirement to qualify.[4]

The family yearned for the added power a seat in the Imperial government would bring, and therefore sought to acquire lands that would be reichsunmittelbar, or held without any feudal personage other than the Holy Roman Emperor himself having rights on the land. After some time, the family was able to arrange the purchase of the minuscule Herrschaft ("Lordship") of Schellenberg and countship of Vaduz (in 1699 and 1712 respectively) from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz possessed exactly the political status required: no feudal lord other than the Emperor.[citation needed]

Thereby, on 23 January 1719, after purchase had been duly made, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed Vaduz and Schellenberg were united, and raised to the dignity of Fürstentum (principality) with the name "Liechtenstein" in honour of "[his] true servant, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". It is on this date that Liechtenstein became a sovereign member state of the Holy Roman Empire. As a testament to the pure political expediency of the purchases, the Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for over 120 years.[citation needed]

Geography Edit

Climate Edit

Vaduz features an oceanic climate with warm summers and chilly winters. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as Marine West Coast Climate (Cfb).[5] The city experiences a noticeable increase in precipitation during the summer, but in general all twelve months see some precipitation. Vaduz receives, on average, approximately 900 mm (35.43 in) of precipitation per year. Vaduz's warmest month, July, sees average high temperatures reach 25 °C (77 °F) while average low temperatures are about 14 °C (57 °F). The city's coldest month, January, sees average highs of 3 °C (37 °F) and average lows of −3 °C (27 °F).

Climate data for Vaduz (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1973-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
21.7
(71.1)
24.6
(76.3)
28.7
(83.7)
33.2
(91.8)
35.2
(95.4)
35.8
(96.4)
36.0
(96.8)
33.0
(91.4)
29.0
(84.2)
23.6
(74.5)
22.2
(72.0)
36.0
(96.8)
Average high °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
6.8
(44.2)
11.8
(53.2)
16.0
(60.8)
20.1
(68.2)
23.2
(73.8)
24.9
(76.8)
24.3
(75.7)
20.0
(68.0)
15.7
(60.3)
9.5
(49.1)
5.5
(41.9)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
2.7
(36.9)
6.8
(44.2)
10.7
(51.3)
14.7
(58.5)
17.9
(64.2)
19.4
(66.9)
19.1
(66.4)
15.0
(59.0)
11.1
(52.0)
5.7
(42.3)
2.2
(36.0)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.3
(36.1)
5.6
(42.1)
9.7
(49.5)
13.0
(55.4)
14.6
(58.3)
14.6
(58.3)
10.8
(51.4)
6.9
(44.4)
2.2
(36.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
6.3
(43.3)
Record low °C (°F) −20.3
(−4.5)
−17.2
(1.0)
−12.9
(8.8)
−5.0
(23.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
3.4
(38.1)
5.0
(41.0)
5.0
(41.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−5.3
(22.5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−16.0
(3.2)
−20.3
(−4.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.6)
34
(1.3)
54
(2.1)
57
(2.2)
90
(3.5)
116
(4.6)
130
(5.1)
144
(5.7)
96
(3.8)
68
(2.7)
56
(2.2)
54
(2.1)
940
(37.0)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 14
(5.5)
14
(5.5)
6
(2.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2.0)
12
(4.7)
51
(20)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7.4 6.6 9.0 8.9 11.8 12.9 13.2 13.3 10.1 8.7 8.7 8.7 119.3
Average snowy days 3.9 3.9 2.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 3.3 14.8
Average relative humidity (%) 75 69 66 63 67 70 71 74 76 76 77 77 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72 92 131 156 168 181 197 183 147 114 67 53 1,563
Percent possible sunshine 40 44 47 49 46 48 52 54 52 48 36 34 47
Source 1: MeteoSwiss (snow 1981–2010)[6][7]
Source 2: NOAA (extremes)[8]

Main sights Edit

Vaduz Castle is the home of the reigning prince of Liechtenstein and the Liechtenstein princely family. The castle is visible from almost any location in Vaduz, being perched atop a steep hill in the middle of the city. The Cathedral of St. Florin, Government House and City Hall display the various styles and periods of architecture in the city.

 
Formal gardens in central Vaduz
 
Cathedral of St. Florin
 
Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein

Demographics Edit

As of 2019, 5,696 people lived in Vaduz.[1] Foreigners resident in the city make up 42% of the population.[9] With 67% the population is predominantly Roman Catholic, while the percentage of Catholics is significantly higher among residents with Liechtenstein nationality (81%) than among foreigner residents (47%). The largest minority religions in the city are Protestantism (10%) and Islam (8%).[10]

Religion in Vaduz - 2015[10]
religion percent
Roman Catholicism
67%
Protestantism
10%
Other Christians
3%
Islam
8%
Others/undeclared
4%
Non-religious
9%
Note: Percentage is more than 100 due to rounding.

Culture Edit

The National Art Gallery as well as the National Museum are located in Vaduz. The art gallery (Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein) is a museum of modern and contemporary art, also showing displays from the private princely Liechtenstein Collection, the main public display of which is in Vienna. The building is an architectural landmark built by the Swiss architects Morger, Degelo and Kerez. It was completed in November 2000 and forms a "black box" of tinted concrete and black basalt stone. The museum collection is also the national art collection of Liechtenstein. The Liechtenstein National Museum is showing a permanent exhibition on the cultural and natural history of Liechtenstein as well as special exhibitions. There are also the Postage Stamp Museum and a Ski Museum.

Economy and transport Edit

Vaduz has a lively tourist industry, despite being one of the very few capital cities in the world without an airport – the nearest major airport is that of Zürich, at a distance of 120 km (75 mi).

There are frequent bus connections between nearby mainline railway stations including Buchs, Sargans and Feldkirch, operated by Liechtenstein Bus.

Vaduz has no railway station as such and is not directly served by a railway line. Schaan-Vaduz is one of the four train stations serving Liechtenstein. It is located in the town of Schaan, a couple of kilometres north of Vaduz. It is owned by the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB). The station is served by eighteen regional, stopping trains per day, nine in each direction between Switzerland and Austria. It is situated on the international and electrified Feldkirch-Buchs line, between the station of in Buchs SG (in Switzerland) and the stop of Forst Hilti (in the northern suburb of Schaan).

Education Edit

Vaduz has two primary schools, Äule Primary School, near the Vaduzer-Saal;[11] and Ebenholz Primary School,[12] near the University of Liechtenstein, which is also located in the city. Both schools have the same secretariat and administration.[11] The school assignments of children are largely determined by their street addresses.[12] There are four kindergarten sites, of the Kindergarten Bartlegrosch, in Vaduz.[13]

Realschule Vaduz and Oberschule Vaduz are in the Schulzentrum Mühleholz II in Vaduz. Liechtensteinisches Gymnasium is also located in Vaduz. Realschule Schaan and Sportschule Liechtenstein are in nearby Schaan.[14]

Notable People Edit

 
Prince Franz Josef II
 
Marlies Amann-Marxer, 2013
 
Aurelia Frick, 2017

Footballers Edit

 
Ronny Büchel, 2009
 
Sandro Wieser, 2015

Other athletes Edit

 
Tina Weirather, 2017

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b c "Bevölkerungsstatistik: Vorläufige Ergebnisse 31. Dezember 2019" (PDF). Llv.li. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  2. ^ Duden Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6 ed.). Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut & F.A. Brockhaus AG. 2006.
  3. ^ a b Hans Stricker, Toni Banzer, Herbert Hilbe: Liechtensteiner Namenbuch. Die Orts- und Flurnamen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. Band 2: Die Namen der Gemeinden Triesenberg, Vaduz, Schaan. Hrsg. vom Historischen Verein für das Fürstentum Liechtenstein. Vaduz 1999, S. 430–435.
  4. ^ https://pages.uoregon.edu/dluebke/Reformations441/441ImperialPrimer.htm
  5. ^ Weatherbase climate summary accessed 12 August 2013.
  6. ^ "Climate normals Vaduz (Reference period 1991−2020)". Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss. 13 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  7. ^ "Climate normals Vaduz (Reference period 1981−2010)" (PDF). Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss. 13 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  8. ^ "Global Surface Summary of the Day - GSOD". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  9. ^ "Bevölkerungsstatistik: Vorläufige Ergebnisse 31. Dezember 2018" (PDF). Llv.li. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Tabellen Volkszählung 2015 - Bevölkerungsstruktur Band 1" (XLS). Llv.li. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Äule Primary School Archived 13 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine." Commune of Vaduz. Retrieved on May 12, 2016. "Giessenstr. 11 9490 Vaduz"
  12. ^ a b "Ebenholz Primary School Archived 13 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine." Commune of Vaduz. Retrieved on May 12, 2016. "Fürst-Franz-Josef-Strasse 38 9490 Vaduz"
  13. ^ "Kindergarten Archived 13 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine." Commune of Vaduz. Retrieved on May 12, 2016. "Kindergarten Bartlegrosch Bartlegroschstrasse 31 9490 Vaduz " and "Schwefelstrasse 15 9490 Vaduz" and "Schimmelgasse 13 9490 Vaduz" and "Weiherweg 15 9490 Vaduz"
  14. ^ "Weiterführende Schulen Schaan." Commune of Schaan. Retrieved on May 12, 2016. "Realschule Schaan Duxgass 55 9494 Schaan" and "Sportschule Liechtenstein Duxgass 55 9494 Schaan" and "Realschule Vaduz Schulzentrum Mühleholz II 9490 Vaduz" and "Oberschule Vaduz Schulzentrum Mühleholz II 9490 Vaduz"
  15. ^ "Biedermann, Gisela". Historical Encyclopedia of the Principality of Liechtenstein (in German). 19 September 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  16. ^ Medea de Novara at IMDb. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  17. ^ Otten, Joseph (1912). "Joseph Gabriel Rheinberger" . Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13.

External links Edit

  Media related to Vaduz at Wikimedia Commons