Skopje (/ˈskɒpj/ SKOP-yay,[5][6] US also /ˈskpj/ SKOHP-yay;[7] Macedonian: Скопје [ˈskɔpjɛ] ; Albanian: Shkup, Albanian definite form: Shkupi) is the capital and largest city of North Macedonia. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre. Skopje lies in the Skopje Basin.

Скопје (Macedonian)
Shkup / Shkupi (Albanian)
Град Скопје
Qyteti i Shkupit
City of Skopje
View over central Skopje with the Vardar river
Archaeological Museum of North Macedonia
Skopje is located in North Macedonia
Location of Skopje in North Macedonia
Skopje is located in Balkans
Skopje (Balkans)
Skopje is located in Europe
Skopje (Europe)
Coordinates: 41°59′46″N 21°25′54″E / 41.99611°N 21.43167°E / 41.99611; 21.43167
Country North Macedonia
RegionSkopje Statistical
MunicipalityGreater Skopje
 • TypeSpecial unit of local self-government
 • BodySkopje City Council
 • MayorDanela Arsovska (Independent)[1]
 • Greater Skopje571.46 km2 (220.64 sq mi)
 • Urban
337.80 km2 (130.43 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,854.00 km2 (715.83 sq mi)
240 m (790 ft)
 • Greater Skopje526,502
(Macedonian: Skopjanec/Skopjanka
(Albanian: Shkupjan/Shkupjane)
Official Language(s)
 • primaryMacedonian, Albanian
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal codes
МК-10 00
Area code+389 2
ISO 3166 codeMK-85
Car platesSK
HDI (2021)0.802[4]
very high · 1st of 8

Scupi is attested for the first time in the second century AD as a city in Roman Dardania.[8][9] When the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395 AD, Scupi came under Byzantine rule from Constantinople. During much of the early medieval period, the town was contested between the Byzantines and the Bulgarian Empire, whose capital it was between 972 and 992. In 1004, when it was seized by the Byzantine Empire, the city became a centre of a new province called Bulgaria. From 1282, the town was part of the Serbian Empire and was its capital city from 1346 to 1371.

In 1392, Skopje was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, who called it Üsküb (اسکوب).[a] The town stayed under Ottoman control for over 500 years, serving as the capital of the pashasanjak of Üsküp and later the Vilayet of Kosovo. Its central position in the Ottoman Balkans made it a significant centre of commerce and administration during the Ottoman era. In 1912, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia during the Balkan Wars.[10] During World War I the city was seized by the Kingdom of Bulgaria, and, after the war, it became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Yugoslavia as the capital of Vardarska Banovina. In World War II, the city was again captured by Bulgaria and in 1945 became the capital of SR Macedonia, a federated state within Yugoslavia.[11] The city developed rapidly, but this was interrupted in 1963 when it was hit by a disastrous earthquake.

Skopje is on the upper course of the Vardar River and is on a major north–south Balkan route between Belgrade and Athens. It is a centre for the chemical, timber, textile, leather, printing, and metal-processing industries. Industrial development of the city has been accompanied by development of the trade, logistics, and banking sectors, as well as an emphasis on the fields of transportation, culture and sport. According to the last official census from 2021, Skopje had a population of 526,502 inhabitants.[2]


Serbian troops overseeing the city's renaming from "Üsküb" to "Skoplje" following Serbia's annexation of Vardar Macedonia in 1912

The city is attested for the first name in Geography by Ptolemy c. 150 AD as one of the cities of Roman Dardania. Ptolemy describes the city in Latin as Scupi and ancient Greek as Σκοῦποι. The toponym likely belongs to a group of similar Illyrian toponyms which have been transmitted to Slavic languages in the same way as the modern Macedonian toponym Skopje: Skoplje and Uskoplje in Bosnia, Uskoplje in Dalmatia (Croatia).[12] Shkup, the name of the city in Albanian developed directly from Roman-era Scupi in agreement with the Albanian phonological development, the basis of evidence of an earlier Albanian settlement in the area.[13][14][15] Shkupi is the definite form of Shkup in Albanian.[16] Skopje, the name of the city during the Middle Ages, is the local Slavic (Macedonian) rendition of Scupi.[17] The Ottoman Turkish rendition of the city's name is "Üsküb" (Ottoman Turkish: اسكوب) and it was adapted in Western languages in "Uskub" or "Uskup", and these two appellations were used in the Western world until 1912. Some Western sources also cite "Scopia" and "Skopia".[18] Scopia is the name of the city in Aromanian.[19]

When Vardar Macedonia was annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia in 1912, the city officially became "Skoplje" (Serbian Cyrillic: Скопље) and many languages adopted this name. To reflect local pronunciation, the city's name was eventually spelled as "Skopje" (Macedonian: Скопје) after the Second World War, when standard Macedonian became the official language of the new Socialist Republic of Macedonia.





Skopje is in the north of the country, in the centre of the Balkan peninsula, and halfway between Belgrade and Athens. The city was built in the Skopje valley, oriented on a west-east axis, along the course of the Vardar river, which flows into the Aegean Sea in Greece. The valley is approximately 20 km (12 mi) wide[20] and it is limited by several mountain ranges to the north and south. These ranges limit the urban expansion of Skopje, which spreads along the Vardar and the Serava, a small river which comes from the north. In its administrative boundaries, the City of Skopje stretches for more than 33 km (21 mi),[21] but it is only 10 km (6.2 mi) wide.[22]

Skopje is approximately 245 m above sea level and covers 571.46 km2.[23] The urbanized area only covers 337 km2, with a density of 65 inhabitants per hectare.[24] Skopje, in its administrative limits, encompasses many villages and other settlements, including Dračevo, Gorno Nerezi and Bardovci. According to the 2021 census, the City of Skopje had 526,502 inhabitants.[2][25]

The City of Skopje reaches the Kosovo border to the north-east. Clockwise, it is also bordered by the municipalities of Čučer-Sandevo, Lipkovo, Aračinovo, Ilinden, Studeničani, Sopište, Želino and Jegunovce.



The Vardar river, which flows through Skopje, is at approximately 60 km (37 mi) from its source near Gostivar. In Skopje, its average discharge is 51 m3/s, with a wide amplitude depending on seasons, between 99.6 m3/s in May and 18.7 m3/s in July. The water temperature is between 4.6 °C in January and 18.1 °C in July.[26]

Several rivers meet the Vardar within the city boundaries. The largest is the Treska, which is 130 km (81 mi) long. It crosses the Matka Canyon before reaching the Vardar on the western extremity of the City of Skopje. The Lepenac, coming from Kosovo, flows into the Vardar on the northwestern end of the urban area. The Serava, also coming from the North, had flowed through the Old Bazaar until the 1960s when it was diverted towards the West because its waters were very polluted. Originally, it met the Vardar close to the seat of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Nowadays, it flows into the Vardar near the ruins of Scupi.[27] Markova Reka, which originates in Mount Vodno, meets the Vardar at the eastern extremity of the city. These three rivers are less than 70 km (43 mi) long.[22]

The City of Skopje incorporates two artificial lakes, on the Treska. The lake Matka is the result of the construction of a dam in the Matka Canyon in the 1930s, and the Treska lake was dug for leisure purposes in 1978.[22] Three small natural lakes can be found near Smiljkovci, on the northeastern edge of the urban area.

The river Vardar historically caused many floods, such as in 1962, when its outflow reached 1110 m3/s−1.[26] Several works have been carried out since Byzantine times to limit the risks, and since the construction of the Kozjak dam on the Treska in 1994, the flood risk is close to zero.[28]

The subsoil contains a large water table which is alimented by the Vardar river and functions as an underground river. Under the table lies an aquifer contained in marl. The water table is 4 to 12 m under the ground and 4 to 144 m deep. Several wells collect its waters but most of the drinking water used in Skopje comes from a karstic spring in Rašče, west of the city.[24]



The Skopje valley is bordered on the West by the Šar Mountains, on the South by the Jakupica range, on the East by hills belonging to the Osogovo range, and on the North by the Skopska Crna Gora. Mount Vodno, the highest point inside the city limits, is 1066 m high and is part of the Jakupica range.[22]

Although Skopje is built on the foot of Mount Vodno, the urban area is mostly flat. It comprises several minor hills, generally covered with woods and parks, such as Gazi Baba hill (325 m), Zajčev Rid (327 m), the foothills of Mount Vodno (the smallest are between 350 and 400 m high) and the promontory on which Skopje Fortress is built.[29]

The Skopje valley is near a seismic fault between the African and Eurasian tectonic plates and experiences regular seismic activity.[30] This activity in enhanced by the porous structure of the subsoil.[31] Large earthquakes occurred in Skopje in 518, 1555 and 1963.[30]

The Skopje valley belongs to the Vardar geotectonic region, the subsoil of which is formed of Neogene and Quaternary deposits. The substratum is made of Pliocene deposits including sandstone, marl, and various conglomerates. It is covered by a first layer of Quaternary sands and silt, which is between 70 and 90 m deep. The layer is topped by a much smaller layer of clay, sand, silt, and gravel, carried by the Vardar river. It is between 1.5 and 5.2 m deep.[32]

In some areas, the subsoil is karstic. It led to the formation of canyons, such as the Matka Canyon, which is surrounded by ten caves. They are between 20 and 176 m deep.[33]



Skopje has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa), bordering on a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa)[34][35] with a mean annual temperature of 12.6 °C (55 °F). Precipitation is relatively low due to the pronounced rain shadow of the Accursed Mountains to the northwest, being significantly less than what is received on the Adriatic Sea coast at the same latitude. The summers are long, hot and relatively dry with low humidity. Skopje's average July high is 32 °C (90 °F). On average Skopje sees 88 days above 30 °C (86 °F) each year, and 10.2 days above 35.0 °C (95 °F) every year. Winters are short, relatively cold and wet. Snowfalls are common in the winter period, but heavy snow accumulation is rare and the snowcover lasts only for a few hours or a few days if heavy. In summer, temperatures are usually above 31 °C (88 °F) and sometimes above 40 °C (104 °F). In spring and autumn, the temperatures range from 15 to 24 °C (59 to 75 °F). In winter, the day temperatures are roughly in the range from 5–10 °C (41–50 °F), but at nights they often fall below 0 °C (32 °F) and sometimes below −10 °C (14 °F). Typically, temperatures throughout one year range from −13 °C to 39 °C. Occurrences of precipitation are evenly distributed throughout the year, being heaviest from October to December, and from April to June.

Climate data for Skopje International Airport (1991-2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 4.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.2
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −3.3
Record low °C (°F) −25.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30
Average precipitation days 10 9 10 10 11 10 7 6 6 7 9 11 106
Average snowy days 5 5 3 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 2 5 20
Average relative humidity (%) 83 75 68 66 66 61 56 56 63 74 82 85 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 86.9 112.5 161.1 198.4 245.2 276.3 323.0 305.4 247.5 188.2 114.8 79.6 2,339
Source 1:,[36] World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days)[37]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[38]



The City of Skopje encompasses various natural environments and its fauna and flora are rich. However, it is threatened by the intensification of agriculture and urban extension. The largest protected area within the city limits is Mount Vodno, which is a popular leisure destination. A cable car connects its peak to the downtown, and many pedestrian paths run through its woods. Other large natural spots include the Matka Canyon.[24]

The city itself comprises several parks and gardens amounting to 4,361 hectares. Among these are the City Park (Gradski Park), built by the Ottoman Turks at the beginning of the 20th century; Žena Borec Park, in front of the Parliament; the university arboretum; and Gazi Baba forest. Many streets and boulevards are planted with trees.[39]

Steel processing, which is a crucial activity for the local economy, is responsible for soil pollution with heavy metals such as lead, zinc and cadmium, and air pollution with nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide.[24] Vehicle traffic and district heating plants are also responsible for air pollution.

Water treatment plants are being built, but much polluted water is still discharged untreated into the Vardar.[24] Waste is disposed of in the open-air municipal landfill site, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of the city. Every day, it receives 1,500 m3 of domestic waste and 400 m3 of industrial waste. Health levels are better in Skopje than in the rest of North Macedonia, and no link has been found between the low environmental quality and the health of the residents.[40]

A panoramic view of Skopje as seen from Mount Vodno.



Urban morphology

Skopje urban plan for 2002–2020:
  City centre
  Collective housing
  Individual housing
  Industrial areas

The urban morphology of Skopje was deeply impacted by the 26 July 1963 earthquake, which destroyed 80% of the city, and by the reconstruction that followed.[30] For instance, neighbourhoods were rebuilt in such a way that the demographic density remains low to limit the impact of potential future earthquakes.[41]

Reconstruction following the 1963 earthquake was mainly conducted by the Polish architect Adolf Ciborowski, who had already planned the reconstruction of Warsaw after World War II. Ciborowski divided the city into blocks dedicated to specific activities. The banks of the Vardar river became natural areas and parks, areas between the main boulevards were built with highrise housing and shopping centres, and the suburbs were left to individual housing and industry.[42] Reconstruction had to be quick to relocate families and to relaunch the local economy. To stimulate economic development, the number of thoroughfares was increased and future urban extension was anticipated.[43]

Skopje as seen by the SPOT satellite. Mount Vodno is visible on the bottom left of the picture.

The south bank of the Vardar river generally comprises highrise tower blocks, including the vast Karpoš neighbourhood which was built in the 1970s west of the centre. Towards the East, the new municipality of Aerodrom was planned in the 1980s to house 80,000 inhabitants on the site of the old airport. Between Karpoš and Aerodrom lies the city centre, rebuilt according to plans by Japanese architect Kenzo Tange. The centre is surrounded by a row of long buildings suggesting a wall ("Gradski Zid").[41]

On the north bank, where the most ancient parts of the city lie, the Old Bazaar was restored and its surroundings were rebuilt with low-rise buildings, so as not to spoil views of the Skopje Fortress. Several institutions, including the university and the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, were also relocated to the north bank to reduce borders between the ethnic communities. The north bank is mostly inhabited by Muslim Albanians, Turks, and Roma, whereas Christian ethnic Macedonians predominantly reside on the south bank.[42]

The earthquake left the city with few historical monuments, apart from the Ottoman Old Bazaar, and the reconstruction, conducted between the 1960s and 1980s, turned Skopje into a modernist city. At the end of the 2000s, the city centre experienced profound changes. A highly controversial[44] urban project, "Skopje 2014", was adopted by the municipal authorities to give the city a more monumental and historical aspect, and thus to transform it into a proper national capital. Several neoclassical buildings destroyed in the 1963 earthquake were rebuilt, including the national theatre, and streets and squares were refurbished. Many other elements were also built, including fountains, statues, hotels, government buildings and bridges. The project has been criticized because of its cost and its historicist aesthetics.[45] The large Albanian minority felt it was not represented in the new monuments,[46] and launched side projects, including a new square over the boulevard that separates the city centre from the Old Bazaar.[47]

Urban sociology

Kapištec neighbourhood, developed during the 1970s. Some post-earthquake prefabricated houses can be seen in the foreground.

Skopje is an ethnically diverse city, and its urban sociology primarily depends on ethnic and religious belonging. Macedonians form 66% of the city population, while Albanians and Roma account respectively for 20% and 6%.[48] Each ethnic group generally restricts itself to certain areas of the city. Macedonians live south of the Vardar, in areas massively rebuilt after 1963, and Muslims live on the northern side, in the oldest neighbourhoods of the city. These neighbourhoods are considered more traditional, whereas the south side evokes to Macedonians modernity and rupture from rural life.[49]

The northern areas are the poorest. This is especially true for Topaana, in Čair municipality, and for Šuto Orizari municipality, which are the two main Roma neighbourhoods. They are made of many illegal constructions not connected to electricity and water supply, which are passed from one generation to another. Topaana, close to the Old Bazaar, is a very old area: it was first mentioned as a Roma neighbourhood in the beginning of the 14th century. It has between 3,000 and 5,000 inhabitants. Šuto Orizari, on the northern edge of the city, is a municipality of its own, with Romani as its local official language. It was developed after the 1963 earthquake to accommodate Roma who had lost their house.[50]

The population density varies greatly from one area to another. So does the size of the living area per person. The city average was at 19.41 m2 (208.93 sq ft) per person as of 2002, but at 24 m2 (258 sq ft) in Centar on the south bank, and only 14 m2 (151 sq ft) in Čair on the north bank. In Šuto Orizari, the average was at 13 m2 (140 sq ft).[48]

Localities and villages

Gorno Nerezi, a village on the northern side of Mount Vodno

Outside of the urban area, the City of Skopje encompasses many small settlements. Some of them are becoming outer suburbs, such as Čento, on the road to Belgrade, which has more than 23,000 inhabitants, and Dračevo, which has almost 20,000 inhabitants.[51] Other large settlements are north of the city, such as Radišani, with 9,000 inhabitants,[51] whereas smaller villages can be found on Mount Vodno or in Saraj municipality, which is the most rural of the ten municipalities that form the City of Skopje.[52]

Some localities outside the city limits are also becoming outer suburbs, particularly in Ilinden and Petrovec municipality. They benefit from the presence of major roads, railways, and the airport, in Petrovec.[52]


Pollution contributors in the area of Skopje

Air pollution is a serious problem in Skopje, especially in winter.[53] Concentrations of certain types of particulate matter (PM2 and PM10) are regularly over twelve times the WHO recommended maximum levels. In winter, smoke regularly obscures vision and can lead to problems for drivers. Together with Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia has the most polluted urban areas in Europe.[54]

Skopje's high levels of pollution are caused by a combination of smoke from houses, emissions from the industry, buses, and other forms of public transport, as well as from cars, and a lack of interest in caring for the environment. Central heating is often not affordable, and so households often burn firewood, as well as used car tyres, various plastic garbage, petroleum, and other possible flammable waste, which emits toxic chemicals harmful to the population, especially to children and the elderly.[53]

The city's smog has reduced its air quality and affected the health of many of its citizens, many of whom have died from pollution-related illnesses.

An application called AirCare ('MojVozduh') has been launched by local eco-activist Gorjan Jovanovski to help citizens track pollution levels. It uses a Traffic light system, with purple for heavily polluted air, red for high levels detected, amber for moderate levels detected, and green for when the air is safe to inhale.[55] The application relies on both government and volunteer sensors to track hourly air pollution. Unfortunately, government sensors are frequently inoperable and malfunctioning, causing the need for more low-cost, but less accurate, volunteer sensors to be put up by citizens. Faults on government sensors are especially frequent when the pollution is measured is extremely high, according to the AQILHC (Air Quality Index Levels of Health Concern).[56]

Skopje topped the ranks in December 2017 as one of the most polluted cities in the world.[57] In 2017, as part of the city's efforts to reduce pollution, a CityTree was installed, and promoted by German ambassador Christine Althauser.[58]

On 29 November 2019, a march, organized by the Skopje Smog Alarm activist community,[59] attracted thousands of people who opposed the government's lack of action in dealing with the city's pollution, which has worsened since 2017, contributing to around 1300 deaths annually.[60][59]

A panoramic view of the smog in the central area of Skopje


Timeline of Skopje
Historical affiliations

 Dardanian Kingdom, 230–28 BC
 Roman Empire, 28 BC–395
 Byzantine Empire, 395–836
 First Bulgarian Empire, 836–1004
 Byzantine Empire, 1004–1093
 Grand Principality of Serbia, 1093–1097
 Byzantine Empire, 1098–1203
 Second Bulgarian Empire, 1203–1246
 Empire of Nicaea, 1246–1255
 Second Bulgarian Empire, 1255–1256
 Empire of Nicaea, 1256–1261
 Byzantine Empire, 1261–1282
  Kingdom of Serbia, 1282–1346
  Serbian Empire, 1346–1371
  District of Branković, 1371–1392
  Ottoman Empire, 1392–1912
  Kingdom of Serbia 1912–1915
  Tsardom of Bulgaria 1915–1918
  Kingdom of Yugoslavia[Note 1] 1918–1941
  Tsardom of Bulgaria 1941–1944
  Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (Democratic Federal Macedonia) 1944–1946
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Socialist Republic of Macedonia) 1946–1992
  North Macedonia[Note 2] 1992–present



The rocky promontory on which Skopje Fortress stands was the first site to be settled in Skopje. The earliest vestiges of human occupation found on this site date from the Chalcolithic (4th millennium BC).[61]

Although the Chalcolithic settlement must have been of some significance, it declined during the Bronze Age. Archeological research suggests that the settlement always belonged to the same culture, which progressively evolved due to contacts with Balkan and Danube cultures, and later with the Aegean. The locality eventually disappeared during the Iron Age[62] when Scupi emerged on Zajčev Rid hill, some 5 km (3.1 mi) west of the fortress promontory. At the centre of the Balkan peninsula and on the road between the Danube and Aegean Sea,[63] it was a prosperous locality, although its history is not well known.[63]

During the Iron Age, the area of Skopje was inhabited by the Dardani. Illyrian tribes lived in most of the area west of Skopje and Thracian groups (Maedi) to the east, while Paeonians lived to the south of Skopje.[64] The Dardanians had remained independent after the Roman conquest of Macedon, and it seems most likely that Dardania lost its independence in 28 BC.[65]

Roman Scupi

A "Venus Pudica" found in Scupi, dated from the 2nd century AD[66]

Roman expansion east brought Scupi under Roman rule as a colony of legionnaires, mainly veterans of the Legio VII Claudia in the time of Domitian (81–96 AD). However, several legions from the Roman province of Macedonia of Crassus' army may already have been stationed there around 29–28 BC before the official imperial command was instituted.[67][68] The first mention of the city was made at that period by Livy, who died in 17 AD.[17] Scupi first served as a military base to maintain peace in the region[63] and was officially named "Colonia Flavia Scupinorum", Flavia being the name of the emperor's dynasty.[69] Shortly afterwards it became part of the province of Moesia during Augustus's rule. After the division of the province by Domitian in 86 AD, Scupi was elevated to colonial status and became a seat of government within the new province of Moesia Superior. The district called Dardania (within Moesia Superior) was formed into a special province by Diocletian, with the capital at Naissus. In Roman times the eastern part of Dardania, from Scupi to Naissus, remained inhabited mostly by a local population, mainly of Thracian origin.[70]

The city population was very diverse. Engravings on tombstones suggest that only a minority of the population came from Italy, while many veterans were from Dalmatia, southern Gaul and Syria. Because of the ethnic diversity of the population, Latin maintained itself as the main language in the city at the expense of Greek, which was spoken in most of the Moesian and Macedonian cities.[71] During the following centuries, Scupi experienced prosperity. The period from the end of the 3rd century to the end of the 4th century was particularly flourishing.[69] A first church was founded under the reign of Constantine the Great and Scupi became the seat of a diocese. In 395, following the division of the Roman Empire in two, Scupi became part of the Eastern Roman Empire.[17]

An ancient funeral inscription of the Illyrian tribe Albanoi was found in Scupi.[72]

In its heyday, Scupi covered 40 hectares and was closed by a 3.5 m (11 ft) wide wall.[73] It had many monuments, including four necropoles, a theatre, thermae,[69] and a large Christian basilica.[74]

Middle Ages

Skopje Fortress

In 518, Scupi was destroyed by a violent earthquake,[30] possibly the most devastating the town had ever experienced.[75] At that time, the region was threatened by the Barbarian invasions, and the city inhabitants had already fled to the forests and mountains before the disaster occurred.[76] The city was eventually rebuilt by Justinian I. During his reign, many Byzantine towns were relocated on hills and other easily defendable places to face invasions. It was thus transferred to another site: the promontory on which the fortress stands.[77] However, Scupi was sacked by Slavs at the end of the 6th century and the city seems to have fallen under Slavic rule in 595.[78] The Slavic tribe which sacked Scupi was probably the Berziti,[17] who had invaded the entire Vardar valley.[79] However the Slavs did not settle permanently in the region, which had been already plundered and depopulated, but continued south to the Mediterranean coast.[80] After the Slavic invasion it was deserted for some time and is not mentioned during the following centuries.[17] Perhaps in the late 7th or the early 8th century the Byzantines again settled at this strategic location. Along with the rest of the Upper Vardar valley it became part of the expanding First Bulgarian Empire in the 830s.[81][82]

The coronation of emperor Dušan in Skopje[b]

Starting from the end of the 10th century Skopje experienced a period of wars and political troubles. It served as the Bulgarian capital from 972 to 992, and Samuil ruled it from 976[83] until 1004, when its governor surrendered it to Byzantine Emperor Basil the Bulgar Slayer in 1004 in exchange for the titles of patrician and strategos.[84] It became a centre of a new Byzantine province called Bulgaria.[85] Later Skopje was briefly seized twice by Slavic insurgents who wanted to restore the Bulgarian state. At first in 1040 under Peter Delyan's command,[86] and in 1072 under the orders of Georgi Voyteh.[87] In 1081, Skopje was captured by Norman troops led by Robert Guiscard and the city remained in their hands until 1088. Skopje was subsequently conquered by the Serbian Grand Prince Vukan in 1093, and again by the Normans four years later. However, because of epidemics and food shortage, Normans quickly surrendered to the Byzantines.[88]

During the 12th and 13th centuries, Bulgarians and Serbs took advantage of Byzantine decline to create large kingdoms stretching from Danube to the Aegean Sea. Kaloyan brought Skopje back into reestablished Bulgaria in 1203[89][90] until his nephew Strez declared autonomy along the Upper Vardar with Serbian help only five years later.[91] In 1209, Strez switched allegiances and recognized Boril of Bulgaria with whom he led a successful joint campaign against Serbia's first internationally recognized king Stefan Nemanjić.[90] From 1214 to 1230, Skopje was a part of Byzantine successor state Epirus before being recaptured by Ivan Asen II and held by Bulgaria until 1246 when the Upper Vardar valley was incorporated once more into a Byzantine state – the Empire of Nicaea.[92] Byzantine conquest was briefly reversed in 1255 by the regents of the young Michael Asen I of Bulgaria.[93] Meanwhile, in the parallel civil war for the Crown in Tarnovo Skopje boyar and grandson to Stefan Nemanja Constantine Tikh gained the upper hand and ruled until Europe's only successful peasant revolt the Uprising of Ivaylo deposed him.

In 1282, Skopje was captured by Serbian king Stefan Milutin.[94] Under the political stability of the Nemanjić rule, settlement has spread outside the walls of the fortress, towards Gazi Baba hill.[83] Churches, monasteries and markets were built and tradesmen from Venice and Dubrovnik opened shops. The town greatly benefited from its location near European, Middle Eastern, and African markets. In the 14th century, Skopje became such an important city that king Stefan Dušan made it the capital of the Serbian Empire. In 1346, he was crowned "Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks" in Skopje.[17] After his death the Serbian Empire collapsed into several principalities which were unable to defend themselves against the Turks. Skopje was first inherited by the Lordship of Prilep and finally taken by Vuk Branković in the wake of the Battle of Maritsa (1371)[95] before becoming part of the Ottoman Empire in 1392.[17]

In 1330, Serbian king Stefan Dečanski mentioned Albanians as being in the district of Skopje and regularly going to the Fair of Saint George which convened near the city.[96]

Ottoman period

First May Day celebration of the Ottoman period in Skopje, 1909

The Ottomans stayed in Skopje for over 520 years and the city’s economic life greatly benefited from its position in the middle of Rumelia, the European province of the Ottomans. The Stone Bridge, "one of the most imposing stone bridges to be found in Yugoslavia", was reconstructed under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror between 1451 and 1469.[97] The Ottomans drastically changed the appearance of the city. They organized the Bazaar with its caravanserais, mosques and baths.[98]

In the cadastral register of 1451-52, the Skopje neighborhood Gjin-ko - (Gjinaj), is mentioned, being named after the medieval Albanian Gjini family. The neighbourhood displayed mixed Christian Albanian anthroponomy with cases of Slavicisation present (e.g Palić; Pal + Slavic suffix ).[99] During this time period, a number of timariotes of the city are recorded as bearing the name Arnauti (Albanian) alongside a Muslim name, i.e Hamza Arnauti, Shahin Arnauti, Jusuf Arnauti. Another group bore Christian/Slavic names, while also carrying bearing the surname Arbanas/Arnaut, i.e Bogdan Arbanas, Bogoslav Arbanas, Milosh Arbanas, Bozhidar Arnaut etc. These individuals are not noted as having the Slavic appellatives došlac, prišlac or uselica, which were given by Ottoman authorities to new settlers of a given region, likely indicating they were locals.[100] In the year 1451/53 a neighborhood was registered bearing an Aromanian name, Mahalle-i Todor Vlaja-Vlaha. Among the 45 family heads of this neighborhood, Christian-Slavic and Albanian anthroponyms were recorded (Gjon-çe, son of Noriç, Koljko Bibani, Tusho, son of Rada etc), while a sizeable number of individuals bearing mixed Slavic-Vlach anthroponyms are also registered, such as: Petko, son of Vllah (Iflak), Petru son of David, Andreja, kozhuhar, Nikul Çikun, etc.[101]

In the mahallah Ahrijan Hasan in the year 1451/53, a head of the family from noble Albanian Muzaka family, who had converted to Islam, was re-registered among the Muslim heads of the family. In the other register of 1467/68, now in the Christian mahallah named Svetko Samarxhi, among the 29 heads of families with Slavic Christian anthroponyms, a number also carry Albanian anthroponyms.[102] In the neighborhood of Jazixhi Shahin, among the residents with Muslim names, the head of the family was registered only with the surname Zenebishi, without mentioning his social position or his profession, indicating a higher social status. This may suggest a relation to Hasan Bey Zenebishi adescendant of the Zenebishi family and the Soubashi of the Nahiyah of Kalkandelen. Individuals bearing Albanian anthroponyms, be they in conjunction with Oriental/Islamic, Slavic or Christian ones, also appear in the neighbourhoods of Kasim Fakih, Dursun Saraç, Kujumxhi Mentesheli, Çerep, Jandro, Stanimir, Vllah Dançu and Rela.[101] A number of Sipahis were also of Albanian origin, with these individuals holding timars in areas which had a Christian Albanian symbiosis with Slavic anthroponyms in the vicinity of Skopje. The defters noted that these were old were old Sipahis, likely having been landowners. These individual Sipahis were closely related by descent and blood, and taking account kinship ties, even though they had heterogeneous, Christian, Slavic and Oriental names, they appear to have been Albanians. Some have names indicating their origin, such as Shimerd Vardarli from Skopje, making it likely these timariotes were locals.[103]

The 15th-century Mustafa Pasha Mosque

Around 1529, the Christians of Skopje were mostly non-converted Slavs and Albanians, but also Ragusan and Armenian tradesmen.[104] Mustafa Pasha Mosque, built in 1492, is reputed to be "one of the most resplendent sacral Islamic buildings in the Balkans."[105] In 1535 all churches were demolished by decree of the (Ottoman) governor.[106][dubiousdiscuss] In 1555, the city was hit by another severe earthquake, collapsing much of the city. The Old Bazaar of Skopje, the columns of the Stone Bridge, and the murals in the upper parts of the Church of Saint Panteleimon, Gorno Nerezi were all severely damaged.[107] Some modern sources estimate this earthquake to have been a category XII (Extreme) on the Modified Mercalli intensity scale, although others believe this is an overestimate.[30]

In 1623-1624, the Catholic Pjeter Mazreku reported the town was inhabited by 'Turks (Muslims), majority of them being Albanians, the rest are of Asiatic origin', Mazreku further wrote; 'there are also Jews, Serbs and some Greeks in the town'.[108][109] In the Ottoman period, 'Turk' was used within Christian writings as a name for a Muslim or for Islamised Albanians.[110][111]

Until the 17th century, Skopje experienced a long golden age. Around 1650, the number of inhabitants in Skopje was between 30,000 and 60,000, and the city contained more than 10,000 houses. It was then one of the only big cities on the territory of future Yugoslavia, together with Belgrade and Sarajevo. At that time, Dubrovnik, which was a busy harbour, had not even 7,000 inhabitants.[112] The city severely suffered from the Great Turkish War at the end of the 17th century and consequently experienced recession until the 19th century. In 1689, the Hapsburgs seized Skopje which was already weakened by a cholera epidemic.[113] The same day, general Silvio Piccolomini set fire to the city to end the epidemic.[17] It is however possible that he wanted to avenge damages that Ottomans caused in Vienna in 1683.[114] Skopje burned for two days but the general himself perished of the plague and his leaderless army was routed.[115][116] The Austrian presence in Macedonia motivated Slav uprisings. Nevertheless, the Austrians left the country within the year and the Hajduks, leaders of the uprisings, had to follow them in their retreat north of the Balkans.[17] Some were arrested by the Ottomans, such as Petar Karposh, who was impaled on Skopje's Stone Bridge.[117]

After the war, Skopje was in ruins. Most of the official buildings were restored or rebuilt, but the city experienced new plague and cholera epidemics and many inhabitants emigrated.[104] Ottoman Empire as a whole entered in recession and political decline. Many rebellions and pillages occurred in Macedonia during the 18th century, either led by Ottoman outlaws, Janissaries or Hajduks.[118] An estimation conducted by French officers around 1836 revealed that at that time Skopje only had around 10,000 inhabitants. It was surpassed by two other towns of present-day North Macedonia: Bitola (40,000) and Štip (15–20,000).[119]

Skopje began to recover from decades of decline after 1850. At that time, the city experienced a slow but steady demographic growth, mainly due to the rural exodus of Slav Macedonians. It was also fuelled by the exodus of Muslims from Serbia and Bulgaria, which were gaining autonomy and independence from the Empire at that time.[17][104] During the Tanzimat reforms, nationalism arose in the Empire and in 1870 a new Bulgarian Church was established and its separate diocese was created, based on ethnic identity, rather than religious principles.[120] The Slavic population of the bishopric of Skopje voted in 1874 overwhelmingly, by 91% in favour of joining the Exarchate and became part of the Bulgarian Millet.[121] Economic growth was permitted by the construction of the Skopje-Salonica railway in 1873.[17] The train station was built south of the Vardar and this contributed to the relocation of economic activities on this side of the river, which had never been urbanized before.[42] Because of the rural exodus, the share of Christians in the city population arose. Some of the newcomers became part of the local elite and helped to spread nationalist ideas[104] In 1877, Skopje was chosen as the capital city of the new Kosovo Vilayet, which encompassed present-day Kosovo, northwestern Macedonia and the Sanjak of Novi Pazar.

In statistics gathered by Bulgarian ethnographer Vasil Kanchov in 1900, the city of Skopje was inhabited by 31,900 people, of whom 15,000 were Turks, 13,000 Christian Bulgarians, 1920 Romani, 800 Jews, 450 Vlachs, 150 Christian Albanians, 50 Christian Greeks, 30 Circassians and 500 inhabitants of various other ethnicities.[122] Kanchov wrote in the same year that many Albanians declared themselves as Turks. In Skopje, the population that declared itself Turkish "was of Albanian blood", but it "had been Turkified after the Ottoman invasion, including Skanderbeg", referring to Islamization. Bulgarian literary historian Yordan Ivanov wrote in 1915 that Albanians, since they did not have their own alphabet, due to a lack of consolidated national consciousness and influenced by foreign propaganda, declared themselves as Turks, Greeks and Bulgarians, depending on which religion they belonged to. Albanians were losing their mother tongue in Skopje.[123] German linguist Gustav Weigand described that the Skopje's Muslim population of "Turks" or Ottomans (Osmanli) during the late Ottoman period were mainly Albanians who spoke Turkish in public and Albanian at home.[124] In 1905, the city had 32,000 inhabitants, making it the largest of the vilayet, although closely followed by Prizren with its 30,000 inhabitants.[18] At the beginning of the 20th century, local economy was focused on dyeing, weaving, tanning, ironworks and wine and flour processing.[18]

Skopje was one of the five main centres of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization when it organized the 1903 Ilinden uprising. Its revolutionary network in the region led by Nikola Pushkarov was not well-developed and the lack of weapons was a serious problem. At the outbreak of the uprising, the rebel forces derailed a military train.[125] On 3 and 5 August respectively, they attacked an Ottoman unit guarding the bridge on the Vardar river and gave a battle in the "St. Jovan" monastery. In the next few days, the band was pursued by numerous Bashibozuks and moved to Bulgaria.

Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Ottoman Empire experienced democracy and several political parties were created.[17] However, some of the policies implemented by the Young Turks, such as a tax rise and the interdiction of ethnic-based political parties, discontented minorities. Albanians opposed the nationalist character of the movement and led local uprisings in 1910 and 1912. During the latter, they managed to seize most of Kosovo and took Skopje on 11 August. On 18 August, the insurgents signed the Üsküb agreement which provided for the creation of an autonomous Albanian province and they were amnestied the day later.[126]

Balkan Wars to present day

Skopje after being captured by Albanian revolutionaries in August 1912 after defeating the Ottoman forces holding the city
Peter I of Serbia visiting Skopje in 1914

Following an alliance contracted in 1912, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Their goal was to definitively expel the Ottomans from Europe. The First Balkan War started on 8 October 1912 and lasted six weeks. Serbians reached Skopje on 26 October. Ottoman forces had left the city the day before.[17] During the conflict, Chetniks, a Serb irregular force razed the Albanian quarter of Skopje and killed numerous Albanian inhabitants from the city.[127] The Serbian annexation led to the exodus of 725 Muslim families which left the city on 27 January 1913. The same year, the city population was evaluated at 37,000 by the Serbian authorities.[104]

A view of the centre of Skopje in the 1930s
A Bulgarian officer looking at Skopje's centre, April 1941

In 1915, during the First World War, Serbian Macedonia was invaded by Bulgaria, which captured Skopje on 22 October 1915. Serbia, allied to the Triple Entente, was helped by France, Britain, Greece, and Italy, which formed the Macedonian front. Following a great Allied offensive in 1918, the Armée française d'Orient reached Skopje 29 September and took the city by surprise.[128] After the end of the World War, Vardar Macedonia became part of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" in 1929.[17] A mostly foreign ethnic Serb ruling class gained control, imposing large-scale repression.[129] The policies of de-Bulgarization and assimilation were pursued.[130] At that time part of the young locals, repressed by the Serbs, tried to find a separate way of ethnic Macedonian development.[131] In 1931, in a move to formally decentralize the country, Skopje was named the capital of the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Until the Second World War, Skopje experienced strong economic growth, and its population increased. The city had 41,066 inhabitants in 1921, 64,807 in 1931, and 80,000 in 1941.[104] Although in an underdeveloped region, it attracted wealthy Serbs who opened businesses and contributed to the modernization of the city.[132] In 1941, Skopje had 45 factories, half of the industry in the whole of Socialist Macedonia.[133]

The national theatre and the fortress around 1920

In 1941, during the Second World War, Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany. Germans seized Skopje on 8 April[17] and left it to their Bulgarian allies on 22 April 1941.[134] To ensure the bulgarization of the society, authorities closed Serbian schools and churches, opening new schools and a higher education institute, the King Boris University.[135] The 4,000 Jews of Skopje were all deported in 1943 to the Treblinka extermination camp where almost all of them were killed.[136]

Skopje was liberated on 13 November 1944 by units of the Bulgarian People's Army (Bulgaria having switched sides in the war in September) aided by Yugoslav Partisans of the Macedonian National Liberation Army.[137][138][139][140] Skopje became the capital city of the newly proclaimed Democratic Federal Macedonia as set up by the ASNOM on 2 August 1944 in the Bulgarian occupation zone in Yugoslavia.

After World War II, Skopje greatly benefited from Socialist Yugoslav policies which encouraged industry and the development of Macedonian cultural institutions. Consequently, Skopje became home to a national library, a philharmonic orchestra, a university, and the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. However, its post-war development was altered by the 1963 earthquake which occurred on 26 July. Although relatively weak in magnitude, it caused enormous damage in the city and can be compared to the 1960 Agadir earthquake.[141] The disaster killed 1,070 people, injuring 3,300 others. 16,000 people were buried alive in ruins and 70% of the population lost their home.[41] Many educational facilities, factories and historical buildings were destroyed.[42]

American soldiers in Skopje after the 1963 earthquake
Monument to the Macedonian partisans – Liberators of Skopje, next to the Government building

After the earthquake, reconstruction was quick. It had a deep psychological impact on the population because neighbourhoods were split and people were relocated to new houses and buildings they were not familiar with.[41] Many Albanians, some from Kosovo participated in the reconstruction effort.[142] Reconstruction was finished by 1980, even if many elements were never built because funds were exhausted.[42] Skopje cityscape was drastically changed and the city became a true example of modernist architecture. Demographic growth was very important after 1963, and Skopje had 408,100 inhabitants in 1981.[143] After 1963, rural youth migrated to Skopje and were involved in the reconstruction process resulting in a large growth of the urban Macedonian population.[144][145][146] The Albanian population of Skopje also increased as people from the northern villages migrated to the city and others came from Kosovo either to provide manpower for reconstruction or fled the deteriorating political situation, especially during the 1990s.[142] However, during the 1980s and the 1990s, the country experienced inflation and recession and the local economy heavily suffered. The situation became better during the 2000s thanks to new investments. Many landmarks were restored and the "Skopje 2014" project renewed the appearance of the city centre.



The Flag of Skopje[147] is a red banner in proportions 1:2 with a gold-coloured coat of arms of the city positioned in the upper-left corner. It is either vertical or horizontal, but the vertical version was the first to be used.

The coat of arms of the city was adopted in the 1950s. It depicts the Stone Bridge with the Vardar river, the Kale Fortress and the snow-capped peaks of the Šar mountains.[148]




Greater Skopje among the municipalities of North Macedonia

Being the capital and largest city of North Macedonia, Skopje enjoys a particular status granted by law. The last revision of its status was made in 2004. Since then, the City of Skopje has been divided into 10 municipalities which all have a council and a mayor, like all of the country's municipalities. Municipalities only deal with matters specific of their territory, and the City of Skopje deals with matters that concern all of them, or that cannot be divided between two or more municipalities.[149]

The City of Skopje is part of the Skopje Statistical Region, which has no political or administrative power.[149]

City Council


The City Council consists of 45 members who serve a four-year term. It primarily deals with budget, global orientations and relations between the city and the government. Several commissions exist to treat more specific topics, such as urbanism, finances, environment of local development.[150] The President of the council is elected by the Council Members. Since 2021 the president has been Trajko Slaveski, member of VMRO-DPMNE.[151][150]

Following the 2021 local elections, the City Council is constituted as follows:[150][152]

Party / List Seats  
AA/A 2
Levica 4
Total 45



The Mayor of Skopje is elected every four years. The mayor represents the City of Skopje and can submit ideas to the council, manages the administrative bodies and their officials.[153]



Skopje was first divided into administrative units in 1945, but the first municipalities were created in 1976. They were five: Centar, Čair, Karpoš, Gazi Baba and Kisela Voda. After the 1991 independence of the country, power was centralized and municipalities lost much of their competences. A 1996 law restored them and created two new municipalities: Ǵorče Petrov and Šuto Orizari. After the insurgency between Albanian rebels and Macedonian forces in 2001, a new law was enacted in 2004 to incorporate Saraj Municipality into the City of Skopje. Saraj is mostly populated by Albanians and, since then, Albanians represent more than 20% of the city population. Thus Albanian became the second official language of the city administration, something which was one of the claims of the Albanian rebels. The same year, Aerodrom Municipality separated itself from Kisela Voda, and Butel Municipality from Čair.[149]

Municipalities are administered by a council of 23 members elected every four years. They also have a mayor and several departments (education, culture, finances...). The mayor primarily deals with these departments.[154]

Name Size
Population 2002[48] Population 2021[2]
Aerodrom 20 72,009 77,735
Butel 54.79 36,144 37,968
Centar 7.52 45,412 43,893
Čair 3.52 64,773 62,586
Gazi Baba 110.86 72,617 69,626
Ǵorče Petrov 66.93 41,634 44,844
Karpoš 35.21 59,666 63,760
Kisela Voda 34.24 57,236 61,965
Saraj 229.06 35,408 38,399
Šuto Orizari 7.48 22,017 25,726
City of Skopje 571.46 506,926 526,502
  1.   Centar (Центар)
  2.   Gazi Baba (Гази Баба)
  3.   Aerodrom (Аеродром)
  4.   Čair (Чаир)
  5.   Kisela Voda (Кисела Вода)
  6.   Butel (Бутел)
  7.   Šuto Orizari (Шуто Оризари)
  8.   Karpoš (Карпош)
  9.   Ǵorče Petrov (Ѓорче Петров)
  10.   Saraj (Сарај)



Economic weight

The small business district

Skopje is a medium city at the European level. Being the capital and largest city of North Macedonia, Skopje concentrates a large share of the national economy. The Skopje Statistical Region, which encompasses the City of Skopje and some neighbouring municipalities, produces 45.5% of the Macedonian GDP.[155] In 2009, the regional GDP per capita amounted to US$6,565, or 155% of the Macedonian GDP per capita.[156] This figure is, however, smaller than the one of neighboring Sofia (US$10,106),[157] Sarajevo (US$10,048)[158] or Belgrade (US$7,983),[159] but higher than the one of Tirana (US$4,126).[160]

Because there are no other large cities in the country, and because of political and economic centralization, a large number of Macedonians living outside of Skopje work in the capital city. The dynamism of the city also encourages rural exodus, not only from North Macedonia, but also from Kosovo, Albania and Southern Serbia.[161]

Firms and activities


In 2009, Skopje had 26,056 firms but only 145 of them had a large size. The large majority of them are either small (12,017) or very small (13,625).[162] A large share of the firms deal with trade of goods (9,758), 3,839 are specialized in business and real estate, and 2,849 are manufacturers.[163] Although few in number, large firms account for 51% of the local production outside finance.[52]

The Imperial Tobacco plant

The city industry is dominated by food processing, textile, printing and metal processing. In 2012, it accounted for 30% of the city's GDP.[52] Most of the industrial areas are in Gazi Baba municipality, on the major routes and rail lines to Belgrade and Thessaloniki.[164] Notably, the ArcelorMittal, Makstil steel plants and the Skopje Brewery are there. Other zones are between Aerodrom and Kisela Voda, along the railway to Greece. These zones comprise Alkaloid Skopje (pharmaceuticals), Rade Končar (electrical supplies), Imperial Tobacco, and Ohis (fertilizers). Two special economic zones also exist, around the airport and the Okta refinery. They have attracted several foreign companies, such as Johnson Controls, Johnson Matthey and Van Hool.[165]

As the country's financial capital, Skopje is the seat of the Macedonian Stock Exchange, of the National Bank, and of most of the country's banking, insurance, and telecommunication companies, such as Makedonski Telekom, Komercijalna banka Skopje and Stopanska Banka. The services sector produces 60% of the city GDP.[52]

The Zelen Pazar ("green market")

Besides many small traditional shops, Skopje has two large markets, the "Zelen Pazar" (green market) and the "Bit Pazar" (flea market). They are both considered local institutions.[49] However, since the 1970s, retailing has largely been modernized and Skopje now has many supermarkets and shopping centres. The largest, Skopje City Mall, opened in 2012. It comprises a Carrefour hypermarket, 130 shops and a cinema, and employs 2,000 people.[166]

Skopje City Mall



51% of the Skopje active population is employed in small firms. 52% of the population work in the services sector, 34% in industry, and the remaining is mainly employed in administration.[52]

The unemployment rate for the Skopje Statistical Region was at 27% in 2009, three points under the national rate (30%). The neighbouring Polog Region had a similar rate, but the less affected region was the South-West, with 22%.[167] Unemployment in Skopje mainly affects men, who represent 56% of job-seekers, people between 25 and 44 years old (45% of job-seekers), and non-qualified people (43%).[52] Unemployment also concerns Roma people, who represent 4.63% of the city population but affects 70% of the active population in the community.[50]

The average net monthly wage in Skopje was at €400 in October 2010, which represented 120% of the national figure.[168] The average wage in Skopje was then lower than in Sarajevo (€522),[169] Sofia (€436),[170] and in Belgrade (€440).[171]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
Source: [48][172][173]


People on Macedonia street, the main pedestrian axis of the city

According to the results of the 2021 census, the City of Skopje had 526,502 inhabitants.[2] Skopje's employment area covers a large part of the country, including Veles, Kumanovo and Tetovo, and totaling more than one million inhabitants.[174]

Skopje contains roughly a quarter of North Macedonia's population. The second most populous municipality, Kumanovo, had 107,632 inhabitants in 2011,[175] and an urban unit of 76,272 inhabitants in 2002.[48]

Before the Austro-Turkish war and the 1689 Great Fire, Skopje was one of the biggest cities in the Balkans, with a population estimated between 30,000 and 60,000 inhabitants.[17] After the fire set by the retreating Austrian forces, it experienced a long period of decline and only had 10,000 inhabitants in 1836.[119] However, the population started to rise again after 1850 and reached 32,000 inhabitants in 1905.[18] In the 20th century, Skopje was one of the fastest-growing cities in Yugoslavia, and it had 448,200 inhabitants in 1981. Since then, the demographic growth has continued at a steady pace.[172]

Ethnic groups


Ethnic groups in the Greater Skopje include:

Ethnic group 2002 2021
Number % Number %
Macedonians 338,358 66.75 309,107 58.71
Albanians 103,891 20.49 120,293 22.85
Turks 8,595 1.70 8,524 1.62
Roma 23,475 4.63 18,498 3.51
Vlachs 2,557 0.50 2,778 0.53
Serbs 14,298 2.82 9,478 1.80
Bosniaks 7,585 1.50 7,365 1.50
Others 8,167 1.61 6,284 1.19
Administrative sources n/a n/a 44,175 8.39
Total 506,926 100 526,502 100

Skopje, just like North Macedonia as a whole, is characterized by a large ethnic diversity. The city is in a region where Macedonians and Albanians meet, and it has welcomed Romani, Turks, Jews, and Serbs throughout its history. Skopje was mainly a Muslim city until the 19th century when large numbers of Christians started to settle there. According to the 2021 census, Macedonians were the largest ethnic group in Skopje, with 309,107 inhabitants, or 58.71% of the population. Then came Albanians with 120,293 inhabitants (22.85%), Roma people with 18,498 (3.51%), Serbs (9,478 inhabitants), Turks (8,524), Bosniaks (7,365) and Aromanians (also known as "Vlachs", 2,778). 6,284 people did not belong to any of these groups.[2]

Macedonians form an overwhelming majority of the population in the municipalities of Aerodrom, Centar, Ǵorče Petrov, Karpoš and Kisela Voda, which are all south of the Vardar.[176] They also form a majority in Butel[177] and Gazi Baba which are north of the river. Albanians form a majority in Čair which roughly corresponds to the Old Bazaar, and in Saraj.[178] They form a large minority in Butel[177] and Gazi Baba. Šuto Orizari, on the northern edge of the city, is predominantly Roma.[48] When an ethnic minority forms at least 20% of the population in a municipality, its language can become official on the local level. Thus, in Čair and Saraj schools and administration use Albanian, and Romani in Šuto Orizari.[179] The latter is the only municipality in the world where Romani is an official language.[50]

Relations between the two largest groups, Macedonians and Albanians, are sometimes difficult, as in the rest of the country. Each group tolerates the other but they tend to avoid each other and live in what can appear as two parallel worlds.[180] Both Macedonians and Albanians view themselves each as the original population of Skopje and the other as newcomers.[181][142][144] The Roma minority is on its side very deprived. Its exact size is not known because many Macedonian Roma declare themselves as belonging to other ethnic groups or simply avoid censuses. However, even if official figures are underestimated, Skopje is the city in the world with the largest Roma population.[50]


The church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary

Religious affiliation is diverse: Macedonians, Serbs, and Aromanians are mainly Orthodox, with the majority affiliated to the Macedonian Orthodox Church; Turks are almost entirely Muslim; those of Albanian ethnicity are largely Muslim, although Skopje also has a sizeable Roman Catholic Albanian minority, into which Mother Teresa was born; the Roma (Gypsies) represent a mixture (in almost equal numbers) of Muslim and Orthodox religious heritage.[182]

According to the 2002 census, 68.5% of the population of Skopje belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church, while 28.6% belonged to Islam. The city also had Catholic (0.5%) and Protestant (0.04%) minorities.[183] The Catholics are served by the Latin bishopric of Skopje, in which is also vested the Byzantine Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Macedonia.

2002 2021
Number % Number %
TOTAL 506,926 100 526,502 100
Orthodox 348,837 68.8 264,872 60.3
Christians 216 0.49 50,624
Catholics 2,506 0.04 2,044
Islam 143,770 28.4 155,245 29.5
others 11,597 1.81 9,542 1.81
Administrative sources 44,175 8.39

Until World War II, Skopje had a significant Jewish minority which mainly descended from Spanish Sephardis who had escaped the Inquisition. The community comprised 2,424 members in 1939 (representing about 3% of the city population), but most of them were deported and killed by Nazis. After the war, most of the survivors settled in Israel.[115][184] Today the city has around 200 Jewish inhabitants (about 0.04% of the population).

Because of its 520-year Ottoman past, and the fact that many of its inhabitants today are Muslims, Skopje has more mosques than churches. Religious communities often complain about the lack of infrastructure and new places of worship are often built.[185] Skopje is the seat of many Macedonian religious organizations, such as the Macedonian Orthodox Church and the Islamic Religious Union of Macedonia. It has an Orthodox cathedral and seminary, several madrasahs, a Roman Catholic cathedral and a synagogue.[186]



Skopje has several public and private hospitals and specialized medical institutions, such as the Filip II Hospital, a psychiatric hospital, two obstetric hospitals, a gerontology hospital, and institutes for respiratory and ocular diseases.[187] In 2012, Skopje had a ratio of one physician per 251.6 inhabitants, a figure higher than the national ratio (one per 370.9). The ratio of medical specialists was also higher than in the rest of the country. However, the ratio of hospital beds, pharmacists and dentists was lower in Skopje.[188] The population in Skopje enjoys better health standards than other Macedonians. In 2010, the mortality rate was at 8.6‰ in Skopje and 9.3‰ on the national level. The infant mortality rate was at 6.8‰ in Skopje and 7.6‰ in North Macedonia.[188]


Faculty of Economics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University.

Skopje's citizenry is generally more educated than the rest of the country. 16% of Skopjans have graduated from university in contrast to 10% for the rest of the country. The number of people with a complete lack of education or ones who received a partial education is lower in Skopje at 9% compared to the provincial average of 17%. 80% of Macedonian citizens who hold a PhD take up residence in Skopje.[189]

Skopje has 21 secondary schools; 5 of which serve as general high-school gymnasiums and 16 vocational schools.[190] The city is also host to several higher education institutions, the most notable of which is Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, founded in 1949. The university has 23 departments, 10 research institutes and is attended by an average of 50,000 students.[191] After the country's independence in 1991, several private universities were brought into existence. The largest private universities in Skopje are European University Skopje with 7 departments[192] and FON University with 9 departments respectively.[193]


The Macedonian Radio-Television headquarters

Skopje is the largest media centre in North Macedonia. Of the 818 newspapers surveyed in 2000 by the Ministry of Information, over 600 had their headquarters in Skopje. The daily Dnevnik, founded in 1996, with 60 000 runs per day is the most printed in the country. Also based in Skopje, Večer is pulled 50,000 copies and the state owns one-third of its capital, as well as Nova Makedonija, reprinted 20,000 copies. Other major newspapers in Skopje, totally private, are Utrinski Vesnik (30,000 copies), Vest (25,000 copies), and Vreme (15,000 copies). Magazines Fokus (12,000 copies), Start (10,000 copies), and Denes (7,500 copies) also have their headquarters in Skopje.[194][195]

The city is home of the studios of Macedonian Radio-Television (MRT), the country's public radio and television. Founded in 1966, it operates with three national broadcast channels, twenty-four hours a day. The most popular private television stations are Sitel, Kanal 5, Telma, Alfa TV, and AlsatM.[196] MRT also operates radio stations with national coverage, the private station Skopje's Kanal 77 is the only one to have such a span. Radio Antenna 5 and Metropolis are two other major private stations that have their headquarters in Skopje.[197]

Also, the city boasts big news agencies in the country, both public, such as the Media Information Agency, and private, such as the Makfax.[194]



As the capital and largest city of North Macedonia, Skopje has many major sporting facilities. The city has three large swimming pools, two of which feature Olympic pools. These pools are particularly relevant to coaching water polo teams. Skopje also boasts many football stadiums, like Ilinden in Čair and Železarnica, which can accommodate between 4,000 and 4,500 spectators. The basketball court Kale can accommodate 2,200 people and the court of Jane Sandanski has a 6,000 seat capacity.[198]

The Toše Proeski Arena

The largest stadium remains Toše Proeski Arena. The stadium, built in 1947 and named until 2008, City Stadium Skopje[199] experienced a total renovation, begun in 2009 to meet the standards of FIFA. Fully renovated the stadium contains 33,460 seats,[200] and a health spa and fitness area. The Boris Trajkovski Sports Center is the largest sports complex in the country with 6,250 seats. It was opened in 2008 and named after former president Boris Trajkovski, who died in 2004. It includes rooms dedicated to handball, basketball, and volleyball, a bowling alley, a fitness area, and an ice hockey court. Its main hall, which regularly hosts concerts, holds around 10,000 people.[201]

FK Vardar and FK Rabotnički are the two most popular football teams in the city. Vardar plays in the second division, while Rabotnicki plays in the first division. Their games are held at Toše Proeski Arena, like those of the national team. The city is also home to many smaller football clubs, such as: FK Makedonija Ǵorče Petrov, FK Gorno Lisiče, FK Lokomotiva Skopje, FK Metalurg Skopje, FK Madžari Solidarnost and FK Skopje, who play in first, second or third national league. Another popular sport in North Macedonia is basketball, represented in particular by the teams MZT Skopje and Rabotnički. Handball is illustrated by RK Vardar PRO and RK Metalurg Skopje, also the women's team ŽRK Metalurg and ŽRK Vardar. The city co-hosted the 2008 European Women's Handball Championship together with Ohrid,[202] and hosted the 2017 UEFA Super Cup, the match between the two giants of the European football Real Madrid and Manchester United



Main connections

Skopje bypass

Skopje is near three other capital cities, Prishtina (87 km (54 mi) away), Tirana (291 km) and Sofia (245 km). Thessaloniki is 233 km (145 mi) south and Belgrade is 433 km (269 mi) north.[203] Skopje is also at the crossroad of two Pan-European corridors: Corridor X, which runs between Austria and Greece, and Corridor VIII, which runs from the Adriatic in Albania to the Black Sea in Bulgaria. Corridor X links Skopje to Thessaloniki, Belgrade, and Western Europe, while Corridor VIII links it with Tirana and Sofia.

Corridor X locally corresponds to the M-1 motorway (E75), which is the longest highway in North Macedonia. It also corresponds to the Tabanovce-Gevgelija railway. Corridor VIII, less developed, corresponds to the M-4 motorway and the Kičevo-Beljakovce railway. Skopje is not quite on the Corridor X and the M-1 does not pass on the city territory. Thus the junction between the M-1 and M-4 is some 20 km (12 mi) east, close to the airport. Although Skopje is geographically close to other major cities, movement of people and goods is not optimized, especially with Albania. This is mainly due to poor infrastructure. As a result, 61.8% of Skopjans have never been to Tirana, while only 6.7% have never been to Thessaloniki and 0% to Sofia. Furthermore, 26% of Thessalonians, 33% of Sofians and 37% of Tiranans have never been to Skopje.[203]

The first highways were built during the Yugoslav period, when Skopje was linked through the Brotherhood and Unity Highway to, what was then, the Yugoslav capital Belgrade to the North, and the Greek border to the South.

Rail and coach stations

Main railway station as seen from Mount Vodno

The main railway station in Skopje is serviced by the Belgrade-Thessaloniki and Skopje-Prishtina international lines.[204] After the completion of the Corridor VIII railway project, currently scheduled for 2030, the city will also be linked to Tirana and Sofia.[205][206][207] Daily trains also link Skopje with other towns of North Macedonia, such as Kumanovo, Kičevo, Štip, Bitola or Veles.[204]

Skopje has several minor railway stations but the city does not have its own railway network and they are only serviced by intercity or international lines. On the railway linking the main station to Belgrade and Thessaloniki are Dračevo and Dolno Lisiče stations, and on the railway to Kičevo are Skopje-North, Ǵorče Petrov and Saraj stations. Several other stations are freight-only.[208]

Skopje coach station opened in 2005 and is built right under the main railway station. It can host 450 coaches in a day.[209] Coach connections reach more destinations than train connections, connecting Skopje to many domestic and foreign destinations including Istanbul, Sofia, Prague, Hamburg and Stockholm.[210]

Public transport

A red Yutong City Master double-decker bus in Skopje

Skopje has a bus network managed by the city and operated by three companies. The oldest and largest is JSP Skopje, a public company founded in 1948. JSP lost its monopoly on public transport in 1990 and two new companies, Sloboda Prevoz and Mak Ekspres, obtained several lines. However, most of the network is still in the hands of JSP which operates 67 lines out of 80. Only 24 lines are urban, the others serving localities around the city.[211] Many of the JSP vehicles are red Yutong City Master double-decker buses built by Chinese bus manufacturer Yutong and designed to resemble the classic British AEC Routemaster.[212]

A tram network has long been planned in Skopje and the idea was first proposed in the 1980s. The project became real in 2006 when the mayor Trifun Kostovski asked for feasibility studies. His successor Koce Trajanovski launched a call for tenders in 2010 and the first line is scheduled for 2019.[213]

A new network for small buses started to operate in June 2014, not to replace but to decrease the number of big buses in the city centre.



The airport was built in 1928. The first commercial flights in Skopje were introduced in 1929 when the Yugoslav carrier Aeroput introduced a route linking the city with the capital, Belgrade.[214] A year later the route was extended to Thessaloniki in Greece, and further extended to Greek capital Athens in 1933.[214] In 1935 Aeroput linked Skopje with Bitola and Niš, and also operated a longer international route linking Vienna and Thessaloniki through Zagreb, Belgrade and Skopje.[214] After the Second World War, Aeroput was replaced by JAT Yugoslav Airlines, which linked Skopje to a number of domestic and international destinations until the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s.

Skopje International Airport is in Petrovec, 20 km (12 mi) east of the city. Since 2008, it has been managed by the Turkish TAV Airports Holding and it can accommodate up to four million passengers per year.[215] The annual traffic has constantly risen since 2008, reaching one million passengers in 2014.[216]

Skopje's airport has connections to several European cities, including Athens, Vienna, Bratislava, Zürich, Brussels, Oslo, Istanbul, London and Rome. It also maintains a direct connection with Dubai and Doha, Qatar.



Cultural institutions

Macedonian Opera and Ballet

Skopje is home to the largest cultural institutions of the country, such as the National and University Library "St. Kliment of Ohrid", the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the National Theatre, the National Philharmonic Orchestra and the Macedonian Opera and Ballet. Among the local institutions are the Brothers Miladinov Library which has more than a million documents, the Cultural Information Centre which manages festivals, exhibitions and concerts, and the House of Culture Kočo Racin which is dedicated to contemporary art and young talents.[217]

Skopje has also several foreign cultural centres, such as a Goethe-Institut,[218] a British Council,[219] an Alliance française,[220] an American Corner.[221]

The city has several theatres and concert halls. The Univerzalna Sala, seating 1,570, was built in 1966 and is used for concerts, fashion shows, and congresses. The Metropolis Arena, designed for large concerts, has 3,546 seats. Other large halls include the Macedonian Opera and Ballet (800 seats), the National Theatre (724), and the Drama Theatre (333).[222] Other smaller venues exist, such as the Albanian Theatre and the Youth Theatre. A Turkish Theatre and a Philharmonic hall are under construction.[223][224]


Museum of the Macedonian Struggle

The largest museum in Skopje is the Museum of the Republic of North Macedonia which details the history of the country. Its icons and lapidary collections are particularly rich.[225] The Macedonian Archeological Museum, opened in 2014, keeps some of the best archeological finds in North Macedonia, dating from Prehistory to the Ottoman period. The National Gallery of Macedonia exhibits paintings dating from the 14th to the 20th century in two former hammams of the Old Bazaar. The Contemporary Art Museum was built after the 1963 earthquake thanks to international assistance. Its collections include Macedonian and foreign art, with works by Fernand Léger, André Masson, Pablo Picasso, Hans Hartung, Victor Vasarely, Alexander Calder, Pierre Soulages, Alberto Burri and Christo.[226]

The Skopje City Museum is inside the remains of the old railway station, destroyed by the 1963 earthquake. It is dedicated to local history and it has four departments: archeology, ethnology, history, and art history.[227] The Memorial House of Mother Teresa was built in 2009 on the original site of the church in which the saint had been baptized.[228] The Museum of the Macedonian Struggle is dedicated to the modern national history and the struggle of Macedonians for their independence. Nearby is the Holocaust Memorial Center for the Jews of Macedonia. The Macedonian Museum of Natural History showcases some 4,000 items[229] while the 12-ha Skopje Zoo is home to 300 animals.[230]


Ruins of Roman Scupi

Although Skopje has been destroyed many times throughout its history, it still has many historical landmarks which reflect the successive occupations of the city. Skopje has one of the biggest Ottoman urban complexes in Europe, with many Ottoman monuments still serving their original purpose. It was also a ground for modernist experiments in the 20th century, following the 1963 earthquake. At the beginning of the 21st century, it is again the subject of massive building campaigns, thanks to the "Skopje 2014" project. Skopje is thus an environment where old, new, progressist, reactionary, eastern and western perspectives coexist.[132]

Skopje Aqueduct

Skopje has some remains of Prehistorical architecture which can be seen on the Tumba Madžari Neolithic site.[231] On the other side of the city lie the remains of the ancient Scupi, with ruins of a theatre, thermae and a basilica.[69] The Skopje Aqueduct, between Scupi and the city centre, is rather mysterious because its date of construction is unknown. It seems to have been built by the Byzantines or the Turks, but it was already out of use in the 16th century.[232] It consists of 50 arches, worked in cloisonné masonry.[233]

Church of Saint Panteleimon

Skopje Fortress was rebuilt several times before it was destroyed by the 1963 earthquake. Since then, it has been restored to its medieval appearance. It is the only medieval monument in Skopje, but several churches around the city illustrate the Vardar architectural school which flourished around 1300. Among these churches are the ones around Matka Canyon (St Nicholas, St Andrew and Matka churches). The church of Saint Panteleimon in Gorno Nerezi dates from the 12th century. Its expressive frescoes anticipate the Italian primitives.[234]

Aladža Mosque and its türbe

Examples of Ottoman architecture are in the Old Bazaar. Mosques in Skopje are usually simple in design, with a square base and a single dome and minaret. Their entrance is usually emphasized by a portico, as on Mustafa Pasha Mosque, dating from the 15th century. Some mosques show some originality in their appearance: Sultan Murad and Yahya Pasha mosques have lost their dome and have a pyramidal roof, while Isa Bey mosque has a rectangular base, two domes and two side wings. The Aladža Mosque was originally covered with blue faience, but it disappeared in the 1689 Great Fire. However, some tiles are still visible on the adjoining türbe. Other Ottoman public monuments include the 16th-century clock tower, a bedesten, three caravanserais, two hammams and the Stone Bridge, first mentioned in 1469.[98][235]

The oldest churches in the city centre, the Ascension and St Dimitri churches, were built in the 18th century, after the 1689 Great Fire. They were both renovated in the 19th century. The Church of the Ascension is particularly small it is half-buried in order not to overlook neighbouring mosques.[236] In the 19th century, several new churches were built, including the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, which is a large three-nave building designed by Andrey Damyanov.[237]

Main post office and the Communication Centre

After 1912, when Skopje was annexed by Serbia, the city was drastically westernized. Wealthy Serbs built mansions and town houses such as the 1926 Ristiḱ Palace. The architecture of that time is very similar to the one of Central Europe, but some buildings are more creative, such as the Neo-Moorish Arab House and the Neo-Byzantine train station, both built in 1938.[132] Modernism appeared as early as 1933 with the former Ethnographic Museum (today the City Gallery), designed by Milan Zloković.[132] However, modernist architecture only fully developed in Skopje after the 1963 earthquake. The reconstruction of the city centre was partially planned by Japanese Kenzo Tange who designed the new train station.[132] Macedonian architects also took part in the reconstruction: Georgi Konstantinovski designed the City Archives building in 1968 and the Hall of residence Goce Delčev in 1975, while Janko Konstantinov designed the Telecommunication Centre and the main post office (1974–1989). Slavko Brezovski designed the Church of St. Clement of Ohrid.[238] These two buildings are noted for their originality although they are directly inspired by brutalism.[132]

The reconstruction turned Skopje into a proper modernist city, with large blocks of flats, austere concrete buildings and scattered green spaces. The city centre was considered as a grey and unattractive place when local authorities unveiled the "Skopje 2014" project in 2010.[239][240] It made plans to erect a large number of statues, fountains, bridges, and museums at a cost of about €500 million.[241]

The project has generated controversy: critics have described the new landmark buildings as signs of reactionary historicist aesthetics.[242] Also, the government has been criticized for its cost and the original lack of representation of national minorities in the coverage of its set of statues and memorials.[242] However, representations of minorities have since been included among the monuments. The scheme is accused of turning Skopje to a theme park,[243] which is viewed as nationalistic kitsch,[244] and has made Skopje an example to see how national identities are constructed and how this construction is mirrored in the urban space.[245]



The Skopje Jazz Festival has been held annually in October since 1981. It is part of the European Jazz Network and the European Forum of World Wide Festivals. The artists' profiles include fusion, acid jazz, Latin jazz, smooth jazz, and avant-garde jazz. Ray Charles, Tito Puente, Gotan Project, Al Di Meola, Youssou N'Dour, among others, have performed at the festival. Another music festival in Skopje is the Blues and Soul Festival. It is a relatively new event in the Macedonian cultural scene that occurs every summer in early July.[246] Past guests include Larry Coryell, Mick Taylor & the All-Stars Blues Band, Candy Dulfer & Funky Stuff, João Bosco, the Temptations, Tolo Marton Trio, Blues Wire, and Phil Guy.

The Skopje Cultural Summer Festival is a renowned cultural event that takes place in Skopje each year during the summer. The festival is a member of the International Festivals and Events Association (IFEA) and it includes musical concerts, operas, ballets, plays, art and photograph exhibitions, movies, and multimedia projects that gather 2,000 participants from around the world each year including the St Petersburg Theatre, the Chamber Orchestra of the Bolshoi Theatre, Irina Arkhipova, Viktor Tretiakov, The Theatre of Shadows, Michel Dalberto, and David Burgess.

May Opera Evenings is a festival that has occurred annually in Skopje since 1972 and is dedicated to promoting opera among the general public. Over the years, it has evolved into a stage on which artists from some 50 countries have performed. There is one other major international theatre festival that takes place each year at the end of September, the Young Open Theater Festival (MOT), which was organized for the first time in May 1976 by the Youth Cultural Center – Skopje.[247] More than 700 theatrical performances have been presented at this festival so far, most of them being alternative, experimental theatre groups engaging young writers and actors. The MOT International Theatre Festival is also a member of the International Network for Contemporary Performing Arts or IETM.[248] Within the framework of the MOT Festival, the Macedonian National Center of the International Theater Institute (ITI) was established, and at the 25th ITI World Congress in Munich in 1993, it became a regular member of this theatre association. The festival has an international character, always representing theatres from all over the world that present and enhance the exchange and circulation of young-fresh-experimental-avant-garde theatrical energy and experience between its participants on one side and the audience on the other.

The Skopje Film Festival is an annual event held in the city every March. Over 50 films are shown at this five-day festival, mostly from North Macedonia and Europe, but also including some non-commercial film productions from all over the world.


Panorama of Skopje at night

Skopje has a diverse nightlife. There is a large emphasis on casinos, many of which are associated with hotels. In 2010, the Colosseum club was named fifth on a list of the best clubs in Southeastern Europe. Armin van Buuren, Above and Beyond, The Shapeshifters are just some of the many musicians that have visited the club.[249] Nighttime concerts in local, regional and global music are often held at the Toše Proeski Arena and Boris Trajkovski Sports Center.[250] For middle-aged people, places for having fun are also the kafeanas where traditional Macedonian food is served and traditional Macedonian music (Starogradska muzika) is played, but music from all the Balkans, particularly Serbian folk music is also popular. Apart from the traditional Macedonian restaurants, there are restaurants featuring international cuisines.[250] The Old Bazaar was a popular nightlife destination in the past. The national government has created a project to revive nightlife in the Old Bazaar. The closing time in shops, cafés and restaurants was extended due to the high attendances recorded. In the bazaar's restaurants, along with the traditional Macedonian wine and food, dishes of the Ottoman cuisine are also served.[251]

People from Skopje


International relations

Soravia Center Skopje

Twin towns – sister cities


Skopje is twinned with:[252]



See also



  1. ^ This name was also in use in English for a time.
  2. ^ By Alfons Mucha, 1926
  1. ^ Officially known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes until 1929
  2. ^ See Macedonia naming dispute


  1. ^ Local Elections 2021 – Mayor of Skopje Archived 1 November 2021 at the Wayback Machine. State Election Commission.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Северна Македонија, 2021 - прв сет на податоци, 2021". (in Macedonian). Republic of North Macedonia State Statistical Office. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  3. ^ "Skopjan dictionary definition | skopjan defined". YourDictionary.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Skopje". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  6. ^ "Skopje". Dictionary. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  7. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, p. 747, ISBN 9781405881180
  8. ^ Syme, Ronald; Birley, Anthony (1 January 1999). The Provincial at Rome: And, Rome and the Balkans 80BC-AD14. University of Exeter Press. ISBN 9780859896320 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Mócsy, András (1 January 1974). Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. Routledge & K. Paul. ISBN 9780710077141 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 40.
  11. ^ John B., Bell, Martin, Conflict in the former Yugoslavia: an Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 1998, p. 270, ISBN 0874369355.
  12. ^ Duridanov 1975, pp. 18–19.
  13. ^ Curtis, Matthew Cowan (2012). Slavic-Albanian Language Contact, Convergence, and Coexistence (Thesis). The Ohio State University. p. 45. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 28 January 2023. Again the evidence of an earlier Albanian settlement in Macedonian territories relies on the phonological development of particular locations. In Macedonia the names of Ohrid (Alb Ohër) < Lychnidus, Skopje (Mk Skopje, Sr Skoplje, Alb Shkup) < Skupi, and Štip < Astibos are best explained by the phonological developments of Albanian (Stanišić 1995: 10–11 and references therein).
  14. ^ Demiraj, Shaban (2006). The origin of the Albanians: linguistically investigated. Academy of Sciences of Albania. p. 139. ISBN 9789994381715. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. The place-name Shkup is evidenced as Scupi- in ancient records, as for ex. in Itineraria Romana 1916 (of the III-IV centuries A.D.)77. ln the Balkan Slavic languages this place-name sounds with the initial /Sko-/: Skopie, whereas in Albanian the initial /Shku-/ in Shkup-i is a direct reflection of the ancient /Scu-/, and this excludes a Slavic intermediation. The regular evolution of Scupi > Shkup has also been admitted by Barić ( 1955, p. 49) and Skok78 (before him).
  15. ^ Origins: Serbs, Albanians and Vlachs Chapter 2 in Noel Malcolm's Kosovo, a short history (Macmilan, London, 1998, pp. 22-40) - The evidence is in fact very mixed; some of the Albanian forms (of both urban and rural names) suggest transmission via Slav, but others -including the towns of Shkodra, Drisht, Lezha, Shkup (Skopje) and perhaps Shtip (Stip, south-east of Skopje) - follow the pattern of continuous Albanian development from the Latin. [48] (One common objection to this argument, claiming that 'sc-' in Latin should have turned into 'h-', not 'shk-' in Albanian, rests on a chronological error, and can be disregarded.) [49] There are also some fairly convincing derivations of Slav names for rivers in northern Albania - particularly the Bojana (Alb.: Buena) and the Drim (Alb.: Drin) - which suggest that the Slavs must have acquired their names from the Albanian forms. [50
  16. ^ Herold, Langer & Lechler 2010, p. 29.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "History". City of Skopje. 2009. Archived from the original on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  18. ^ a b c d Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Usküb" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 811. USKÜB, Uscup, or Skopia (anc. Scupi, Turk. Üshküb, Slav. Skoplye), the capital of the vilayet of Kossovo
  19. ^ "The War of Numbers and its First Victim: The Aromanians in Macedonia (End of 19th – Beginning of 20th century)" (PDF).
  20. ^ "Nature of the region of Skopje". Tourist office of Macedonia. 2009. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  21. ^ "Traffic and transport projects". City of Skopje. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  22. ^ a b c d "Figures". City of Skopje. 2009. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  23. ^ a b "Drisla Landfill Feasibility Study, Volume 1 of 2 – Main Findings – Final Report" (PDF). Mott MacDonald Ltd. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  24. ^ a b c d e "The Study on Wastewater Management in Skopje in the Republic of Macedonia". Tokyo Engineering Consultants. 2008. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  25. ^ "Census 2021: North Macedonia with 1 836 713 citizens, out of whom 526 502 live in Skopje". 31 March 2022.
  26. ^ a b "Combined Cycle Co-Generation Power Plant Project, Skopje, Environmental Assessment Report". TE-TO AD SKOPJE. 2006. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  27. ^ Risto Ḱorstošev (2001). "Одмаздата на Серава". Vest. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  28. ^ Jasen (2010). "Lake Kozjak". Government of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  29. ^ "GUP Transport". Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  30. ^ a b c d e Jakim T. Petrovski. "Damaging Effects of July 26, 1963 Skopje Earthquake" (PDF). Meseisforum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  31. ^ "Annual and sesonnal variations of indoor radon concentration in Skopje (Republic of Macedonia), Zdenka Stojanovska, Faculty of Electronic Engeeniring, Nis, Serbia, 2012". Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  32. ^ "Macedonian Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, OHIS Site Remediation Project Conceptual Design, 2010" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2014.
  33. ^ "Matka Canyon".
  34. ^ Baba, A.; Tayfur, G.; Gündüz, O.; Howard, K.W.F.; Friedel, M.J.; Chambel, A: "Climate Change and its Effects on Water Resources: Issues of National and Global Security". NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer. 2011, XVI, 318p. ISBN 978-9400711457.
  35. ^ Klement Bergant: "Climate Change Scenario for Macedonia: Summary Archived 17 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine". University of Nova Gorca, Centre for Atmospheric Research. September 2006.
  36. ^ "Skopje Climate". Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  37. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Skopje". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  38. ^ "Climatological Information for Skopje, Macedonia". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  39. ^ "Градско Зеленило". Паркови и Зеленило. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  40. ^ "National Report on Human Development" (PDF). UNDR. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  41. ^ a b c d Vladimir B. Ladinski. "Post 1963 earthquake reconstruction: Long term effects" (PDF). Biblioteca Virtual en Salud y Desastres Guatemala.[dead link]
  42. ^ a b c d e Robert Homes. "Rebuilding Skopje" (PDF). Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge and Chelmsford. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  43. ^ Zoran Milutinovic (2007). "Urbanistic aspects of post earthquake reconstruction and renewal – experiences of Skopje following earthquake of July 26, 1963" (PDF). International Earthquake Symposium Kocaeli 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  44. ^ Launey, Guy De (30 August 2014). "The makeover that's divided a nation". BBC News. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  45. ^ "Philip of Macedon Statute 'Planned' for Skopje Downtown". BalkanInsight. 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  46. ^ "Skopje: Controversy Over Albanian Monuments Continues". BalkanInsight. 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  47. ^ "Поставен камен-темелник на плоштадот Скендер-бег во Скопје". Dnevnik. 17 January 2012. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012.
  48. ^ a b c d e f "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2002, Book XIII:Total population, households and dwellings, According to the territorial organization of The Republic of Macedonia, 2004, 2002" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  49. ^ a b Ilká Thiessen (2007). Waiting for Macedonia: Identity in a Changing World. University of Toronto Press. p. 57. ISBN 9781551117195.
  50. ^ a b c d Jasna Stefanovska. "Revisiting Topaana: touring a neighborhood where the other 1% lives" (PDF). Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  51. ^ a b "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. 2002. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g "Investment Potentials of Skopje Region" (PDF). Skopje Region. 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.[dead link]
  53. ^ a b Lee and Mickute, Joi and Viktorija (19 March 2019). "Inside Skopje, Europe's most polluted capital city". Al Jazeera.
  54. ^ Smith, Oliver (5 November 2019). "Delhi the most polluted city in the world". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  55. ^ ITU (5 June 2019). "How Skopje is using innovative tech to clean up air pollution". ITU News. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  56. ^ "Centar, Skopje, Macedonia Air Pollution: Real time Air Quality Index (AQI)". AQICN. 2 December 2019.
  57. ^ Arsovski, Slobodan; Kwiatkowski, Michał; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Peshevska, Dimitrinka Jordanova; Sofeska, Emilija; Dymitrow, Mirek (1 June 2018). "Can urban environmental problems be overcome? The case of Skopje–world's most polluted city". Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series. 40 (40): 17–39. doi:10.2478/bog-2018-0012.
  58. ^ "City Tree billboard installed in downtown Skopje". Zaman Macedonia. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2023.[permanent dead link]
  59. ^ a b "Skopje Smog Alarm asks for 1% of the GDP of 2018 for the protection of the environment". META Mk. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 2 November 2023.
  60. ^ J., D. (7 February 2017). "Beijing is nothing compared to Skopje – Air pollution is too high, four men die each day". Telegraf.
  61. ^ "Prehistoric Kale". Archaeological exavations Skopsko Kale. 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  62. ^ "Kale in the antiquity". Archaeological exavations Skopsko Kale. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  63. ^ a b c Ronald Syme (2000). Provincial at Rome: and Rome and the Balkans 80BC-AD14. Anthony Birley, University of Exeter Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780859896320.
  64. ^ Duridanov 1975, p. 17.
  65. ^ "Vladimir P. Petrović, Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania Historical and Geographical Considerations, Balcanica XXXVII, p 10" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2011.
  66. ^ Todorovska, Marina Ončevska (2011). "The Status of Venus from Skupi" (PDF). Folia Archaeologica Balkanica. II: 355.
  67. ^ Bury, John Bagnell; Cook, Stanley Arthur; Adcock, Frank Ezra (1 January 1996). The Cambridge Ancient History: The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69, 2nd ed., 1996. University Press. ISBN 9780521264303 – via Google Books.
  68. ^ Wilkes, John (9 January 1996). The Illyrians. Wiley. ISBN 9780631198079 – via Google Books.
  69. ^ a b c d Matthew Brunwasser (2012). "Burial Customs, Death on the Roman Empire's eastern frontier". Archaeological Institute of America. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  70. ^ Papazoglu 1978, p. 242.
  71. ^ András Mócsy (1974). Pannonia and Upper Moesia. Vol. 4. Routledge. p. 117. ISBN 9780710077141.
  72. ^ Dragojević-Josifovska 1982 Archived 11 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine, p. 32
  73. ^ Mimoza Petrevska Georgieva. "Жителите на Скупи уживале во спа-центри". Nova Makedonija. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  74. ^ Vesna Ivanovsa (30 July 2008). "Откриена ранохристијанска базилика во Скупи". Dnevnik. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  75. ^ "49 Years after the Disastrous Skopje Earthquake". Kurir. 2012. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  76. ^ Arthur Evans (2007). Ancient Illyria: An Archaeological Exploration. I.B.Tauris. p. 234. ISBN 9781845111670.
  77. ^ András Mócsy (1974). Pannonia and Upper Moesia. Routledge. p. 356. ISBN 9780710077141.
  78. ^ Arthur Evans (2007). Ancient Illyria: An Archaeological Exploration. I.B.Tauris. p. 241. ISBN 9781845111670.
  79. ^ Andrew Rossos (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History. Hoover Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8179-4882-5.
  80. ^ Ivan Mikulčiḱ, Medieval towns and castles in the Republic of Macedonia, Book 5 of Makroproekt "Istorija na kulturata na Makedonija", Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1996, p. 27.
  81. ^ J. B. Bury (2008). History of the Eastern Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil: A.D. 802–867. London Macmillan. pp. 371–372. ISBN 978-1-60520-421-5.
  82. ^ Steven Runciman (1930). History of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: LG. Bell & Sons. p. 87. Archived from the original on 9 July 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  83. ^ a b "Medieval Kale". Archaeological exavations Skopsko Kale. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  84. ^ (Skylitzes-Cedr. II, 455, 13)
  85. ^ Byzantine Military Organization on the Danube, 10th–12th Centuries, Alexandru Madgearu, BRILL, 2013, ISBN 9004252495
  86. ^ R. J. Crampton (2005). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780521616379.
  87. ^ Andrew Rossos (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History. Hoover Press. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-0-8179-4882-5.
  88. ^ Serge Jodra (2006). "Bohémond (Marc)". Imago Mundi. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  89. ^ Judith Herrin; Guillaume Saint-Guillain, eds. (2011). Identities and Allegiances in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204. Ashgate Publishing. p. 102. ISBN 9781409410980.
  90. ^ a b John Van Antwerp Fine (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. pp. 175–184. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.
  91. ^ Florin Curta (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge University Press. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-521-81539-0.
  92. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.
  93. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.
  94. ^ Valentina Georgieva & Sasha Konechni (1998). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia. Scarecrow Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0810833364.
  95. ^ Sima M. Ćirković; Vuk Tošić (2004). The Serbs. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 79. ISBN 978-0631204718.
  96. ^ Iseni, Bashkim (25 January 2008). La question nationale en Europe du Sud-Est : genèse, émergence et développement de l'indentité nationale albanaise au Kosovo et en Macédoine. Bern: P. Lang. p. 77. ISBN 978-3039113200.
  97. ^ Popovski, Jovan (1969). Macedonia. Turistička štampa. p. 66.
  98. ^ a b Zoran Pavlov M.A. & Radmila Petkova (2008). "Macedonian Cultural Heritage – Ottoman Monuments" (PDF). Unesco Venice. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  99. ^ Rexha, Iljaz (2011). "Vendbanimet dhe popullsia albane gjatë mesjetës në hapësirën e Maqedonisë së sotme: Sipas burimeve sllave dhe osmane". Gjurmime Albanologjike: Seria e Shkencave Historike (41–42): 167–218Në defterin kadastral të vitit 1451-52 për Rumelinë, në Shkup ishte regjistruar lagjeja Gjin-ko –(Gjinaj), me emrin e familjes fisnike mesjetare albane, ku në dokumente sllave të shek.XIV, por edhe në defterët osmanë të shek.XV-XIV, permenden 5 vendbanime me emrin Gjinofc në rrthinat e Shtipt, të Kriva Pallankes, të Gostivarit, Tetovës dhe të Dibres si dhe 2 tjera me emrin Gjinofc janë regjitruar në hapësirën në mes Radomirit dhe të Qystendilit në Bullgari, vendbanime këto qe në mesjetë i themeluan vëllezritë e Gjinajve. Në lagjen e sipërpërmendur Gjinko, në radhë të parë ishte regjistruar kryefamiljari Gjin-ko, me profesion (këpuctarë), dhe Todori, i vëllai i tij (Gjinit), siç shihet themelues i kësaj lagje, ndersa më vonë, në këtë lagjë, në vitin 1467 ishte regjistruar djali i tij Marko, i biri i Gjinit, pastaj në mesin e banorëve të tjerë, ishin regjistruar edhe banorë me antroponimi simbiotike krishtere tradicionale arbane: Milesh-a, bostanxhi, Dimitri, i biri i Prençes, Dragati, i biri i Male-s (Malja), Nikolla, i biri i Naneçit (Nano), Jovan i vëllai i tij, Jako i biri i Dodanit (Doda), Stepan, i biri i Andreas, Paliq (Pali) i biri i Stepanit, Nikolla i biri i Drralla, Roza, e vejë.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  100. ^ Rexha, Iljaz (2011). "Vendbanimet dhe popullsia albane gjatë mesjetës në hapësirën e Maqedonisë së sotme: Sipas burimeve sllave dhe osmane". Gjurmime Albanologjike: Seria e Shkencave Historike (41–42): 167–218Si dëshmi tjetër për praninë e albanëve në territorrin e Maqedonisë së sotme ishin edhe spahinjtë vendas, me prejardhje albane e jo të ardhur nga Arbanoni politik mesjetar, që më parë kishin kaluar në fenë islame dhe ishin inkuadruar në sistemin e timarit të spahinjve osmanë. Sipas defterëve të shek. XV (1451/53 dhe 1467/68) ata i kishin timaret e veta në territorin e Maqedonisë dhe të Kosovës, kësaj radhe po i përmendim vetëm disa prej tyre: Hamza Arnauti,59 nga mëhalla Mentesheli e Shku-pit e kishte timarin e vet në fshatin Gumaleva. Hamza Arnauti, (tjetër) nga vendbanimi Niçevo (Nokova) e Shkupit kishte timarin e tij në fshatin Pa-garusha. Jusuf Arnauti, nga fshati Topçe Is’akli afër Draçevës së Shkupit. Shahin Arnauti59/a dizdar i kalasë së Shkupit i kishte timarin në tri fshatra të Shkupit... pranë individit me etno-nimin Arbanas ose Arnaut, apelativi sllav: doshlac prishlac, uselica, emigrant, që do thotë se kryefamiljarët shqiptarëme këtë etnonim si:Petro Arbanas, Dimitri Arbanas, Nikolla Arbanas, Bogdan Arbanas, Bogoslav Arbanas, Milosh Arbanas, Bozhidar Arnaut, Gjuro Arba-nas, Mihajl Arbanas, Todor Arnaut, AndrejaArnaut, Lzar Arnaut apo Jusuf Arnaut, ose Hamza Arnavut etj., nuk janë shënuar me cilë-sorin sllav doselic ose prishlec, çka dëshmon se ata ishin vendës në vendbanimet e tyre{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  101. ^ a b Rexha, Iljaz (2011). "Vendbanimet dhe popullsia albane gjatë mesjetës në hapësirën e Maqedonisë së sotme: Sipas burimeve sllave dhe osmane". Gjurmime Albanologjike: Seria e Shkencave Historike (41–42): 167–218.
  102. ^ Rexha, Iljaz (2011). "Vendbanimet dhe popullsia albane gjatë mesjetës në hapësirën e Maqedonisë së sotme: Sipas burimeve sllave dhe osmane". Gjurmime Albanologjike: Seria e Shkencave Historike (41–42): 167–218Në lagjenAhrijan Hasantë Shkupit të vitit 1451/53 ishte re-gjistruar në mesin e kryefamiljarëve myslimanë edhe kryefamiljari me partonimin e familjes fisnike albane Muzak, që kishte kaluar në islam, duke mos e përmendur emrin e tij të mëhershëm të krishterë dhe pa e theksuar pozitën shoqërore apo profesionin e tij.77 Në defterin tjetër të vitit 1467/68, tani në lagjen e krishterë me emrin Svetko Samarxhi tëShkupit, në mesin e 29 kryefamiljarëve me antroponimi krishtere sllave janë regjistruar: Nikolla, i biri Muzak-es, Todor, i biri Shendre-es (Shen Andre-it), Gjuro, i biri Marin-it, Jovan, i biri Suteç-it ( Suta). Nga këto të dhëna të këtyre dy defterëve shihet qartë, se këta dy kryefamiljarë me mbiemrin Muzaka, njëri i krishterë e tjetri mysliman ishin farefis dhe banorë të vjetër të Shkupit, ngase të parët e familjeve të tyre që nga mesjeta e hershme banonin në hapësirat e rajoneve të Nishit, Kosovës dhe të Maqedonisë sotme, pra para depërtimit osman në Ballkan{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  103. ^ Rexha, Iljaz (2011). "Vendbanimet dhe popullsia albane gjatë mesjetës në hapësirën e Maqedonisë së sotme: Sipas burimeve sllave dhe osmane". Gjurmime Albanologjike: Seria e Shkencave Historike (41–42): 167–218Në vijim po japim edhe disa të dhëna për spahinjtë e krishterë me prejardhje albane, që i kishin timaret e veta së bashku me individë të tjerë, në simbiozë me antroponimi sllave në rrethinën e Shkupit, ku shihet se edhe këta ishin vendas, meqë në defterë, posaçërisht theksohet se këta individë ishin spahinj të vjetër, çka kuptohet se edhe para viteve 1467-68, në regjistrimet e mëhershme, që nuk janë ruajtur, i kanë pasur timaret e tyre. Timari i Mirashit të birit të Todorit, i Dobroslavit, i të birit të Jaroslavit, i Kojçinit i të birit të Gjonit ,..... (dhe 4 individë të tjerë ). Timari i Gjurës i biri i Todorit, Petko i vëllai i Ibrahimit, Gjoni i vëlla i Petkos (Ibrahimit), Gjura i biri i Petko ( Ibrahimit ) dhe Lazori i biri Petko ( Ibrahimit ).Timari Hamzajt i vëlla i Ibrahimit, Gjoni i vëlla i Hamzait të vëllait të Ibrahimit, Nikolla i vëlla i tij Gjonit, Pavli i biri i Mihos, Pejo i biri i Pavlit, Petko i biri i Gjonit i vëllai i Hamzait të vëllait të Ibrahimit...Kemi edhe shumë spahinj tjerë me prejardhje albane si: Ali dhe Hamza Kërçovali, nga Kër-çova, Shimerd Vardarli i Shkupit, Mahmud Manastirli, Ali Arnauti etj. shihet qartazi se këta posedues të timareve ishin nga trojet e sotme të Maqedonisë e jo të ardhur nga Shqipëria e Qendrore e sotme.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  104. ^ a b c d e f Mehmet İnbaşi. "The City of Skopje and its Demographic Structure in the 19th Century" (PDF). International Balkan University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2020.
  105. ^ "Mustafa Pasha Mosque". HAEMUS : Center for scientific research and promotion of culture. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  106. ^ "Skopje [Lat. Skupi; formerly Turk. Uskup]". Skopje. Grove Art Online. 2003. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T079129.
  107. ^ Гергова, Яна (2015). Култът към светци безсребърници в България: образи, вярвания и ритуални практики. София: ИК „Гутенберг“. p. 100. ISBN 978-619-176-046-6.
  108. ^ Popullsia Shqiptare e Kosoves Gjate Shekujve p. 488-489
  109. ^ Dokumente për historinë e Shqipërisë (1623-1653) - Documenti per la storia dell'Albania (1623-1653). Injac Zamputti. Parafjala Albert Ramaj
  110. ^ Popullsia Shqiptare e Kosoves Gjate Shekujve p. 489
  111. ^ Rebels, Believers, Survivors: Studies in the History of the Albanians "Some elements of a conversionist approach can also be found in the text of the Cuneus prophetarum. At one point, for example, Bogdani declares: ‘It is better to be a Christian, the son of a Muslim, than to be a Muslim, the son of a Christian:”” (As always in Christian writings of this period, the word “Turk here is used to mean ‘Muslim:) " p. 116
  112. ^ John R. Lampe (2000). Yugoslavia as History: Twice there was a Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780521774017.
  113. ^ "Kale in the Turkish period". Archaeological exavations Skopsko Kale. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  114. ^ Ognen Čančareviḱ et Goce Trpkovski. "Денот што го турна Скопје во двовековен мрак". Nova Makedonija. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  115. ^ a b Mark Avrum Ehrlich (2009). Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 980. ISBN 978-1851098736.
  116. ^ Judah (2009). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7.
  117. ^ Andrew Rossos (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History. Hoover Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8179-4882-5.
  118. ^ Andrew Rossos (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History. Hoover Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8179-4882-5.
  119. ^ a b Andrew Rossos (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History. Hoover Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8179-4882-5.
  120. ^ Hildo Bos; Jim Forest, eds. (1999). For the Peace from Above: an Orthodox Resource Book on War, Peace and Nationalism. Syndesmos. pp. 52–53.
  121. ^ Църква и църковен живот в Македония, Петър Петров, Христо Темелски, Македонски Научен Институт, София, 2003 г., стр. 105.
  122. ^ Vasil Kanchov (1900). Macedonia: Ethnography and Statistics. Sofia. p. 252.
  123. ^ Salajdin SALIHI. "DISA SHËNIME PËR SHQIPTARËT ORTODOKSË TË REKËS SË EPËRME". FILOLOGJIA - International Journal of Human Sciences 19:85-90.
  124. ^ Hart, Laurie Kain (February 1999), "Culture, Civilization, and Demarcation at the Northwest Borders of Greece", American Ethnologist, 26 (1): 214, doi:10.1525/ae.1999.26.1.196, JSTOR 647505 "Aarbakke notes that Weigand says of Skopje that the "Turks" are mostly Albanians who speak Turkish in public and Albanian at home, "but should be regarded as Osmanli" (Aarbakke 1992:10)."
  125. ^ Karloukovski, Vassil (1968). Илинденско-Преображенското въстание 1903–1968 – 6 (in Bulgarian). Издателство на Националния съвет на Отечествения фронт.
  126. ^ Hugh Poulton (2000). Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers Ltd. p. 109. ISBN 978-1850655343.
  127. ^ Michailidis, Iakovos D. (2018). "Cleansing the Nation: War related Demographic Changes in Macedonia". In Boeckh, Katrin; Rutar, Sabine (eds.). The Wars of Yesterday: The Balkan Wars and the Emergence of Modern Military Conflict, 1912–13. Berghahn Books. p. 330. ISBN 9781785337758.
  128. ^ "L'Armée d'Orient et la Macédoine" (PDF). Basse-Normandie Macédoine, la coopération au service de la gouvernance locale. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  129. ^ Rossos, Andrew (2008) Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History Hoover Institution Press, Stanford, California, page 135, ISBN 978-0-8179-4881-8
  130. ^ Özdoğan, Günay Göksu; Saybaşılı, Kemâli (1 January 1995). Balkans: A Mirror of the New International Order. EREN Yayıncılık ve Kitap, cılık. ISBN 9789757622369 – via Google Books.
  131. ^ Dawisha, Karen; Parrott, Bruce (13 June 1997). Politics, Power and the Struggle for Democracy in South-East Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521597333 – via Google Books.
  132. ^ a b c d e f "eahn Newsletter, number 4/10" (PDF). European Architectural History Network. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2014.
  133. ^ Ivan Tomovski (1978). Skopje between the past and the future. Macedonian Review Editions. p. 17.
  134. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 139.
  135. ^ R. J. Crampton (2005). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780521616379.
  136. ^ Yale Strom (1992). The Expulsion of the Jews: Five Hundred Years of Exodus. SP Books. p. 17. ISBN 9781561710812.
  137. ^ "Stone & Stone: War Diary for 13 November 1944".
  138. ^ Зафиров, Димитър (1 January 2007). История на българите. TRUD Publishers. ISBN 9789545287527 – via Google Books.
  139. ^ Biddiscombe, Alexander Perry (1 January 2006). The SS Hunter Battalions: The Hidden History of the Nazi Resistance Movement 1944–45. Tempus. ISBN 9780752439389 – via Google Books.
  140. ^ Daskalov, Georgi (1 January 1989). "Bŭlgaro-I͡U︡goslavski politicheski otnoshenii͡a︡, 1944–1945". Universitetsko izd-vo "Kliment Okhridski" – via Google Books.
  141. ^ Sidney F. Borg (1988). Earthquake Engineering: Mechanism, Damage Assessment and Structural Design. World Scientific. p. 77. ISBN 9789971504359.
  142. ^ a b c Ragaru 2008, p. 535.
  143. ^ Georges Castellan (2003). La Macédoine : un pays inconnu. Ed. Armeline. p. 17. ISBN 978-2910878245.
  144. ^ a b Neofotistos, Vasiliki P. (2010). "Postsocialism, Social Value, and Identity Politics among Albanians in Macedonia". Slavic Review. 69 (4): 893. doi:10.1017/S003767790000989X. JSTOR 27896141. S2CID 165104213.
  145. ^ Thiessen, Ilka (2002). "'Leb I Sol'(Bread And Salt): The Meanings of Work in the Changing Society of Macedonia" (PDF). Anthropology of Work Review. 23 (1–2): 10. doi:10.1525/awr.2002.23.1-2.8.
  146. ^ Brown, Keith S. (2001). "Beyond ethnicity: The politics of urban nostalgia in modern Macedonia". Journal of Mediterranean Studies. 11 (2): 417–442.
  147. ^ Град Скопје. "City symbols". Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  148. ^ "City of Skopje". Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  149. ^ a b c Aleksandra Maksimovska Veljanovski (2008). "The City of Skopje, Case Study in the Project Financing Metropolitan Cities in Transitional Countries". Open Society Institute, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative, Budapest. Retrieved 13 October 2012.[permanent dead link]
  150. ^ a b c "Совет на Град Скопје, Мандат 2013–2017". City of Skopje. 2013. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  151. ^ Trajko Slaveski
  152. ^ MTM.MK - First constitutive session of the City Council Archived 2013-07-03 at
  153. ^ "Competencies of the mayor". City of Skopje. 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  154. ^ "Administration". Centar Municipality. Archived from the original on 7 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  155. ^ "Gross domestic product and gross fixed capital formation, by regions, 2009" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  156. ^ "Gross domestic product and gross fixed capital formation, by regions" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  157. ^ "Bulgaria – Regional Differences". LM Legal Services. 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  158. ^ "Resouyrce data" (PDF). 21 May 2010.
  159. ^ Siemen Van Berkum et Natalija Bogdanov (2012). Serbia on the Road to Eu Accession: Consequences for Agricultural Policy and the Agri-Food Chain. CABI. p. 40. ISBN 9781780641454.
  160. ^ "Albanian economy concentrated in Tirana". Top Channel. 2011. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  161. ^ William Bartlett; Hristina Cipusheva; Marjan Nikolov; Miroljub Shukarov (2010). "The Quality of Life and Regional Development in FYR Macedonia". Hrčak, Portal znanstvenih časopisa Republike Hrvatske. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  162. ^ "Firms by size and municipality". State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2011.[dead link]
  163. ^ "Firms by activity sector". State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 4 March 2011.[dead link]
  164. ^ "За Гаѕи Баба". Gazi Baba municipality. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  165. ^ "TIDZ Skopje 1". Directorate for Technological Industrial Development Zones. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  166. ^ "Macedonian shoppers set for retail revolution with EBRD support". The Financial. 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  167. ^ William Bartlett; Hristina Cipusheva; Marjan Nikolov; Miroljub Shukarov (2010). The Quality of Life and Regional Development in FYR Macedonia. Croatian Economic Survey. pp. 121–162.
  168. ^ "Скопска просечна бруто плата 593 евра, 20 отсто над државниот просек". 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  169. ^ "MJESEČNI STATISTIČKI PREGLED FEDERACIJE BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE PO KANTONIMA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  170. ^ "Sofia in figures – 2010". Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  171. ^ "Plata 353 evra, u Beogradu 440 evra". B92. 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  172. ^ a b Jasna Stefanovska et Janez Koželj (2012). Urban planning and transitional development issues: The case of Skopje, Macedonia. Urbani izziv. p. 94.
  173. ^ "Попис на населението, домаќинствата и становите во Република Северна Македонија, 2021 - прв сет на податоци" (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  174. ^ "Improving Energy Sufficiency in Skopje, TRACE Study" (PDF). World Bank. 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  175. ^ "Estimations of the Population by Sex and Age, by Municipalities and by Statistical Regions, 30.06. 2011 and 31.12. 2011, 2011" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  176. ^ Ragaru 2008, p. 536.
  177. ^ a b Ragaru 2008, pp. 536–537.
  178. ^ Ragaru, Nadege (2008). "The Political Uses and Social Lives of "National Heroes": Controversies over Skanderbeg's Statue in Skopje". Südosteuropa. 56 (4): 535–537. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  179. ^ Svetomir Skaric. "Ohrid Agreement and Minority Communities in Macedonia" (PDF). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung in Macedonia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  180. ^ Marjola Rukaj (12 January 2011). "Skopje, the čaršija of the Albanians". Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  181. ^ Stefoska, Irena; Stojanov, Darko (2017). "A tale in stone and bronze: old/new strategies for political mobilization in the Republic of Macedonia" (PDF). Nationalities Papers. 45 (3): 363. doi:10.1080/00905992.2017.1308346. S2CID 157988163.
  182. ^ Hugh Poulton (2000). Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers Ltd. p. 130. ISBN 978-1850655343.
  183. ^ "Census" (PDF). State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia. 2002. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  184. ^ "Jewish Community in Macedonia". European Jewish Fund. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  185. ^ Sanja Jancevska (26 September 2012). "Во Скопје има 27 џамии и 15 цркви". Nova Makedonija. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  186. ^ "Address Book of the Religious Communities" (PDF). Macedonian Centre for International Cooperation. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  187. ^ "Здрабјето и здравствената заштита на населенето во Република Македонија" (PDF). Public Health Institute of the Republic of Macedonia. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  188. ^ a b "Health Map of the Republic of Macedonia, Part I" (PDF). Public Health Institute of the Republic of Macedonia. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  189. ^ "Strategy for Local Economic Development of the City of Skopje for the period 2006 – 2009" (PDF). City of Skopje. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
  190. ^ "Средни училишта". City of Skopje. 2009. Archived from the original on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  191. ^ "Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje". Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje. 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  192. ^ "Faculties". European University. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  193. ^ "FON University". FON University. 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  194. ^ a b Christopher D. Karadjov. "Macedonia Press, Media, TV, Radios, Newspapers". Press Reference. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  195. ^ "Macedonia Newspapers and Magazines Online". World Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  196. ^ "Macedonia Newspapers and News Media Guide". ABYZ News Links. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  197. ^ "Macedonia country profile". BBC News. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  198. ^ "Stadiums in the FYR Macedonia". World Stadiums. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  199. ^ "Избрани имиња на спортските објекти". Večer. 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  200. ^ "Ексклузивно: Надворешниот изглед на "Филип Втори"". Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
  201. ^ "Boris Trajkovski Sports Hall". European Handball Federation. 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  202. ^ "Women's Euro 2008". European Handball Federation. 2008. Archived from the original on 17 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  203. ^ a b "Comparative Swot Analysis of the Four Metropolitan Regions, Transportation, Interaction, Relations and Networks among Skopje, Sofia, Tirana, and Thessaloniki" (PDF). University of Thessaly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  204. ^ a b "Возен ред 2011–2012" (PDF). Makedonski Železnici. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  205. ^ "Проекти предвидени за реализација во 2012 г". Makedonski Železnici. 2012. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  206. ^ "Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski kicks off reconstruction work on railway Corridor 8". Western Balkans Investment Framework. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  207. ^ Petrushevska, Dragana (20 October 2021). "Bulgaria, Albania, N. Macedonia pledge to finish Corridor VIII by 2030". SeeNews. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  208. ^ "Macedonian Rails – a potential that must be seized" (PDF). Bankwatch. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  209. ^ "SAS историјат". Skopje Bus Station. 2012. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  210. ^ "Возен ред". Skopje Bus Station. 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  211. ^ "City Implementation report" (PDF). Transpower. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  212. ^ Sinisa Jakov Marusic (2011). "Skopje prepares for Double-Decker Buses". BalkanInsight. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  213. ^ Sinisa Jakov Marusic (2012). "Macedonia Capital Readies for Long-Awaited Trams". BalkanInsight. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  214. ^ a b c Drustvo za Vazdusni Saobracaj A D – Aeroput (1927–1948) Archived 23 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine at
  215. ^ "TAV Airports puts the New Skopje Airport into service". TAV Airports. 2011. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  216. ^ "FYR Macedonian airports anticipate busy 2015". Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  217. ^ "Културни институции". City of Skopje. 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  218. ^ "Goethe Institut Skopje". Goethe Institut. 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  219. ^ "Locations". British Council. Archived from the original on 26 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  220. ^ "États généraux d'Europe". Alliance française. 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2011.[dead link]
  221. ^ "American Corner Skopje". Embassy of the United States in Macedonia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  222. ^ "Саеми". SEEbiz. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  223. ^ Vesna Damcevska (2012). "Македонската филхармонија конечно доби сала, ама сувенир!". Nova Makedonija. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  224. ^ Vesna Damcevska (2011). "Новиот турски театар во август, на спорно земјиште". Nova Makedonija. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  225. ^ "Introduction". Museum of Macedonia. Archived from the original on 29 January 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  226. ^ "Home". Contemporary Art Museum of Macedonia. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  227. ^ "Skopje City Museum". Travel 2 Macedonia. Archived from the original on 26 January 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  228. ^ "Introduction". Memorial House of Mother Teresa. 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.[dead link]
  229. ^ "Macedonian Museum of Natural History". The Second International Congress on "Biodiversity, Ecological Aspects and Conservation of the Balkan Fauna". 1998. Archived from the original on 9 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  230. ^ "Skopje Zoo". Skopje Zoo. 2009. Archived from the original on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  231. ^ "Neolithic Settlement Tumba Madzhari in Skopje". Tumba Madžari. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  232. ^ Philippe Canaye; sieur de Fresne (1897). Le voyage du Levant. Slatkine. pp. 33–34. ISBN 9782051001632.
  233. ^ Thérese Steenberghen (2011). "Strategic Plan for the Preservation and Rehabilitation of the Skopje Aqueduct and Environment" (PDF). Skopje Aqueduct. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  234. ^ Horst Woldemar Janson & Anthony F. Janson (2004). History of art: the Western tradition. Prentice Hall Professional. p. 263. ISBN 9780131828957.
  235. ^ "Monuments". OldSkopje. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  236. ^ "Црква Св. Спас". Old Skopje. 2007. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  237. ^ "Renaissance Architect Andreja Damjanov- New Ray of Light on a Valuable Work". Utrinski Vesnik. 2001. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  238. ^ "Macedonian Cities – Skopje Churches".
  239. ^ PM Gruevski: Yes, Skopje 2014 was my Idea Archived 11 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Macedonian International News Agency, Saturday, 7 January 2012
  240. ^ Skopje 2014: The new face of Macedonia Archived 13 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine, BalkanInsight
  241. ^ Macedonian Arch May Be Wedding Scene Archived 25 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine, BalkanInsight
  242. ^ a b Balkan Insight (24 June 2010). "Critics Lash 'Dated' Aesthetics of Skopje 2014". Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  243. ^ Is Macedonia's capital being turned into a theme park? Archived 18 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine CNN International, 10 October 2011
  244. ^ Macedonia statue: Alexander the Great or a warrior on a horse? Archived 3 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian, 14 August 2011
  245. ^ Herold, Langer & Lechler 2010, p. 43.
  246. ^ Barikada – World of Music – Svastara – 2007. "Barikada – World of Music". Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  247. ^ "41. MOT – international theatre festival".
  248. ^ "IETM". Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  249. ^ Nova Makedonija Online. ""Колосеум" меѓу најдобрите пет клуба во Југоисточна Европа". Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  250. ^ a b Trip Advisor. "Skopje: Nightlife". Retrieved 2 May 2011. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  251. ^ Vest Online. "Нов живот на старата скопска чаршија". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  252. ^ "Збратимени градови". (in Macedonian). Skopje. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  253. ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara". Ankara. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  254. ^ "Belgrade has five twin cities in the world". Belgrade. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2020.

General sources


Further reading

  • Ilká Thiessen (2007). Waiting for Macedonia: Identity in a Changing World. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781551117195.
  • Ivan Tomovski (1978). Skopje between the past and the future. Macedonian Review Editions.
  • Jovan Šćekić (1963). This Was Skopje. Yugoslav Federal Secretariat for Information.
  • M. Tokarev (2006). 100 години модерна архитектура. Pridonesot na Makedonija i Jugoslavija.
  • Danilo Kocevski (2008). Чај од јужните мориња. Маgor. ISBN 9789989183447.
  • D. Gjorgiev (1997). Скопје од турското освојување до крајот на XVIII vek. Institut za nacionalna istorija.
  • L. Kumbaracı-Bogoyeviç (2008). Üsküp'te osmanlı mimarî eserleri. ENKA.