National Radio Television (North Macedonia)
National Radio-Television[a] (Macedonian: Национална Радиотелевизија, transliteration: Nacionalna Radiotelevizija) (or NRT) is the public broadcasting organisation of North Macedonia. It was founded in 1993 by the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. Its legally defined service is the production and broadcasting of radio and television programmes of all genres, which should satisfy the public information, cultural, educational and recreational needs of the people of North Macedonia.
|Type||Broadcast national television network|
|Availability||National; international (via MRT Sat)|
|Founded||28 December 1944 |
by Government of SR Macedonia
|Slogan||Ова е Македонска Радио Телевизија (This is Macedonian Radio Television)|
|28 December 1944|
|Federal Broadcasting (JRT) |
NRT is directed by Petar Karanakov. An industry outsider, Karanakov was selected for his independent politics and strong reputation for integrity and management. Karanakov supervises 1,200 NRT staffers.
National Television broadcasts 73 hours of programmes daily on its three national terrestrial and two international satellite channels.
- MRT 1 broadcasts a continuous 24-hour programme.
- MRT 2 broadcasts programmes for the Albanian minority in North Macedonia.
- MRT 3 broadcasts sports and entertainment 24-hour programme.
- MRT 4 broadcasts programmes for the national minority in North Macedonia. Turkish, Serbian, Romany, Vlach and Bosnian.
- MRT 5 broadcasts specialized program for children 24-hour programme.
- MRT Sobraniski Kanal was formed in 1991 as an experimental channel, but now it broadcasts the activities from the Assembly of the Republic of North Macedonia.
- MRT Sat started in 2000 and broadcasts a continuous 24-hour programme, which are a selection of programmes from NRT, as well as its original programme of 5 hours. The station also broadcasts to Australia & New Zealand through the Optus D2 Satellite via UBI World TV.
- MRT 2 Sat was introduced in 2012 and broadcasts a continuous 24-hour programme in Albanian language.
The framework of the National Radio consists of three national channels, a satellite channel and a non-profit regional channel. It broadcasts 86.5 hours of programmes daily on its national and satellite channels.
The First channel, Radio Skopje, broadcasts a continuous 24-hour programme. It mainly functions as a talk radio.
The Second channel, Radio 2, broadcasts a continuous 24-hour programme, too. It is focused on popular music and entertainment.
The Third channel of Radio Skopje, broadcasts programmes in all the languages of the national minorities in North Macedonia, including Albanian (since 1948); Turkish (since 1945) 5 hours; Vlach (since 1991); Romany (since 1991); Serbian (since 2003) and Bosnian (since 2003) all 30 minutes each per day.
The satellite channel, Radio Macedonia, commenced in July 2003, and broadcasts a 24-hour continual programme, which is a selection of programmes from National Radio and its original programme "Radio Macedonia" with a duration of 6 hours and 30 minutes.
National Radio also broadcasts its programme over the Internet.
Radio in Vardar Macedonia began in 1941, when Skopje was administrative capital of Vardar Banovina in Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On 27 January 1941 Radio Skoplje (Радио Скопље) started broadcasting in Serbian and retransmitting some programs from Radio Belgrade. On 20 April 1941 Radio Skopje was relaunched under Bulgarian control as Radio Skopie (Радио Скопие), retransmitting some programs from Radio Sofia.
Broadcasting in the Macedonian language began on 28 December 1944 as Radio Skopje (Радио Скопjе) with the live transmission of the Second Session of ASNOM. In 1991 Macedonian Radio-Television became an independent radio and television broadcaster. In July 1993, MRT was admitted as a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union. MRT used the acronym: MKRTV. With the enactment of the new broadcasting law on 24 April 1997, Macedonian Radio and Television was split into two parts: Macedonian radio-diffusion and Macedonian Radio-Television.
According to article 77 of the broadcasting law, 61% of the collected broadcasting tax belongs to National Radio-Television.
The process of transformation of NRTV in a public service broadcaster is not yet completed; it entailed the 1997 Law on Broadcasting Activities and the 2005 Broadcast Law. Editorial independence of NRTV is guaranteed by law but de facto lacking due to lack of independent funding and lack of independence of NRTV managerial bodies. NRTV executive directors in the last ten years remained close to the party in power. The network is funded by a license fee as well as by public budget contributions and advertising revenues (limited to 10% of airtime). Budgetary needs, and the practice of ad hoc state budgetary funding, has created a "culture of dependence" in NRTV.:16
NRTV is supervised by the NRTV Council, whose members are appointed by the Parliament upon proposal by "authorised nominators" from civil society. The Council then elects the members of NRTV Management Board. Although formally only accountable to the legislature through its annual report and budget plan, NRTV remains informally accountable to the executive, undermining institutional autonomy. NRTV also risks neglecting cultural pluralism obligations, in terms of programmes for minorities, as well as lacking impartiality and distance from government/majority politicians.:16
Notable people who were employed in the National Radio Television include clarinetist and composer Tale Ognenovski who was member of “Chalgii orchestra”, “Folk music orchestra” and “Authentic folk instruments orchestra” from 1960 until 1979.
- "Македонската радиотелевизија станува Национална радиотелевизија – Утврдени новите имиња на државните и јавните институции". Сигнал. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Elda Brogi, Alina Dobreva, and Pier Luigi Parcu, "Freedom of Media in the Western Balkans", study for the European Parliament's Subcommittee on Human Rights, October 2014, EXPO/B/DROI/2013/16
- Macedonian Institute for Media (2010), Analysis of the Public Broadcasting in the Republic of Macedonia in the Context of the European Media Policy Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine. Skopje.
- Ognenovski 2000.
- Ognenovski 2019b.
- Ognenovski 2019a.
- Music Industry News Network 2019.
- Ognenovski 2000, pp. 32-41.
- Ognenovski 1998a.
- Ognenovski 2000b.
- Ognenovski 2016b.
- Ognenovski 1999t.
- Ognenovski 1999x.
- Ognenovski 1999v.
- Ognenovski, Stevan (2000). Tale Ognenovski, virtuoso of the clarinet and composer Тале Огненовски виртуоз на кларинет и композитор. Library of Congress. Skopje, Republic of Macedonia: Matica Makedonska. ISBN 9989-48-312-4. Retrieved 2009-12-18.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (1998a). "The Official Tale Ognenovski Website". Retrieved 2009-12-27.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (2000b). "Biography Book: "Tale Ognenovski Virtuoso of the Clarinet and Composer Тале Огненовски виртуоз на кларинет и композитор" - Official Tale Ognenovski Website". Retrieved 2009-12-27.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (2016b). "Tale Ognenovski, The Greatest Clarinetist of All Time, Musical Genius, Composer..." YouTube. Retrieved 2017-05-26.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (1999t). "ULS-578, Macedonian Radio-Television, Republic of Macedonia - Official Tale Ognenovski Website". Retrieved 2017-06-03.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (1999x). "MP31087 VHS PAL Colour Video tape, Macedonian Radio-Television, Republic of Macedonia - Official Tale Ognenovski Website". Retrieved 2017-06-03.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (1999v). "MP 21176 Stereo, Macedonian Radio-Television, Republic of Macedonia - Official Tale Ognenovski Website". Retrieved 2017-06-03.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (2019b). TALE OGNENOVSKI VIRTUOSO OF THE CLARINET AND COMPOSER, BIOGRAPHY AND MUSIC NOTATION OF 69 CLARINET COMPOSITIONS: MACEDONIAN FOLK DANCES, JAZZ AND CLASSICAL MUSIC. Seattle, Washington, United States: Kindle Direct Publishing. ISBN 978-1708334024.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ognenovski, Stevan (2019a). "Book: "TALE OGNENOVSKI VIRTUOSO OF THE CLARINET AND COMPOSER, BIOGRAPHY AND MUSIC NOTATION OF 69 CLARINET COMPOSITIONS: MACEDONIAN FOLK DANCES, JAZZ AND CLASSICAL MUSIC " - Official Tale Ognenovski Website". Retrieved 2019-11-27.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Biography: "Tale Ognenovski Virtuoso Of The Clarinet And Composer, Biography And Music Notation Of 69 Clarinet Compositions: Macedonian Folk Dances, Jazz And Classical Music"". Music Industry News Network. 2019-11-22. Retrieved 2019-11-27.