Kumanovo (Macedonian: Куманово [kuˈmanɔvɔ] (listen) Albanian: Kumanovë; also known by other alternative names) is a city in North Macedonia and the seat of Kumanovo Municipality, the largest municipality in the country. Kumanovo lies 340 metres (1,115 feet) above sea level and is surrounded by the Karadag part of Skopska Crna Gora mountain on its western side, Gradištanska mountain on its southern side, and Mangovica and German mountain on the Eastern side. Skopje airport also serves Kumanovo.

Куманово (Macedonian)
Кumanovë  (Albanian)
Татар Синан Бег Џамија“ 17.jpg
View of St. Nikola church in Kumanovo.JPG
The square of Kumanovo.JPG
Kumanovo square 3.JPG
„Спомен костурница“ 11.jpg
Zebrnjak, Kumanovo 01.JPG
Flag of Kumanovo
Official seal of Kumanovo
Kumanovska Republika (Kumanovo Republic)
Map of Kumanovo
Map of Kumanovo
Kumanovo is located in North Macedonia
Location of Kumanovo within North Macedonia
Kumanovo is located in Balkans
Kumanovo (Balkans)
Coordinates: 42°08′09″N 21°43′05″E / 42.13583°N 21.71806°E / 42.13583; 21.71806Coordinates: 42°08′09″N 21°43′05″E / 42.13583°N 21.71806°E / 42.13583; 21.71806
Country North Macedonia
RegionLogo of Northeastern Region, North Macedonia.svg Northeastern
MunicipalityCoat of arms of Kumanovo Municipality.svg Kumanovo
Named fortribe Cumans
 • TypeTown Assembly
 • MayorMaksim Dimitrievski (Independent)
 • Town Council
  • Aleksandar Arsikj – Council President
 • Town509.48 km2 (196.71 sq mi)
340 m (1,120 ft)
 • Town70,842
 • Density207.04/km2 (536.2/sq mi)
 • Metro
 Census in 2012 cancelled
Demonym(s)Kumanovec Kumanovar
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Postal codes
Area code(s)+389 (0) 31
Car platesKU
Patron saintsSt. George[1]
Date of Liberation11 November 1945

It has many historical sites. One of the most important sites is the 4,000-year-old megalithic astronomical observatory of Kokino, located 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Kumanovo and discovered in 2001. It is ranked fourth on the list of old observatories by NASA.

In 1912, during the First Balkan War, Serbian forces won a decisive victory over the Ottomans north of the town. The two-day Battle of Kumanovo ended Ottoman authority in Vardar Macedonia which contributed to the region's integration into Serbia, and consequently, into Yugoslavia. The entire region of Macedonia was split in three among Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria after the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913.

The rapid economic, administrative and cultural expansion of Kumanovo began in 1945. It was the site of the 9 June 1999 Agreement signed between FR Yugoslav Generals and the NATO Generals about bringing in a NATO peacekeeping contingent in Kosovo called, the Kosovo Force, or KFOR (Kumanovo Agreement). The town's metal-processing, tobacco, agriculture, footwear and textile industries have made it an economic, trading and cultural center of approximately 135,529 people. It is internationally known for a jazz festival hosting bands from all over the world.


The name of the city in Macedonian, Serbian and Bulgarian is Kumanovo (Куманово). Kumanovo derives from the name of the Cumans, a western branch of Kipchaks, the tribe that settled in the area in the early 12th century.[2] Kumanovo is known as Cumanuva in Aromanian.[3]

The Municipal Building in Kumanovo (built as an Ottoman police station)


Kumanovo is situated in the northeastern part of North Macedonia, near the capital city of Skopje. The coordinates of the city are approximately 42°05'N and 21°40'E. Kumanovo lies 340 metres (1,115 feet) above sea level and is surrounded by

Skopje airport also serves Kumanovo.


Kumanovo has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa).

Climate data for Kumanovo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.4
Average low °C (°F) −3.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38
Source: Climate-Data.org[4]


  • Goce Delčev,
  • Zelen Rid,
  • Pero Čičo (Banevo Trlo),
  • Karpoš (Rajkova Kuka),
  • Ajdučka Češma,
  • Sokolana,
  • Igo Tričkovik (Pukovsko),
  • Vera Kotorka (Dobrošane),
  • Bedinje,
  • Jane Sandanski (Babin Dol),
  • Sredorek.


  • Oktomvriska Revolucija,
  • Gorče Petrov,
  • Treta Makedonska Udarna Brigada,
  • Goce Delčev,
  • Narodna Revolucija,
  • Nikola Tesla,
  • Leninova,
  • 11 Oktomvri,
  • Moša Pijade,
  • Ivo Lola Ribar,
  • Srbo Tomovik,
  • Tode Mendol,
  • Karaorman
  • Pero Čičo,
  • Esperanto,
  • Bajram Shabani,
  • Franc Rozman.
  • Straso Pindjur

Old neighborhoodsEdit

Most old neighborhood consist of shops and very few houses.

Veleshka Maalo (or Veleshko Maalo) is an old neighbourhood of Kumanovo. The name comes from the merchants from the town of Veles, who passed through the neighbourhood to sell their products by the rivers Vardar and Pchinja, and the Konjarinja villages Studena, Bara and Krasta. The main street, which today is named Narodna Revolucija, was their shortest way to the center of the city.

Karapsko maalo was located across today's south side of Goce Delchev High School through to the end of Mosha Pijade street. The name of the neighborhood came from the Ottomans. Every house in the neighborhood had a yard; neighboring yard were connected with doors, used by anyone chased by the Ottomans. Macedonians, komits and revolutionaries used this scheme to escape to the towns outskirts and the town itself. The Ottomans called it the dark or the secret neighborhood.


  • Varoš maalo,
  • Endek maalo,
  • Muhamedbegovo maalo,
  • Ortabunar maalo,
  • Bedinsko maalo,
  • Novo maalo,
  • Lipkovsko maalo,
  • Teke maalo,
  • Tatar maalo and
  • Muandzisko maalo,
  • Sokolana maalo.

Endek maalo was placed across today's city hall on two banks of the former river of Serava.

Old streetsEdit

  • Opančarsko sokače,
  • Nagorički sokak,
  • Proevski sokak,
  • Veleški sokak,
  • Romanovski sokak,
  • Ukumat sokak and
  • Vranjsko Dzade.

Military installationsEdit

The military base Boro Menkov[5] is one of the military installations of ARM in Kumanovo. The base was established by the JNA.

MB Hristijan Todorovski Karposh is the second base in Kumanovo, it was also established by the JNA and was inherited by the ARM. Today, part of the installation is converted into a university,[6] and another part was inherited by the Ministry of Interior.[7] There was an idea of turning the base into an economic industrial zone.[8]

In Kumanovo's Elezov kamen area there is also a Military Warehouse Base that operates today.

Police stationEdit

Kumanovo has a police station, under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The current police chief is Stojanče Veličkovikj.[9]



The area boasts several prehistoric settlements, among which are

  • the Kostoperska Karpa,
  • the Bronze Age Gradiste near the village of Pelince,
  • the Neolithic site of Mlado Nagoričane,
  • the Iron Age tumulus Groblje at Vojnik,
  • the Roman Necropolis Drezga of Lopate, and
  • the Roman Settlement Vicianus at village of Klečovce.

Middle AgesEdit

The first written mentioning of the individual modern villages of the Kumanovo region originate in the 14th century. These are, for the most part, found in Serbian charters:

In this time, the Kumanovo region (old Žegligovo) received its geographical location and certain settlement picture.[10]

According to a charter of the monastery of Arhiljevica dated 1355, sevastokrator Dejan held a major domain (oblast) east of Skopska Crna Gora. It included the old župe (counties) of Žegligovo and Preševo (modern Kumanovo region with Sredorek and Kozjačija).[11]

Ottoman periodEdit

The town was mentioned in 1530 according to registry of Turkish Devlet Arşivleri as a village in Nogoriçe town, within Kaza of İştip. It was founded by Turkish colonists from Asia Minor and initially was settled by Turks and later by Muslim Albanians. Slavic population entered the town in the late 18th century but its number rose just during early 19th century.[12] Evliya Çelebi described it in 1660–61: "The colony of Kumanovo is situated on the territory of the Skopje sanjak and represents one county. The city is embellished with many rivers and 600 tile-roofs houses. The mosque in the downtown is beautiful, there are tekke, madrassa, hammam, a number of shops and water mills; and the climate is pleasant and agreeable. There are many vineyards and gardens".[13]

Commemoration plaque at Skopje dedicated to Karposh's Rebellion.

In 1689, Karposh, a brigand commander in the region of Dospat (present-day Bulgaria), who served as an Ottoman Christian auxiliary force commander, took advantage of the weakening of the Ottomans and discontent that arose concerning higher Ottoman taxation policies, and organized a revolt while Austria staged an attack on the Ottomans. Karposh's Rebellion quickly spread, resulting in the liberation of Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Kumanovo, Kačanik and other towns. Then, together with the Austrian army led by Emperor Leopold I, the local Christian population fought to liberate Skopje and Štip. Later changes in the military and political situation in the Balkans had crucial downwards effect on the revolt. The Austrian army was forced to withdraw and the reinforced Ottomans attacked the rebels, taking Kriva Palanka, the rebel stronghold, and then attacked Kumanovo and its newly constructed fortress, where they captured Karposh and put him to death on the Stone Bridge across the Vardar.

Kumanovo became an urban settlement and administrative center of the region at the end of the 16th century or the beginning of the 17th century. Following the turbulent events (including the Karpoš Uprising in 1689) the city experienced a period of stagnation, and by the end of 18th century Kumanovo epitomized an Ottoman provincial town.

In an 1861 book Austrian diplomat Johann Georg von Hahn stated that the town had 650 dwellings, of which 300 were Muslim and 350 were Christian Bulgarian, in addition to 30 Gypsy in the outskirts, while the total population of the town was 3,500.[14]

The Kumanovo Uprising, led by Serb district chiefs of Kumanovo and surrounding districts, was active from 20 January to 20 May 1878 (4 months). The chiefs swore oath in the local church and appealed to Prince Milan IV of Serbia to aid the uprising, and they pledged their devotion and loyalty, and union with Serbia. The rebels were finally defeated by brigadier-general Hafuz Pasha.

IMRO Kumanovo Seals

The Skopje Revolutionary district of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) decided in 1894 that it would organize a committee in Kumanovo, which was later established in the house of Jordan Jovčev, member of the local Bulgarian school board.[15] The committee included also the chief Bulgarian teacher in the town Iliya Levkov,[16] the secretary of the Bulgarian metropolitan deputy Traiche Mitev,[17] priest Andon, his son and Bulgarian teacher Psaltir Popandontov,[18] the merchant Zafir Tasev, elder of the Kumanovo Bulgarian community[19] the Bulgarian teacher Zafir Shaklev[20] and Angel Prekodolka. They organized the assassination of Serbian priest Atanasije Petrovic.[21]

View of Kumanovo, c. 1913

First Balkan WarEdit

In October 1912, during the First Balkan War, Serbian forces under the command of General Radomir Putnik won a decisive victory over the Ottomans north of the town. The two-day Battle of Kumanovo ended Ottoman authority in Vardar Macedonia and contributed for region's integration into Serbia, and consequently, into Yugoslavia. The entire region of Macedonia was split in three among Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria after the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913.

World War IIEdit

Second World War memorial - Kosturnica

The communist resistance in Kumanovo and Prilep began on 11 October 1941. The struggle ended with victory and formation of the Macedonian federated state within the Yugoslav Federation (SFRY). One of the famous partizans from Kumanovo was Hristijan Todorovski-Karpoš shown on the picture. After 1945 Kumanovo experienced fast economic, administrative and cultural development.

Modern historyEdit

It developed economically in the late 19th century (agriculture, handcrafts and trade). Still, industrial development occurred only at the end of the Second World War. The rapid economic, administrative and cultural expansion of Kumanovo began in 1945. Today, it is a modern city with approximately 100,000 inhabitants. It was also the site of the 9 June 1999 Agreement signed between FR Yugoslav Generals and the NATO Generals about bringing in a NATO peacekeeping contingent in Kosovo called, the Kosovo Force, or KFOR (Kumanovo Agreement).[22]

2001 Albanian insurgency and Inter-community relationsEdit

Macedonian Armed forces in July 2001 near Kumanovo

The Albanian insurgency in Macedonia first started in the mountains outskirts of Tetovo and then spread in May 2001 to the region of Kumanovo mostly to the north. The armed conflict in Kumanovo mainly resulted in a division of the educational system along ethnic lines. All the Albanian-language students left the schools and demanded new schools to be opened. Following this process there is a visible separation in the town affecting the inter-community relations. The Law on Local Self-Government, Article 44 (Sl.vesnik br.5/2002), envisages the establishment of the Commission for Inter-community Relations (CICR). CICR is a consultative body in the Council of the Municipality of Kumanovo and is formed by 12 representatives of the

  • Macedonian,
  • Albanian,
  • Roma,
  • Serbian,
  • Turkish and
  • Vlach

ethnic groups. CICR aims to develop and improve relations between the ethnic communities and to ensure active participation of minorities in decision-making on issues that have ethnic nature and are found in the agenda of the Council of the Municipality of Kumanovo. Other organizations active in bridging the community divide include

Activity of the Multi-Kulti.
  • the Center for Intercultural Dialogue (CID),
  • Roma community center DROM,
  • National Roma Centrum,
  • the local Red Cross and others.

One of the most effective systems for supporting the inter-community divide is through the youth centers MultiKulti managed by CID Kumanovo. These centers offer space for youngsters to meet, and apart from learning about each other, they also get youth work support.

2015 clashesEdit

The NLA had claimed responsibility for a grenade attack on Kumanovo's police station in late 2014.[23] During a police raid on 9 May 2015, a shootout erupted between Macedonian police forces and an armed group.[24] Eight Macedonian policemen and 14 armed men were killed, while 37 officers were wounded and hospitalized.[25] The attack ended on 10 May 2015 in an operation by the police and armed forces. Thirty men were arrested and charged with terrorism by Macedonian authorities.[26]


The town's metal-processing, tobacco, agriculture, footwear and textile industries have made it an economic, trading and cultural center of approximately 135,529 people. Agriculture and trade developed mainly in the 19th century, but the city's modern look was established after the Second World War.

In 2013, the Macedonian Government published a list of companies with the highest revenue. Four companies from Kumanovo are on this list. In 72nd place is KVALITET-PROM DOOEL with 24,643,312 euros, 130th place is DETOIL DOO with 14,912,153 euros, 142nd place is EKSTRA MEIN DOOEL with 13,231,496 euros, and 151st place is 11 OKTOMVRI AD with 12,878,225 euros revenue. The most profitable company in that same year was PROSTOR DOO with 1,458,759.85 euros profit before taxes.



A railway connection exists between Skopje with Serbia via Kumanovo.

In 2013, rehabilitation of the railway section between Kumanovo and the village of Beljakovce will commence, which is part of the Railway Corridor VIII that will connect North Macedonia with Sofia, Bulgaria and the Black Sea to the East and Tirana, Albania and the Adriatic Sea to the West.


License plate of Kumanovo

A 40 kilometre (25 miles) highway exists between Skopje and Kumanovo, going near Kumanovo in the north and crossing the border with Serbia. On the section Kumanovo-Miladinovci there is a Pay tool.

Section of the Pan-European Corridor X was put into use in 2010 connecting Kumanovo to the border crossing Tabanovce. The 7.6 kilometres (4.7 miles) highway was built for 4 years and at a cost of 15.5 million Euros.

Another important road goes from Kumanovo to Kriva Palanka and then to the border with Bulgaria.

Air TravelEdit

Skopje International Airport is 20 km (12 mi) south of Kumanovo.

The E-75 motorway is accessible from Kumanovo.

Sofia Airport is 190 km (118 mi) from the city and Thessaloniki International Airport is 240 km (149 mi).

Near Kumanovo is Adzi Tepe Airport which is without a paved runway.


Monuments and LandmarksEdit

Kumanovo has several prehistoric monuments dating back to the prehistoric period, including:

  • Gradište [mk], an archaeological site from the Bronze Age near the village of Pelince
  • Near the village of Mlado Nagoričane is another interesting site dating from the period of Neolith.
  • Near the village of Lopate is the Drezga place that represents a Roman necropolis.
  • One of the most important sites located near the Kumanovo is the 4,000-year-old megalithic astronomical observatory of Kokino, located 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Kumanovo and discovered in 2001. It is ranked fourth on the list of old observatories by NASA.
  • Sculpture of Batko Gjorgjija in the city center
  • Monument Four Poles also located in the center of the city on the main square,
  • Memorial Ossuary and
  • House Museum of Hristijan Todorovski Karpoš.

The oldest and biggest church in the town is the St. Nicholas. There are icons from the 13th century in the church. The church represents a masterwork of Andreja Damjanov, an important Macedonian renaissance architect.

Other landmarks are:

  • statue of Woman Fighter,


  • Zanatski dom and
  • Kasapski Krug


Cultural organizationsEdit

Kumanovo female folk dress

The oldest folklore assemble in North Macedonia, KUD "Panče Pešev" is placed in Kumanovo. This year the assemble is celebrating 80 years of existence.

Kumanovo has

Several painting colonies and exhibitions take place every year in Kumanovo or in nearby villages.

Kumanovo is distinguished by its jazz festival which features bands from all over the world. In 2002 the Macedonian bands Foltin and Dragan Dautovski Quartet performed, and in 2003 Macedonian jazz pianist Simon Kiselicki performed in his 'Beneventan Trio'. Every year Kumanovo has a "Days of Comedy" festival, sponsored by the Macedonian Ministry of Culture, featuring comedies from several Macedonian theatres and also from neighbouring Serbia and Bulgaria. Kumanovo municipality was organizing the manifestation "City of Culture 2006".



The following is a table of historical visits to Kumanovo, along with the number of houses recorded by the visitor.

Name of traveler Year of visiting Kumanovo number of houses/population
Pukvil 1800 300 houses
Gomera 1810 800 population
Dupničanin 1835 5,000 population
Bue 1838 3–4,000 population
Bue 1854 3,000 population
Papadopulos 1856 200 houses
Reports 1859 4,500 population
Han 1862 3,200 population
Hadzi Vasiljevič 1865 650 houses
Timaev 1865 4,200 population
Harački's List 1868 721 houses
Bjankoni 1885 7,000 population
Novakovič 1886 8,000 population
Petrov 1886 8,000 population
Sal-Name 1887 900 houses
Veselinovič 1887 5,000 population
Gopčevič 1889 5,700 population
Petrov 1896 2,100 houses
Vasil Kanchov 1900 14,530 population
Župančič 1903 14,530 population
Hadzi Vasiljevič 1907 15,000 population

Table below showing historic demographic development according to Yugoslav and Macedonian census data:

City of Kumanovo population according to ethnic group 1948-2002[27]
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1994 census 2002
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Macedonians .. .. 14,351 61.5 20,323 66.1 28,789 62.1 36,812 60.5 40,634 62.3 42,840 60.5
Albanians .. .. 2.000 4.0 1,893 6.2 7,827 16.9 12,997 21.4 15,612 23.9 18,277 25.8
Serbs .. .. 1,790 7.7 2,808 9.1 3,759 8.1 4,252 7.0 5,097 7.8 4,727 6.7
Roma .. .. 1,861 8.0 .. .. 3,013 6.5 4,415 7.3 2,987 4.6 4,042 5.7
Turks .. .. 3,858 16.5 2,512 8.2 1,791 3.9 936 1.5 241 0.4 256 0.4
Vlachs .. .. 12 0.1 .. .. .. .. 44 0.1 85 0.1 108 0.2
Bosniaks .. .. 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 14 0.0
Others .. .. 516 2.2 3,226 10.5 1,184 2.6 1,386 2.3 577 0.9 578 0.8
Total 20,242 23,339 30,762 46,363 60,842 65,233 70,842


The population of the city of Kumanovo according to the 2002 census numbers 77,561, the majority of which are ethnic Macedonians 62.4% (48,416), with a significant minority of ethnic Albanians 23.7% (18,369) and ethnic Serbs 7.4% (5,746).[28]

The most common mother tongues in the city were the following:

  • Macedonian, 45,306 (64.0%)
  • Albanian, 18,283 (25.8%)
  • Romani, 4,007 (5.7%)
  • Serbian, 2,399 (3.4%)
  • Turkish, 215 (0.3%)
  • others, 632 (0.9%)

The religious composition of the city was the following:


Vasil Iljoski

In 2009 marking the 490 years of the first mentioning of the name Kumanovo and 65 years of the liberation of Kumanovo, the Municipality of Kumanovo organized a cultural and artistic program in which they honored the Five impressive people from Kumanovo in the 20th century:


FK Kumanovo is the main football team from the city and host their games at the Kumanovo Park Stadium. Milano plays its games at Milano Arena. KF Goblen has played in the Macedonian Second Football League and FK Karpoš 93 in the OFS Kumanovo First Division.

Macedonian National Football Team played friendly match with Egypt in Kumanovo on 29 September 1998. The game took place at Gradski Stadium Kumanovo and the scorers for Macedonian team were Srgjan Zaharievski and Dževdet Šainovski. The match ended 2:2.

RK Kumanovo is the handball club that currently competes in the Macedonian Handball Super League. They won the first ever Macedonian Handball Cup back in 1992–93.

Also, Kumanovo is recognized as a box school center, with few names emerged as famous in the 20th century, with Ace Rusevski and Redžep Redžepovski as a leading names.


Telecommunication operatorsEdit

TV StationsEdit

  • TV Plus (in Macedonian)
  • Festa (in Albanian)
  • Hana (in Albanian) (Closed)
  • Nova (in Macedonian) (Closed)
  • KTL (in Macedonian) (Closed)
  • RTK (in Macedonian) (Closed)
  • K3, Regional, HQ in Kumanovo, (in Macedonian) (Closed)
  • KRT (in Macedonian) (Closed)

Radio stationsEdit

  • Radio Bum (in Macedonian)
  • Radio Bravo (in Macedonian)
  • Jehona 103.5 FM (in Albanian)
  • City FM (in Macedonian) (Closed)



Diplomatic missionsEdit

  Romania Honorary Consulate[29]

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Kumanovo is twinned with:[30]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Five Facts About Saint George, For Saint George's Day - Anglophenia - BBC America". BBC America. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  2. ^ 490 години од појавата на Куманово 10.12.2009 "BBC", Retrieved 31.01.2017 (Macedonian)
  3. ^ The War of Numbers and its First Victim: The Aromanians in Macedonia (End of 19th – Beginning of 20th century)
  4. ^ "Climate: Kumanovo". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  5. ^ about MB Boro Menkov[permanent dead link] (Macedonian)
  6. ^ Article about the MB H.T. Karposh Archived 16 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Macedonian)
  7. ^ Article about the MVR takeover of MB H.T. Karposh (Macedonia)
  8. ^ Article about the Economic zone Idea Archived 16 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Macedonia)
  9. ^ "Сектор за внатрешни работи – Куманово".
  10. ^ Srpsko geografsko društvo 1972, p. 123:

    Ти помени већим делом налазе се у даровним повељама српских давалаца: краља Милутина, цара Сте- фана Душана, севастократа Дејана, Јевдокије Дејановић2', Дејано- вих синова – браће деспота Драгаша и "господина" Константина. Као што се зна, тада је ова област – старо Жеглигово до- била учвршћен географски положај и одрећену насеобинску слику

  11. ^ Историско друштво НР Србије 1951, p. 20:

    према повељи манастиру богоро- дичимог ваведења у Архиљевици,50 држао као своју баштину пространу област иеточно од Скопске Црне Горе. Она је обухватала старе жупе Прешево и Жеглигово (данас кумановски крај са Средореком, Козјачијом

  12. ^ Rozita Dimova, Ethno-Baroque: Materiality, Aesthetics and Conflict in Modern-Day Macedonia, Berghahn Books, 2013, ISBN 1782380418, p. 97.
  13. ^ Македонските градови во турско време, Зоран Сенев, Киро Герасимов, Кочани, 2004, стр.50
  14. ^ Johann Georg von Hahn: Reise von Belgrad nach Salonik. Viena: 1861
  15. ^ Николов, Борис Й. Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация : Войводи и ръководители (1893-1934) Биографично-библиографски справочник. София, Издателство „Звезди“, 2001. ISBN 954-9514-28-5, с. 67.
  16. ^ ЦДА, ф. 246, оп.1, а.е. 211, л. 26. Списък на градските екзархийски учители в Скопската епархия през учебната 1901 – 1902 год. с означение заплатата им, бележки по тяхната деятелност и мнение какво да се прави с всекиго през идущата 1902/3 уч. година.
  17. ^ Николай Тодоров, Освободителната борба на българите в Македония и Одринско, 1902-1904, Наука и изкуство, 1978, стр. 209.
  18. ^ Пелтеков, Александър Г. Революционни дейци от Македония и Одринско. Второ допълнено издание. София, Орбел, 2014, ISBN 9789544961022, с. 368.
  19. ^ Матовъ, Д. Кратка разправия по етнографията на Македония. Периодическо списание XXXIV. София, Българско книжовно дружество, 1889. с. 682 - 683.
  20. ^ Настевъ, Хр. I-ия випускъ на Скопското българско мъѫко педагогическо училище. Илюстрация Илиндень XII (3) (113). София, Издание на Илинденската организация, мартъ 1940. с. 13.
  21. ^ В. Илић, Српска четничка акција 1903-1912, Београд 2006, с. 48.
  22. ^ Reitman, Valerie; Richter, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (23 June 2011). "Yugoslav, NATO Generals Sign Peace Agreement for Kosovo / Alliance will end air campaign when Serbian troops pull out". The San Francisco Chronicle.
  23. ^ "Ние стоиме зад нападот на полициските станици во Тетово и Куманово". Archived from the original on 13 January 2017.
  24. ^ Vladimir Gjuzelov; Ben Brumfield (11 May 2015). "Gun battles in former ethnic flashpoint in Macedonia kill 5 police officers". CNN. Retrieved 12 May 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
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  • Srpsko geografsko društvo (1972). Glasnik 52 (in Serbian). Srpsko geografsko društvo.
  • Историско друштво НР Србије (1951). Историски гласник (in Serbian). Научна књига.

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