Gornji Milanovac (Serbian Cyrillic: Гoрњи Милановац, pronounced [ɡôːrɲiː mǐlanoʋats] (listen)) is a town and municipality located in the Moravica District of central Serbia. The population of the town is 24,216, while the population of the municipality is 44,406.
Горњи Милановац (Serbian)
From top: Town center at night, The Old Court building, Takovski ustanak gymnasium, "Takovski grm" Memorial Complex, Church of Holy Trinity
"Време и моје право (Time and my right)"
|Region||Šumadija and Western Serbia|
|• Mayor||Dejan Kovačević (SNS)|
|Area rank||21st in Serbia|
|• Town||16.84 km2 (6.50 sq mi)|
|• Municipality||836 km2 (323 sq mi)|
|Elevation||310 m (1,020 ft)|
|• Rank||37th in Serbia|
|• Town density||1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)|
|• Municipality density||53/km2 (140/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
The city was founded in 1853. Before 1859 the original name of the city was Despotovica (Serbian Cyrillic: Деспотовица), after the Despotovica river passing by the town. In 1859 the name was changed to Gornji Milanovac at the request of the Prince of Serbia Miloš Obrenović. Its name means Upper Milanovac (there is a Lower Milanovac as well, while Milanovac stems from the name Milan in Serbian).
Initially, the settlement that was to become Gornji Milanovac (before 1853) was situated in the area of today's village Brusnica. There was some discussion about the suitability of the site for a settlement. The new municipality was to be called Despotovac after the river Despotovica which passes through this municipality (the river name originates from the Serbian despot, Đurađ Branković). On the 22nd of April 1852, Despotovac (later Gornji Milanovac) was then relocated to a place called Divlje Polje. This decision was taken by Mladen Žujović, Trivun Novaković, Stevan Knićanin, and Gaja Riznić. Notable buildings and roads (for example: "Zgrada starog suda – Old Court building") are the work of German engineer Indižir Schultz from Pančevo. Today's name Gornji Milanovac was formalized by the warrant of Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia, in 1859, after his brother Milan Obrenović.
The location of Gornji Milanovac confirms that this area was settled in prehistory and we can find settlements of Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians, small groups of Celts and Goths and bigger settlements of the Romans. On the mountain Rudnik, besides older miners grove there are remains of a Roman temple dedicated to the Terra Mater ("Mother Earth"). There is little information about Slavs and their settlements.
Even in the Middle Ages and the time of the Roman Empire, the area around Gornji Milanovac was significant in economic, agronomy, infrastructure, and military sense. There are sites from the Neolithic period (in the village Gojna Gora) and pre/post-Roman governance period (Rudnik), also ruins and sites from Byzantine administration, Medieval Serbian Principality/Kingdom, Serbian Empire and Ottoman Empire (on mountain Rudnik, in villages Brusnica, mountain Treska, Jablanica, and Gornji Milanovac parts of the mountain Vujan ).
Donji Milanovac, one of the most beautiful cities on the Danube, was submerged and relocated three times. It was a Roman fortification of Talijata, the seat of the Poreč nahija - Poreč, where the famous duke Milenko Stojković ruled during the First Serbian Uprising. Born there were Miša Anastasijević and knyaz Stevan Stevanović Tenka, the trustee and president of the Governing Council until 1832, when the city was moved to the mainland by the decree of Miloš Obrenović and arranged according to the first urban plan.
This town was significant during the First Serbian Uprising against Ottoman Empire rule, but more so during the Second Serbian Uprising. In 1814, Takovo had reached a historical agreement about the Second Serbian Uprising. In front of the family house of Obrenović in the village Gornja Crnuća, he raised a flag (red Greek cross on the white background) and said:
Evo mene, a eto Vama rata s Turcima ( Here I am, You have a war with the Turks)— Miloš Obrenović, April 23rd. 1814
In the World War I occupation, the population in Gornji Milanovac was subjected to war terror and crimes by the forces of Austria-Hungary, Kaiser's Germany and Bulkaria, while during World War II the infrastructure was destroyed and the population of this town suffered as before. At the time of sanctions and breakup of Yugoslavia, the industry of municipality exported their products to the Western and Eastern markets through offshore companies. In 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Gornji Milanovac was bombed once (only television repeater was damaged). People from nearby towns and municipalities in-joke said, that when NATO planned which town to bomb, they put a cup of coffee at the Gornji Milanovac location on the map.
- 1814– The beginning of the Second Serbian Uprising was agreed in Takovo village
- 1852– Gornji Milanovac (in that time Despotovica) becomes the first town in Serbia with a completed map of the city and with the streets at an angle of 90°;
- 1853– establishment municipality of Despotovica;
- 1857– the establishment of the first men's and girls' primary school and the first library;
- 1859– changing the name of the municipality in Gornji Milanovac;
- 1879– the establishment of the First High School;
- 1890– first printing company start to work;
- 1892– the establishment of county hospital;
- 1912– commencement of construction of narrow-gauge railway;
- 1914– during the First World War in this town was settled headquarters of Živojin Mišić;
- 1921– finished electrification and construction of low voltage network;
- 1922– started with work of the narrow gauge railway and establishment of the first conditory company "Rudnik";
- 1923– first coal power plant;
- 1927– first X-ray machine;
- 1928– started with work of the first cinema in a municipality;
- 1933– HRH King Alexander I of Yugoslavia opens first mixed primary school;
- 1937– The establishment of the second factory of conditory products "Sumadija";
- 1941– Yugoslav Partisans and Yugoslav army in homeland (known as Chetniks) in joint action release Gornji Milanovac from the Nazi- German occupation. Gornji Milanovac was merged with the other released towns in occupied Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed short-lived Republic of Užice. At the head of that joint action was Zvonimir Vučković. During that battle two German tanks were trapped and now one of those is a monument on the exit from the town in village Nevade, while the other is a monument in Užice (Hotchkiss H35);
- 1945– Gornji Milanovac was released from Nazi-German occupation and began industrialization
- 1965– two municipalities Pranjani and Rudnik merged to Gornji Milanovac.
In 1971, due to the construction of HPP "Đerdap 1", it was flooded again, and the population was moved three kilometers downstream. Donji Milanovac made a great sacrifice for the general interest of the then country, for the construction of the hydropower system.
Until 1991, Novi Milanovac (a city with more than 30,000 roses) had about 4,000 inhabitants. They worked in the Wood Industry "Poreč", factories FEP and "Megaplast", the hotel Lepenski Vir, agricultural cooperative "Sloga". They called it Serbian Hollywood because the films "Naive", "Hi, Inspector", "Vampires are among us" were all made there....
Culture and tourismEdit
Cultural Monuments of Great Importance in Gornji Milanovac are:
- Church of the Holy Trinity.
- Church of St. Nicholas in the village of Brusnica and the family tomb of Obrenović dynasty.
- District Building ("The Old Court building").
- Monuments in the center of the municipality.
- "Hill of Peace" (Brdo mira) Memorial Park.
- Tank as a monument of liberation in Nevade from the Second World War (Sherman Firefly).
- Orthodox Christian monasteries of Vraćevšnica, Šilopaj and Vujan.
- Takovo complex devoted to the heroes from Second Serbian Uprising.
- Ruins of Orthodox monasteries "Ješevac", Catholic church "Misa" (later mosque) on Rudnik.
- Ruins of Irene Kantakouzene on Treska Hill.
- Family house of Miloš Obrenović in Gornja Crnuća.
- Family house of national hero Dragan Jeftić-Škepo.
- Family house of the Lunjevica family (Revolutionary Nikola, politician Panta and Queen consort Draga Obrenović).
- Family house of Djordjevic built in old Serbian architectural style.
- Family house and inheritance of Archibald Reiss's son- "Dobro polje II".
- Monument on city cemetery of fallen soldiers of Austro-Hungary and Serbian Army in World War I.
- Monument for the participants in Operation Halyard and the other monuments in the rest of municipality.
The first library in Gornji Milanovac was established in 1857 and is called "Braća Nastasijević" (English: "Brothers Nastasijević"). Headquarters is in the building of Old District Administration. It has separate classes in Rudnik (the oldest), Pranjani, Brdjani, and Vraćešnica. Librarian fond has over 100,000 books. Also "Braća Nastasijević" library is engaged in the publishing business.
The main theater in this municipality is "Milanovačko amatersko pozorište (Milanovac amateur theater)". Milanovac amateur theater, GM cinema, art gallery and administrative center of all settlements cultural clubs has headquarters in the center of municipality witch satisfy modern standards for one cultural institution. In the area of photography and cinema, Gornji Milanovac is represented with a big number of art members of the Photo-cinema club Gornji Milanovac.
The Museum of Rudnik and Takovo area is a subsidiary of the culture center of Gornji Milanovac. It has established the Gallerie of Arts in 2008, and a modern gallery in the building of old district administration.
Music and folkloreEdit
In this municipality there are two folklore groups: "Tipoplastika"-Folklore ensemble and Culture-Arts Community "Šumadija". There are also rock bends that were established in this town, like: "Bjesovi", "An Fas", ″Pastir Pan″, "GM Undergrounders", "Skarlet" and "Čudna Šuma". As for punk-rock bands in '90s and 80's there are: "Trula koalicija", In '00s there were established new rock and reggae music bands and groups: "Plišani mališan", "Morbid Cow", "Parnasus", "Strah od Džeki Čena", IMT 666 (Featuring Bjesovi band's singers child, Stevan Marinkovic), etc.
Tourism, ecology and eventsEdit
Whilst part of Yugoslavia, Gornji Milanovac was known as the "economic miracle" and "Beli Labud" (English: "White Swan") as the ecologically cleanest city. There is great potential for further rural and spa (Svračkovci, Brđani, Mlakovac and Savinac) tourism progress in future times. Today's Gornji Milanovac on its territory has a lot of small, categorized rural hotels, one hostel and motels. Close to Gornji Milanovac is a spa and resort "Atomska Banja" Donja Trepča. Major Hotels in this town are newly opened hotel "IG Hotel" (4 stars) and "MD Neda" (3 stars) in the settlement Rudnik. In the past, there was one of the biggest hotels "Šumadija" (3 stars) bankrupted in 2004.
Gornji Milanovac was a pioneer in the application of sorting waste, recycling and water purification in Serbia and previously in Yugoslavia. Also, Gornji Milanovac is a great antagonist of GM food why it has adopted declaration and municipality statute about prohibition of this type of food.
Tourists from around the world visit this municipality for its clean air, small and quiet places, inner and family vacations. Gornji Milanovac every other year is the host of International Biennial of miniature Art, founded in 1989. In village Takovo is the host of the World Music Festival, every May, June or July. Known trip places are: Takovo, Grabovica (peak of Ždreban), Savinac and Rudnik. These places are popular during the celebration of the May 1st or world-known International Workers' Day as a collegial picnic in union organization. Other significant cultural and tourism events on its territory are World Testicle Cooking Championship, the "Milanovac bowl tournament" (Fish soup cooking) and the Goulash tournament ("Gulašijada"). In some settlements are held various art colonies. Also, there are held and village gymnastic competition in some disciplines during the celebration of some patron day of that village.
Gornji Milanovac is a touristic sense has to offer to the lovers of bright starry nights (in December–January and May–June) and beautiful sunrises, various monuments, clean air, healing water resources and much more. It has a reputation for offering a vibrant nightlife which is also developed and safer than in the rest of Serbia. On the January, 7th ( Orthodox Christmas) Gornji Milanovas Tourist organization and its citizens (transport operators companies, local company owners, farmworkers, musician and orchestra artist, motorcycle and ATV clubs, taxi drivers, firefighters, police and military) every year organize the one-day festival, because it's believed that if they start something on that holiday they will succeed in all days in that year.
Also in Gornji Milanovac are 3 fairs per year, on May 22, August 2 and October 15. After 70 years Gornji Milanovac as municipality celebrates its Patron day. It is Trinity, where on that day is being held pageant. Locals are advocating to build a mini cable car system for Rudnik and biathlon stadium on the Ravna Gora, given that project had failed during the 90's economical and international political problems of Yugoslavia and Serbia as a federal republic.
Geography and infrastructureEdit
Gornji Milanovac lies between mountains Rudnik to the north and Vujan to the south. Relief of this area is hilly and mountainous. Gornji Milanovac with all his territory is located between these mountains: Rudnik (1,132 m or 3,714 ft), Maljen (970 m or 3,180 ft), Jesevac (902 m or 2,959 ft), Suvobor (866 m or 2,841 ft), Rajac (848 m or 2,782 ft) and Vujan (845 m or 2,772 ft). Gornji Milanovac boundaries with: Ljig (on the North) and Mionica (on North-West), Topola and Aranđelovac (both on the North-East) Čačak (on the South) and Lučani (on the South West), Požega, Serbia (on the West), Kragujevac (on the East) and Knić (on theSouth-East).
The center of the city is situated along the western side of European route E763 (motorway), between the cities Ljig to the north and Čačak to the south and the villages Majdan to the north and Preljina to the south.
Main city crossroad branches:
- To the North, onto road Gornji Milanovac-Kragujevac (see Kragujevac) that crosses with E763 and turns East; the nearest village on the road is Donja Vrbava.
- To the East, turns South then East through the city, crosses E763 and then goes south through the village of Donja Trepča onto the route 23.
- To the South, towards E763.
- To the West, quickly turns North and after 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) branches into road Gornji Milanovac-Čestobrodica (see Čestobrodica) to the West; the nearest village on the road is Takovo, where Takovo Uprising begun; and into Road Gornji Milanovac – Donji Banjani (see Gornji Banjani) to the North; the nearest village on the road is Kalimanići;
- South of Milanovac, villages Brdjani to the West and Prislonica to the East are connected to E763 with local roads
- On the West and Southside of municipalities is situated A2 highway (Corridor XI), opened for traffic in 2016; this is the most primary project on the field of transport and tourism in the future, providing Gornji Milanovac good connection to the coast of Adriatic Sea and Belgrade.
Rivers that flow through Gornji Milanovac are: Despotovica, Gruza, Dičina, Čemernica, and Kamenica. There is a variety of groundwater sources and thermo-mineral water sources like in village areas, like in: Svrackovci, Brdjani, Mlakovac, Trepca, and Savinac.
Gornji Milanovac is instructed to use civil and military airport in nearby Morava Airport-Lajdevci, Kraljevo 36 km (22 mi), Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport 134 km (83 mi) and Užice-Ponikve Airport 98.6 km (61 mi). Also, in September 2018, Swisslion-Takovo Concern established Heliport for business and civilian purpose. Gornji Milanovac does not have conditions for development of water traffic transportation. In 1969 narrow and regional railway Čačak-Gornji Milanovac – Topola was abolished because it was unprofitable. In 2014, Government of Serbia will consider the spatial plan of new electrified railways line Belgrade–Sarajevo, where Gornji Milanovac could be one of regional centers.
Gornji Milanovac has Humid continental climate. Mildest parts (Sub-Humid) of Gornji Milanovac are Brdjani, Trudelj and Dragolj. The coldest parts (humid) are peaks of Rudnik, Rajac, parts of villages Majdan, Svrackovci, Gojna Gora, Gornji Branetici, Brajic, Polom and in the north-west part of village Bogdanica. Moderately humid parts of the municipality are in parts of Majdan and the rest parts of mountain Rudnik, Rajac, and peaks of Suvobor.
The average annual temperature of air are in range of 8 °C (46 °F) in the parts of Rudnik and Suvobor and 11 °C (52 °F) at 250 metres (820 feet). Average daily (in %) humidity 78.5% during the year, in winter 85%, in summer periods 75% (excluding Rudnik mountain where it is 65%, which is good for relaxation and vacation). The hottest month of the year is July, and the coldest is January. Autumn is warmer than the spring for 1 °C (34 °F).
The average annual precipitation height are in the range of 788–985 mm (31.0–38.8 in). Minimum mean wind speed is 1.7–2.6 m/s (3.11–5.05 knots) and maximum 13.8–20.7 m/s (26.83–40.24 knots). This maximum speed occurs in the southeastern, southwestern and southern winds. On the territory of Gornji Milanovac prevails southeastern, northern and eastern winds.
Vegetation period lasts 220–260 days. During these period precipitation rate is 55% which is favorable for plants.
Annual average daily global sun radiation energy on a horizontal surface on territory of municipality Gornji Milanovac is between 3.8–4.0 kWh/m2 (0.33–0.35 BTU/ft 2). Daily mean values of the ambient dose rate ( background radiation) on the area around this municipality are ≈ 100 nSv/h.
|Climate data for Gornji Milanovac (measuring station-Rudnik)|
|Record high °C||20.7||23.9||28.8||32.2||34.9||37.4||43.6||40.0||37.5||30.7||28.4||22.6||43.6|
|Average high °C||4.6||7.0||12.4||18.0||23.5||26.2||28.6||28.7||23.9||18.4||11.2||5.8||17.4|
|Daily mean °C||−1.7||−6.2||6.3||10.3||13.0||20.1||22.3||22.1||17.9||12.2||8.0||0.6||10.4|
|Average low °C||−4.4||−9.4||2.1||6.1||9.4||15.5||17.8||17.4||13.2||8.0||4.9||−3.2||6.5|
|Record low °C||−29.4||−15.4||−12.8||−4.9||3.5||5.5||8.4||6.7||4.7||−4.5||−7.8||−13.4||−5.7|
|Average precipitation mm||137.0||136.3||16.3||82.9||152.9||54.9||19.0||0.3||21.0||52.0||29.2||101.0||802.8|
|Record high °F||69.3||75.0||83.8||90.0||94.8||99.3||110.5||104.0||99.5||87.3||83.1||72.7||110.5|
|Average high °F||40.3||44.6||54.3||64.4||74.3||79.2||83.5||83.7||75.0||65.1||52.2||42.4||63.3|
|Daily mean °F||28.9||20.8||43.3||50.5||55.4||68.2||72.1||71.8||64.2||54.0||46.4||33.1||50.7|
|Average low °F||24.1||15.1||35.8||43.0||48.9||59.9||64.0||63.3||55.8||46.4||40.8||26.2||43.7|
|Record low °F||−20.9||4.3||9.0||23.2||38.3||41.9||47.1||44.1||40.5||23.9||18.0||7.9||21.7|
|Average precipitation inches||5.39||5.37||0.64||3.26||6.02||2.16||0.75||0.01||0.83||2.05||1.15||3.98||31.61|
|Average precipitation days (≥ mm)||20||16||30||8||13||10||9||10||12||14||14||12||171|
|Average relative humidity (%)||90||86||77||79||82||69||70||65||75||80||85||88||79|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||72.2||101.7||153.2||188.1||242.2||260.9||290.8||274.0||204.3||163.1||97.0||64.5||2,112|
Geology and vegetationEdit
On the territory of Gornji Milanovac there is represented the following type of soil:
- Brown acid soil-which is widespread in areas like Rudnik, from the west of Gruza river to Boljkovci;
- Brown earth on serpentine-at Vujan, Suvobor and Maljen mountains;
- Cambisol-in region of Lipovac, Prnjavor, Donja Crnuca, Belo Polje;
- Brown earth on limestone- in area of Ravna Gora;
- Brown earth on diabase-in region of Belo Polje, Gornja Vrbava, Donja Vrbava, Grabovica, Jablanica, in some village area like Brezovica, Rudnik, Zagradje, Gornji Branetici, Donji Branetici, and Ozrem.
Gornji Milanovac and the villages of Varnice, Zagradje, Dragolj and Trudelj are dominated by the Ostrvica Massif. The elevation of Ostrvica is 758 metres (2,487 ft). Ostrvica is actually the remains of a destroyed volcanic cone. In May 2009, Ostrvica was declared a natural monument. In the middle of the last century, this massif was significant for its military fortifications and watchtower.
Land that is not cultivated makes 14.6%, arable land 47%, barren land makes 4.4%. The erosion process was active in the past, which is why today some parts of the territory have barren land. These processes have caused the degradation of the land. According to the Republic Seismological Institution of Serbia, Gornji Milanovac is on the scale 8°-8.9° magnitude of an earthquake and the probability that this can happen once in 50–1000 years is 63%. In the major territory there is good protection from erosion process and solid protection from floods. The population doesn't have good protection from wind storms and radiation, but new standards in house and building construction stipulates even that. Most of the population has good thermal insulation in their homes and companies.
Forest vegetation is various: willow, poplar, oak, ash, etc. Forest plantations make 10% of his territory and 90% are natural wood. Meadow grass vegetation occupies 26,656 hectares (11,960 ft²) which is 32%, meadows 15% and grasslands 17%.
The terrain of Gornji Milanovac is highland. Total terrain is divided by rivers Kamenica, Čemernica, Gruža, and Despotovica. It is of volcanic origin. Today the terrain is a result of the combined effects of tectonic movements and fluvial erosion processes in the past.
Morphological traits of municipalities, we can distinguish two different zones:
- Mountain rims of the south piedmonts on Maljen, Suvobor and south-western on Rudnik,
- Central-valley basin is characteristic of north-western parts and north of Ješevac and Vujan.
Dominant position in the municipality and Šumadija have mountain Rudnik. As the specific shape of terrain have Ostrvica which has a conical shape and it is positioned north-western from mountain and settlement Rudnik. Mountain massif Ješevac is positioned on the east side of the municipality. Mountain Vujan is lying southwards from river Despotovica to Brdjani pit. Western parts of the area covers Rajac, Suvobor and Maljen. Westernmost parts include Pranjani pit.
According to the last official census done in 2011, the Municipality of Gornji Milanovac has 44,406 inhabitants. Population density on the territory of the municipality is 53.1 inhabitants per square kilometer. Since the census of 1981 when the total population was 50,651 people, there is a population decline due to the bad economic conditions in Serbia, negative natural increase rate and the majority of the older population. As of 2011, in Gornji Milanovac there are 637 migrants.
Estimated composition of population by sex and average age are:
- Male- 21,802 (42.4 years) and
- Female- 22,604 (43.7 years).
Ethnic composition of the municipality:
Religion structure of Gornji Milanovac as it follows in the table:
|Religions||Number of citizens|
|Group of Eastern religions||11|
|Did not declare||347|
Mother tongue structure of Gornji Milanovac is displayed by the following table:
|Mother tongue||Number of cizens|
|Serbian and Serbo-Croatian||43,884|
|Romani (Balkan-Romani dialect)||84|
|Did not declare according with 43 Article of the Constitution of Serbia||72|
Economy and industryEdit
1890 was significant as journalism began in this area. After World War I, Gornji Milanovac was connected with the other and important areas and cities in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes thanks to the narrow gauge railway. Before World War II the population was involved in mining, agronomy and with a few industrial workers (conditory and graphic-printing industry). During the World War II Gornji Milanovac was destroyed, but in the 1950s Gornji Milanovac begin with rapid progress, the rest of SFR Yugoslavia called this area an economic miracle.
In that time there were established two industrial zones (in the South and South-West parts). Companies and corporations that were established in these zones were: Zvezda (now known as Zvezda-Helios), Metalac, PIK Takovo (now known as Swisslion-Takovo), MK Rudnik (Fashion Stationery), FAD (automotive parts for all European cars), Tipoplastika (plastics, paper production), Metal Seko (now known as Mersteel), GRO Graditelj (construction company), Minos (railway equipment), Rudnik Flotation (mining production), Dečje novine (popular youth newspaper and publisher in SFR Yugoslavia), Proleter (department store), Kablar (cooperative agronomy company), Sigma (cardboard producer), Šipad Sarajevo-Gornji Milanovac (construction carpentry), Imlek (dairy products; subsidiary), Mlinsko-Pekarska Industrija Beograd (food industry; subsidiary), JTv Gornji Milanovac (local broadcasting company), KDS "Despotovica" (cable TV distribution systems).
Gornji Milanovac in the '80s and '90s was a real "nursery" of a mixed economy. Despite the 90's break up of SFR Yugoslavia and UN sanctions, Gornji Milanovac was the only city in that time in newly formed FR Yugoslavia whose companies were operated with a profit. New date companies are: "9. Septembar", "Tetra Pak", "Papir Print", "Spektar", "Flint Group Balkan", "Planeta računari", "FOKA", "S-group", "Semix Techno", "Interplet Gradnja", "Rapid", "AzVirt", "Rolopast", "RM Pak", "RGM Pak", "Apex", "MetalMont","Kej komerc", "Neven","Agrouniverzal", DAM 93", "RP Štamparija", "PCM Graf", "CIS Ecopoint", "Maksimil", "Jomla Group","Digitel", "Alfa Support", etc.
After 2001 and 2002, most workers organizations (that was the name for companies who were state and/or workers owned) from a period of 1950–1990 (mentioned above) were privatized. Only a few bankrupted: GRO Graditelj, Mlinsko-Pekarska Industrija Beograd (subsidiary), Imlek (subsidiary), Dečje novine, Minos and JTv Gornji Milanovac.
Here department stores, two mini-supermarkets, elegant boutiques, and restaurants can be found. Also, there is 1 flea markets, where local farmers are selling vegetables, products and 1 market of farm animals.
Today Gornji Milanovac valid for the biggest exporter of goods, services and products in the Republic of Serbia and one of the few cities and municipalities with the budget surplus. During the period of June 2014 unemployment rate in Gornji Milanovac was 25.28%. Most of municipality economy relies on:
- Economic preview
The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018):
|Agriculture, forestry and fishing||103|
|Mining and quarrying||509|
|Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply||63|
|Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities||174|
|Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles||1,548|
|Transportation and storage||433|
|Accommodation and food services||414|
|Information and communication||94|
|Financial and insurance activities||297|
|Real estate activities||9|
|Professional, scientific and technical activities||237|
|Administrative and support service activities||293|
|Public administration and defense; compulsory social security||410|
|Human health and social work activities||718|
|Arts, entertainment and recreation||162|
|Other service activities||199|
|Individual agricultural workers||556|
Community services and Territorial organizationsEdit
Gornji Milanovac has four primary schools: OŠ "Sveti Sava", OŠ Desanka Maksimović, OŠ "Kralj Aleksandar I" (before "Takovski-Partizanski bataljon") and OŠ "Momčilo Nastasijević". Also it has one high school: Gimnazija "Takovski ustanak. Two professional schools (four or three-year): ETŠ "Knjaz Miloš" and TŠ "Jovan Žujović". As regard as kindergarten and nurseries in this municipality there is three of these.
Gornji Milanovac had one department for higher education from Novi Sad, which was private owned and this department dissolved. In future periods was planned to open new departments of University of Kragujevac Faculty of Economics for business administration, taxes and accounting. Also and Faculty of Architecture University of Belgrade had negotiations about opening new departments for local students.
Health protection in Gornji Milanovac is widespread on all territory. Citizens can reach basic health protection even in rural parts of municipality. Health care is organized like: General Hospital, Neurology Hospital, Gynaecology department, Intensive care unit, Labour health protection unit (there are departmans and units in two industrial zones), Surgical and physiatrically department, Dentistry, Dermatology, Psychiatric ward, Rehabilitation services, Village Health Protection Units and Physical therapy. Common support units include a dispensary, pathology, and radiology, and on the non-medical side, there are medical records departments, release of information departments, financial and HR department, Patient lawyers, Clinical Engineering, Facilities Management, Dining Services and Security Departments. There is an emergency service in place. On the property of Gornji Milanovac Hospital, there is built infrastructure for mini spa and rehabilitation center for skin and musculoskeletal diseases from watter resources, mentioned above (see section Geography and Infrastructure). As for health protection of animals, Gornji Milanovac has several privately owned veterinary stations.
"Dečje novine" was the famous and largest publishing house of books, comics, magazines and sticker albums in former Yugoslavia, based in this municipality. They had exclusive copyrights to publish comics of Walt Disney, Marvel and DC Comics. This publisher bankrupted in the 90's and then the remains of company assets were divided among creditors. Creditors established new companies in the sector of publishing books, newspapers, design and art, graphical services and enigmatic-revival editions. But these independent companies did not have the same success as "Dečje novine" had.
This town had 3 private owned radio stations and 1 local broadcasting station. In the '80s at Gornji Milanovac was established experimental radio station for travelers highway information services and among the first cable television systems in Yugoslavia, called Cable Distributive Systems "Despotovica". Due to the technological advancements, this radio station was called off during 1990. At the time of NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (during 1999), former JTv Gornji Milanovac broadcast television and radio signal to the world (because Radio Television of Serbia was bombed and destroyed on April 23, 1999.) for the short time until NATO air force bombed radio and television repeater at mountain Rudnik and nearby Kablar. Now Gornji Milanovac has 2 radio stations, "Gogi" and "Stari Milanovac" radio local broadcasting company, which both broadcasts folk music, information, and news in the Serbian language. Meanwhile, the radio station "Stari Milanovac" bankrupted.
Until 2014, Gornji Milanovac did not have television broadcasting, after series of unsuccessful privatization of former JTv Gornji Milanovac. Now, this municipality has regional television and cable television broadcasting company "Telemark Systems". Telemark bought old cable television KDS Despotovica. This television company provides: cable television, regional television broadcasting for several municipalities ( besides Gornji Milanovac there are providing in Čačak, Lučani, Arilje, Požega, Kosjerić and Kraljevo), broadband internet, IT services, advertising services, fixed telephony, MMDS, dealership of digital and cable TV equipment and other services. Also, Gornji Milanovac has newspaper company "Takovske Novine", while "GM Press" bankrupted. In 2019, Telekom Srbija bought Telemark Systems and municipality Gornji Milanovac wanted new business partners for joint ventures in the media area. In August 2019, license for television media coverage is given to newly formed RTV GM Info Group.
There is one police station, Ministry of Internal Affairs of Serbia administration unit, Military post, Post office, branch of FedEx for Serbia, Customs substation and Fire-Rescuers department. The settlements are organized as Council of Settlements and Gornji Milanovac is divided into 63 settlements. Each of them has responsibility (infrastructure, election/referendum, and legal obligations) for that part of the territory.
Aside from the town of Gornji Milanovac, the municipality of Gornji Milanovac includes the following 60 settlements and 3 smaller towns :
- Belo Polje
- Gojna Gora
- Gornja Vrbava
- Gornja Crnuća
- Gornji Banjani
- Gornji Branetići
- Donja Vrbava
- Donja Crnuća
- Donji Branetići
- Kriva Reka
Judicial system and safetyEdit
Gornji Milanovac from its establishment had modern district court. Today it has Basic People Court and Magistrates Court. Also, it is among the safest municipalities in Serbia. According to National Statistical Institute of Serbia in 2013 Gornji Milanovac had 148 convicted adults and 16 juvenile. Safety index of this municipality is among the highest than in other municipalities in Serbia 98.63%.
According to the Law on Local Self-Government head of municipality (for this status they need population 10,000–99,000 citizens) is called "president" and for larger cities (100,000 and above population), they are called "mayors". Gornji Milanovac has/had 29 presidents in his history. In the following table are named presidents and not precise dates of their mandate:
|Presidents of Municipalities||Political Party||Mandat period|
|Jovan Andrić||People's Radical Party||End 19th century|
|Stanoje Marinković||Beginning of the 20th century|
|Dragoljub Skubic||Yugoslav National Party, Yugoslav Radical Union||1930s|
|Svetozar Čivović||Yugoslav Radical Union||1941–1945|
|Branko Knežević||League of Communists of Yugoslavia||1944–1945|
|Mihailo Mile Tešić||1947–1950|
|Hristivoje Popović||1951– 1955|
|Djordje Djoka Cajić||1955–1960|
|Dragoljub Dragan Pavlović||1967–1969|
|Stanimir Jovanović||1974–1978; 1978–1982|
|Dušan M. Papić||1982–1984|
|Dražimir Marušić||First mandate as League of Communists of Yugoslavia, next three mandates as Socialist Party of Serbia||1992–1993, 1993–1997, 1997–2000 and 2004–2010 (as an independent political candidate: Movement for municipality of Gornji Milanovac )|
|Aleksandar Pravdić||Democratic Party of Serbia||2000–2001|
|Milutin M. Prodanović||2001–2004|
|Milisav Mirković||Socialist Party of Serbia||2010–2012 and 2012–2016|
|Dejan Kovačević||Serbian Progressive Party||2016–present|
Flag, Motto, and Coat of ArmsEdit
First adopted representative solution for Gornji Milanovac was at the beginning of the '60s, with gray flag and complex emblem which consist of green and white colors. Symbols and colors are :
- Green and white was supposed to represent a clean environment with butterfly in the center of emblem,
- In the circle was put Serbian Cyrillic letter "Г (G)", which stands for first initial for "Gornji" and outside is also Serbian Cyrillic letter "M" which stands for the second initial of "Milanovac",
- Gear wheel with number 1853 (which symbolized year of foundation) at the bottom, which supposed to symbolized economical-financial and overall progress of Gornji Milanovac and his people:
The second adopted solution was adopted after the 2000s. This Coat of Arms and Flag was a political and heraldic problem between Socialists Party of Serbia on one side and other political organizations in this municipality on the other side. It was adopted three times: 2000–2004 (municipality government led by DOS), last quarter of 2004–2008 (municipality government led by DSS, SRS, NS, SPO, G17+, DS, LDP) and 2016–present (municipality government led by SNS, NS, PUPS, PS, SDPS and ZS). This coat of arms consists of two lions (red who is holding Serbian civil flag and yellow who is holding the flag of the municipality) with crowns and swords which represented royalty through history and courage of the citizens. In the center of the coat of arms it is positioned heater shield with golden oak and red cross in the middle of the shield. The purpose of these two symbols is to represent ancestors on this lands and red cross to represent rebellion flag from the Second Serbian Uprising and " Zapis" or literally inscription who were there in the moment of gathering all rebellions in that time. Above the heater shield is a stone crown which represents forts and the city history. The flag is a blue background with a wreath of willow flowers and nettle leaves which symbolizes Palm Sunday (on that holiday April 24, 1815, Serbian rebels gathered and begin the Second Serbian Uprising) and Serbian custom of knitting wreaths for health, luck and love purpose. In the center of the flag is a white background with red Greek Orthodox Cross which symbolizes above mentioned Second Serbian Uprising flag. The motto is positioned on the bottom of this coat of arms: ,, Време и моје право (Time and my right)".
The third adopted solution is now replaced emblem and flag of Gornji Milanovac. It is also and the flag of a political coalition called "Pokret za opštinu Gornji Milanovac-POGM (Movement for Municipality of Gornji Milanovac)". The flag is white with some form of inverted Iberian shield. In the shield there are territorial map of municipality as treetop (positioned with blue background which represents sky), in the middle is oak stump which also symbolizes Zapis and Second Serbian Uprising (positioned with green background which represents grass and clean environment) and on the bottom of this emblem, there is inscription "Општина Горњи Милановац (Municipality of Gornji Milanovac)" (positioned in brown background, which represent fertile soil. First flag version of the municipality, in the period of 2004–2008 was a horizontally oriented flag with red, blue and gold colors. In the center of this first solution flag was wreath and Paja Jovanović's painting of Second Serbian Uprising in the center of it. This first solution was abolished and replaced with the second version and also the flag of a political movement. First version was approved for ceremonial purpose. The motto of the municipality was:,, Усудити се, то је цена успеха (Venture is the price of success)".
In the November 2016, new municipality authorities adopted Statute of Municipality Gornji Milanovac with previous, second solution. Problems about flag, motto and coat of arms is in political nature. Above mention political Movement of Municipality Gornji Milanovac is adopting the third solution (now previous emblem). In the 2008 opposition parties suggest referendum about Municipality Statute, but referendum never held. Litigation continues even today and remains to see the next composition of municipality authorities.
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
- Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
- Edessa, Greece
- Kavadarci, North Macedonia
- Kumanovo, North Macedonia
- Nowogard, Poland
- Pleven, Bulgaria
- Slavonska Požega, Croatia
- Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia
- Staro Nagoričane, North Macedonia
- Starodub, Russia
- Starše, Slovenia
- Trebinje, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Vefsn, Norway
- Vlasenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
The most popular sport in the city, besides Basketball, Handball and Volleyball, is definitely football (soccer). The governing body for the sport is Sportski Savez Opštine Gornji Milanovac (engl. Sport Union of Municipality Gornji Milanovac-SSOGM). Besides New Metalac Stadium, Gornji Milanovac have: Sport Hall "Breza" (multi-purpose); Indoors Sport Swimming pool "Tipoplastika" (currently under reconstruction); Sport and recreative centers for workers, students and public in industry zones of Tipoplastika, Autoprevoz and Swisslion-Takovo companies; Outdoors Olympic pool; two sport halls in Pranjani and at Rudnik; Sport Hall in Primary schools at Gornji Milanovac; two bowling hall (one at Metalac Stadium and one in area of professional school "Jovan Žujović"); one beach soccer (football) and volleyball ground; Ice skating rink and one outdoors gym (nearby Sport Hall "Breza"); and "Takovo" Stadium (multipurpose).
Notable sport society from Gornji Milanovac are shown in following table:
|FK Metalac Gornji Milanovac||Soccer (Football)||Metalac Stadium||Serbian First League (2nd tier)||Men's football team. Established 1961.|
|FK Takovo||SD Takovo stadium||Serbian League West (3rd tier)||Men's football team. Established 1911.|
|SD Dragan Jeftic Skepo||Shooting||Shooting range SD Dragan Jeftić Škepo||SSS Cup||Men and women's shooting team.|
|ŽRK Metalac AD||Handball||SC "Breza"||Serbian First League (West) for Women||Women's handball team|
|RK Tipoplastika||Sport and recreation center of Tipoplastika company||None||Men's handball team. Dissolved, 2000.|
|RK Omladinac||SC "Breza"||Serbian First League West||Dissolved in the 1980s. Reestablished 2012|
|KAF Metalac||American Football||Takovo Stadium||Ex Second Serbian and Montenegrin American Football National League (NLS)||Men's American football team. Dissolved.|
|KBK Milanovac||Kickboxing||Various||Future champions league||Men's kickboxing club|
|KK Metalac||Bowling||Atomsko Sklonište and at Metalac Stadium||Serbian Super League (bowling)||Men's bowling team|
|KMF Metalac-Kolorado||Footsal||SC "Breza"||Second Futsal League-West||Men's futsal team|
|OK Takovo-Zvezda-Helios (Women); Takovo-Metalac (Men)||Volleyball||SC "Breza"||Serbian First League (women), Serbian First League (men)||Men and women's volleyball team|
|AK Takovo||Athletics||Takovo stadium||Serbian Athletic League||Men and women's athletic team|
|MK Lonely Riders||Motorcycles||SAS Parac||AMSS championship||Men and Women motorcycle club|
|OKK Takovo||Basketball||Hall of TŠ "Jovan Žujović" and SC "Breza"||Junior Regional Basketball League-West||Men's basketball team|
|KK Ikar Gornji Milanovac||SC "Breza"||None||Men and Women's basketball club for children with special needs|
|KK GM032||SC "Breza"||Second Men Regional Basketball League-West group B||Men's basketball team|
|KK Takovo||Karate||SC "Breza"||No data||Men and Women's karate club|
|TK Takovo||Tennis||"Takovo" Stadium complex||Tennis League of Serbia||Men and women's tennis club|
|PK Kupidon||Darts||Various||Second national league||Men darts club|
|JK Grabovica||Sailing||None||None (dissolved, 2009)||Men sailing club|
|DK Arasi||Judo||Various||Unknown||Men's and women judo club|
|BK Car Dušan Silni||Shoot wrestling||Various||Serbian Battle Championship||Men shoot wrestling affiliation|
|PSD Rudnik||Mountaineering||Rudnik mountain complex||PSS Expeditions||Men's and women mountaineering sport association|
|ŠK Metalac-Takovo||Chess||Various||Serbian Super League||Men and women chess club|
|STSO Gornji Milanovac||Table Tennis||Various||Serbia Table Tennis Federation League||Men and women table tennis club|
|PK Domingo||Dance sport club||Various||Various||Men and women dance sport club|
Also there are multisport activities and organizations in this municipality. Such as: DTV Partizan (physical training club for children/school children and workers) and four junior football (soccer) clubs: "Poletarac", "Junior soccer", "Srpski orlovi" and "Sportic". As far as municipality association football (soccer) league, Gornji Milanovac has 12 members: Majdan, Jablanica, Šumadija, Ozrem PMH, Šilopaj, Velereč '94, Ozremica, Mladi Rudar, Mladost '09, Takovski ustanak, Brezak, Sparta Grabovica and Omladinac. Every municipality football senior game is well covered by local residents. In Morava District league (5th level in Serbian Football league system) there are some Gornji Milanovac clubs, as: FK Napredak Svračkovci, FK Backovac United, FK Donja Vrbava and FK Lunjevica.
This municipality has numerous of deserving citizens who have contributed to the progress of Serbia and Yugoslavia.
- Hadži-Prodan Gligorijević, Serbian military commander in First Serbian Uprising
- Jovan Žujović, anthropologist, a founder of geology in Serbia
- Mija Aleksić, Serbian actor
- Momčilo Nastasijević, a Serbian poet and novelist
- Uroš Petrović, literate
- Bjesovi, alternative rock band
- Snežana Đurišić, Serbian and Yugoslavian folk singer
- Čedomir Mirković, Serbian writer and editor
- Draga Mašin, queen and wife of King Aleksandar Obrenović of the Kingdom of Serbia
- Ljubica Vukomanović, Princess consort of the Principality of Serbia, wife of Miloš Obrenović
- Jelena Abbou, née Jelena Djordjevic Fitness and figure competition
- Dragan Todorović, Serbian politician and president of political party "Istočna alternativa (East Alternative)"
- Milomir Marić, Serbian journalist, writer, and television presenter
- Bojan Dimitrijević, Serbian politician and ex-minister of Trade, Tourism, and Services in the Serbian government
- Dragiša Vasić, Serbian and Yugoslavian lawyer, writer, publicist, soldier
- Arsenije Loma, Serbian duke during the First and Second Serbian Uprising of the Serbian revolution
- Ljubica Otašević, Serbian and Yugoslavian actor and women basketball player
- Čedomir Mirković, writer and critic
- Uroš Petrović, poet
- Dobrica Matković, chief of the Royal Department for State Protection and Ban of Danube
- "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
- Djura Vrbavac "Nikola Milicevic Lunjevica", Lybrary "Brothers Nastasijevic", Gornji Milanovac, 2009; COBISS.SR-ID 157333004
- http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/istorija-rtk.html%7CPrehistory[permanent dead link] of Gornji Milanovac, December 2014
- Milomir Glišić, Dušan Ilić, Aleksandar Lazarević, Radmilo Lale Mandić, Miroslav Laf Marković, Miodrag Ristić:, Stari Milanovac (The old Milanovac)", third edition. 2003. ISBN 978-86-7152-018-8. r.r
- http://www.bibliotekagm.com/BN/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=34%7CLibrary "Brothers Nastasijević", October, 2014
- https://www.youtube.com/user/GMUndergrounders GM Undergrounders official Youtube page
- "Плишани малишан, победник Јелен Демофеста". Archived from the original on 2014-06-07. Retrieved 2014-09-03.
- Winner of Demo Fest 2014 |Demo Fest Live 2014: Pobednici – Strah od Džeki Čena
- Gornji Milanovac and 72 municipalities in Serbia are great antagonist of GM food and they adopted prohibition |http://www.studiob.rs/info/tema.php?id=459%7CRetrieved[permanent dead link]: February, 2015
- https://gminfo.rs/bozicna-voznja-ulicama-milanovca/ | News about the organization of the Traditional Orthodox Christmas Festival; Retrieved: January 2020
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2014-09-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-03-18. Retrieved 2011-01-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/lat/ekoloska-monitoring-vazduh.html |Results of Air Quality measurements in Gornji Milanovac from Institute for Public Health-Čačak, Retrieved: January 2020.
- Background radiation on territory of Serbia |http://www.srbatom.gov.rs/srbatom/doc/monitoring-izvestaj-2011.pdf |Retrieved: April 2015
- Republic Hydrometorogical Service of Serbia "Average temperatures for Gornji Milanovac (2010–2013)" (PDF). Republic Hydrometorogical Service of Serbia. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-29. Retrieved 2014-07-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Ores in Gornji Milanovac |http://srbin.info/2014/06/09/sumadijski-auto-put-otkrio-zlato/%7CRetrieved[permanent dead link]: January, 2015
- Terrain traits of the municipality of Gornji Milanovac |http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/geografske-odlike.html |Retrieved: April 2015
- "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- Population in Serbia by number of migrants|http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/63/41/Dem.pdf%7CRetrieved: March 2015
- Population in Republic Serbia, Census 2011|http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/61/97/03Stanovnistvo.pdf%7CRetrieved: March 2015
- http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Knjiga4_Veroispovest.pdf%7CRelligion and mother tongue structure of Serbian (December, 2014)
- http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Knjiga4_Veroispovest.pdf%7CList of Mother tongue population in Serbia (December, 2014)
- Industry of Gornji Milanovac|http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/privreda.html%7CRetrieved[permanent dead link] in January 2014
- Map of Poverty in Serbia |http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/418641477472334751/Mapa-siromastva-u-Srbiji.pdf?%3Fcid%3DECA_FB_Serbia__EXT= |Retrieved: November 2016
- "MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2019" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
- https://moravainfo.rs/2019/03/lokalna-televizija-u-gornjem-milanovcu-hoce-da-ukrade-ime-portalu-gminfo/ | New media in Gornji Milanovac, Retrieved: January,2019
- National Institute of Serbia-Convicted crimes in Serbia for 2013|http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/01/62/45/20Pravosudje.pdf%7CRetrieved in January 2014
- Criminal rate of Serbia-2013|http://www.numbeo.com/crime/country_result.jsp?country=Serbia
- Milorad Glišić, Dušan Ilić, Aleksandar Lazarević, Radmilo Lale Mandić, Miroslav Laf Marković, Miodrag Ristić: "Stari Milanovac ", Third amended edition, 2003, ISBN 978-86-7152-018-8
- List of the presidents of Gornji Milanovac |http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/istorija.html |Retrieved: March 2015
- New/Previous Coat of Arms of Municipality Gornji Milanovac adopted |http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/lat/saopstenje-678.html%7CRetrieved[permanent dead link]: November 2016
- "Међународна сарадња општине Горњи Милановац". gornjimilanovac.rs (in Serbian). Gornji Milanovac. Retrieved 2020-12-29.
- "Gornji Milanovac i ruski Starodub jačaju pobratimstvo, od saradnje imaće koristi i đaci". gmpress.rs (in Serbian). Gm Press. 2019-12-08. Retrieved 2020-12-29.
- Takovske novine, "Sport activities and awards", year LII, special edition: May 21st 2015, Retrieved: May, 2015, ISSN 0350-4867
- http://www.gornjimilanovac.rs/istorija-milanovcani.html |Notable people of Gornji Milanovac
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gornji Milanovac.|