Roubaix (French: [ʁubɛ] or [ʁube]; Dutch: Robaais; West Flemish: Roboais) is a city in northern France, located in the Lille metropolitan area on the Belgian border. It is a historically mono-industrial commune in the Nord department, which grew rapidly in the 19th century from its textile industries, with most of the same characteristic features as those of English and American boom towns. This former new town has faced many challenges linked to deindustrialisation such as urban decay, with their related economic and social implications, since its major industries fell into decline by the middle of the 1970s. Located to the northeast of Lille, adjacent to Tourcoing, Roubaix is the chef-lieu of two cantons and the third largest city in the French region of Hauts-de-France ranked by population with nearly 96,000 inhabitants.
The city hall
Probitas et Industria
|Canton||Roubaix-1 and Roubaix-2|
|Intercommunality||Métropole Européenne de Lille|
|• Mayor (2020–2026)||Guillaume Delbar|
|13.23 km2 (5.11 sq mi)|
|• Density||7,400/km2 (19,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||17–52 m (56–171 ft) |
(avg. 35 m or 115 ft)
|Website||www.ville-roubaix.fr (in French)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Together with the nearby cities of Lille, Tourcoing, Villeneuve-d'Ascq and eighty-six other communes, Roubaix gives structure to a four-centred metropolitan area inhabited by more than 1.1 million people: the European Metropolis of Lille. To a greater extent, Roubaix is in the center of a vast conurbation formed with the Belgian cities of Mouscron, Kortrijk and Tournai, which gave birth to the first European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation in January 2008, Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai with an aggregate population of over 2 million inhabitants.
Roubaix occupies a central position on the north-east slope of the Métropole Européenne de Lille: it is set on the eastern side of Lille and the southern side of Tourcoing, close to the Belgian border. As regards towns' boundaries, Roubaix is encompassed by seven cities which constitute its immediate neighbouring environment. These municipalities are namely: Tourcoing to the north and the northwest, Wattrelos to the northeast, Leers to the east, Lys-lez-Lannoy to the southeast, Hem to the south and Croix to the southwest and the west. Roubaix, alongside those municipalities and twenty-one other communes, belongs to the land of Ferrain, a little district of the former Castellany of Lille between the Lys and Scheldt rivers.
As the crow flies, the distance between Roubaix and the following cities is some odd: 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) to Tournai, 18 kilometres (11 mi) to Kortrijk, 84 kilometres (52 mi) to Brussels and 213 kilometres (132 mi) to Paris.
The plain upon which Roubaix lies, stretches on an east-west oriented shallow syncline axis which trends south-southeast to the Paleozoic limestone of the Mélantois-Tournaisis faulted anticline. This area consists predominantly of Holocene alluvial sediment depositions. It is flat and low, with an elevation drop of only 35 m (114 ft 10 in) over its 13.23 square kilometres (5.11 sq mi). The lowest altitude of this area stands at 17 m (55 ft 9+1⁄2 in), while its highest altitude is 52 m (170 ft 7 in) meters above the sea level.
The Trichon stream fed by waters of the Espierre stream used to flow through the rural landscape of Roubaix before the industrialisation process began to alter this area in the middle of the 19th century. From that century on, the ensuing industries, with their increasing needs for reliable supplies of goods and water, led to the building of an inland waterway connected upstream from the Deûle and downstream to the Marque and Espierre toward the Scheldt, which linked directly Roubaix to Lille.
Opened in 1877, the Canal de Roubaix crosses the town from its northern neighbourhoods to its eastern neighbourhoods and flows along the city's boundaries. The Canal de Roubaix closed in 1985, after more than a century in use. Thank to the European funded project Blue Links, the waterway has been reopened to navigation since 2011.
Despite some American statements that weather conditions in Roubaix were bad during the 19th century, the area of the city is not known for undergoing unusual weather events. In regard to the town's geographical location and the results of the Météo-France's weather station of Lille-Lesquin, Roubaix is a temperate oceanic climate: while summer experiences mild temperatures, winter's temperatures may fall to below zero. Precipitation is infrequently intense.
The current city's name is most likely derived from Frankish rausa "reed" and baki "brook". Therefore the meaning of Roubaix can, in all likelihood, find its origin on the banks of its three historical brooks: Espierre, Trichon and Favreuil. The place was mentioned for the first time in a Latinised form in the 9th century: Villa Rusbaci. Thereafter, the following names were in use: 1047 and 1106 Rubais, 1122 Rosbays, 1166 Rusbais, 1156 and 1202 Robais, 1223 Roubais. Over the span of centuries, the name evolved to Roubaix as shown on Mercator's map of Flanders published at Leuven in 1540.
Parallel to the official and usual name Roubaix, some translations are worth a mention. Firstly, though the city has never belonged to the Flemish-speaking area, the seldom-heard renderings Robeke and Roodebeeke are documented for Roubaix. Furthermore, the Dutch Language Union established Robaais as the city's proper Dutch name. Lastly, one can cite Rosbacum as the definite Latin transcription of Roubaix which has been in use since the 19th century, as recorded on dedication statements sealed in the first stones of the foundations of the City Hall laid in 1840 and the Church of Notre Dame laid in 1842.
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|The arms of Roubaix are blazoned:|
Party per pale ermine a chief gules and azure, thereon between two bobbins argent a five-pointed star or in chief, a wool-cards at its centre and a shuttle fesswise in base or, all within a bordure indented of the same.
Inhabitants of Roubaix are known in English as "Roubaisians" and in French as Roubaisiens (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.zjɛ̃ ]) or in the feminine form Roubaisiennes (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.zjɛn]), also natively called Roubaignos (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.njo]) or in the feminine form Roubaignoses (pronounced [ʁu.bɛ.njoz]).
|From 1962 to 1999: population without double counting|
Source: L.E. Marissal for 1716, 1789, 1801, 1805, 1817, 1830 and 1842, Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 2006 and INSEE from 2007
The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793 and the research study of Louis-Edmond Marissal, Clerk of the Peace of the city, published in 1844. Roubaix evolved into a provincial market town until the end of the Early modern period with a census population of 4,715 inhabitants in 1716. By the late 18th century, the city began to emerge as regional textile manufacturing centre and its population increased, reaching a level of 8,091 in 1800. As a result of the industrialisation process of the 19th century, the need of workers was supplied by rural flight as well as immigration. Belgian settlement was a feature of the Roubaisian life at that time.
During the first-half period of the 19th century, Roubaix ranked the first French town in terms of population growth rate with a five times increase, whereas in the remaining period of this century its population doubled. Within this last time framework, Belgian immigration appeared to be one of the major factor to explain the significantly high population growth, with 30,465 Belgian inhabitants counted in 1866 and 42,103 in 1872. Nonetheless, the rate of natural increase shew to be a more important component of the population growth in that period.
At the 20th century threshold, the Roubaisian population reached a peak of 124,661, from which it progressively declined over the successive decades. Occupied by German troops from October 1914 to October 1918, Roubaix belonged to the combat zone of the Western Front during the First World War. Over this occupation period, Roubaisians suffered from dearth, deportation for compulsory labour and unusual casualties with a rather slight population drop from 122,723 to 113,265 between the 1911 and 1921 censuses.
Although the region of Roubaix was subjected many times to the domination of Flanders' rulers throughout its history, Roubaisians have used a local Picard variant as the language of everyday life for centuries. This spoken vernacular is locally known as Roubaignot. Until the early 20th century this patois prevailed. Therefore, French language progressive penetration into local culture should not only be analysed as a result of the industrialisation and urbanisation of the area but should also be considered in terms of public education policies.
In the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War and the German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, many Jews left their homes and emigrated. Jewish arrival in Roubaix derives from that bitter period of history. At the time, the new immigrant community, even though its small size, dedicated a building to Jewish faith and liturgical practises. The newly opened synagogue, located in a house at number 51 on the narrow rue des Champs, operated more than 60 years, until 1939, when it was closed under imprecise local circumstances as the Nazi regime took over in Europe. Despite the closure of the synagogue, the occupation and police raids,[note 1] the local practise of Judaism saw a humble revival after the war which lasted until the start of the 1990s when the modest Jewry of Roubaix handed over its Sefer Torah to the care of the Jewish community of Lille. Roubaix has no longer been home to a Jewish place of worship since that event. The house inside which the first one was created 123 years ago, has been demolished since an urban renewal project occurred in 2000. On September 10, 2015, the mayor unveiled a commemorative plaque on the rue des Champs, as a tribute to the Roubaisian Jewry, in memory of the religious purpose of this previous building.
As of August 2013 there were six mosques in the town, including one under construction. According to estimates by the mayor's office, around 20,000 people, or about 20 percent of the population were Muslims. Four areas of the cemetery were designated for Muslims.
During the second half of the 20th century, the city took in Buddhist communities from originally Buddhist countries in the Southeast Asian peninsula including Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Within this background Roubaix has brought together two Buddhist traditions on its territory, hence cultural variations across communities: Mahāyāna and Theravāda with, respectively, one and four places of worship.
During the Middle Age, the city grew in a northward-facing semicircle around its primitive core, beyond the area spread out between the church Saint Martin and the former fortified castle. The existence of this south boundary remained until the 18th century and marked an urban expansion which mainly occurred on the western and northern sides of the town. Increasing industrialisation, land transport improvement, continued population growth and the resulting need for suitable low cost lands for housing and manufacturing plants, all of which finally led to expand the city southward from the centre, in the 19th century.
Administrative and political affairsEdit
Constituencies and cantonsEdit
Roubaix grouped four cantons from 1988 to 2012. Since then, this number has fallen to two with Roubaix 1 and Roubaix 2. After the last redistricting of French legislative constituencies in 2010, the city is now divided into two constituencies: Nord's 7th constituency which include the former canton of Roubaix-Ouest and Nord's 8th constituency formed by the following former cantons: Roubaix-Centre, Roubaix-Nord and Roubaix-Est.
Eastern district neighbourhoodsEdit
- Trois Ponts
Western district neighbourhoodsEdit
Central district neighbourhoodsEdit
- Anseelme Motte-Bossut
Northern district neighbourhoodsEdit
- Cul de Four
- Fosses aux Chênes
Southern district neighbourhoodsEdit
- Chemin Neuf
- Edouard Vaillant
- Nouveau Roubaix
Mayors of the cityEdit
|Mayor||Term start||Term end||Party[note 2]|
|Henri Carette||May 1892||December 1901||POF|
|Edouard Roussel||December 1901||January 1902||UDR|
|Eugène Motte||January 1902||May 1912||FR|
|Jean-Baptiste Lebas[note 3]||May 1912||March 1915||SFIO|
|Henri Thérin[note 4]||March 1915||October 1918||SFIO|
|Jean-Baptiste Lebas||October 1918||June 1940||SFIO|
|Fleuris Vanherpe[note 5]||June 1940||August 1941|
|Marcel Guislain||August 1941||December 1941|
|Alphonse Verbeurgt||January 1942||May 1942|
|Charles Bauduin||May 1942||July 1942|
|Victor Provo[note 6]||July 1942||March 1977||SFIO then PS|
|Pierre Prouvost||March 1977||March 1983||PS|
|André Diligent||March 1983||May 1994||UDF-CDS|
|René Vandierendonck||May 1994||March 2012||UDF-CDS then DVG and finally PS|
|Pierre Dubois||March 2012||March 2014||PS|
|Guillaume Delbar||April 2014||–||UMP then LR and finally DVD|
Remarkable buildings, old brick factories and warehouses abound in this once renowned city which was esteemed to be a worldwide textile capital in the early years of the 20th century. Thus, the city inherited one of the most architectural works in the French history and culture of the 19th century Industrial Revolution and was designated Town of Art and History on December 13, 2000. Ever since the Ministry of Culture endowed Roubaix with this label, the city has entered the 21st century by promoting its cultural standing as the inheritance of its industrial and social history.
Several profane or sacral buildings of Roubaix are registered as historic monuments.
Art nouveau house
Sculptures and memorialsEdit
The city has been the place where illustrious names of French sculptors put their skills to create memorial monuments since the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century. After a long slack period 2010 introduced a shift in the genre with the unveiling of Wim Delvoye's Discobolos, a statue of modern art conceived as a welcoming sign to a neighbourhood of the city. The sculptures and memorial monuments in Roubaix which deserve notice for their historical or artistical interest are mentioned below.
- Discobolos: Wim Delvoye (sculptor), Bruno Dupont (mediator), Fondation de France and city of Roubaix (supporters), ordered by the neighbourhood residents with the members of the Hommelet neighbourhood committee[note 7] and inaugurated on June 5, 2010
- Joan of Arc statue: Maxime Real del Sarte (sculptor), inaugurated on May 27, 1952
- Memorial to Jean-Baptiste Lebas: Albert de Jaeger (sculptor), funded through public subscription and inaugurated on October 23, 1949
- Memorial to Resistance Martyrs of Roubaix: Albert de Jaeger (sculptor), engraved "Roubaix a ses martyrs de la Résistance" and "Ils ont brisé les chaînes de l'oppression",[note 8] ordered by the City council and inaugurated on November 11, 1948
- Memorial to Eugène Motte: Raoul Bénard (sculptor), Gustave Poubel (architect), funded through public subscription and inaugurated on September 22, 1935
- Memorial to Jean-Joseph Weerts: Alexandre Descatoire (sculptor), ordered by the City council and inaugurated on October 29, 1931
- Memorial to Louis Bossut: Maxime Real del Sarte (sculptor), ordered by the City council and inaugurated on October 4, 1925
- Monuments aux Morts or World War I Memorial of Roubaix: Alexandre Descatoire (sculptor), Jean-Frédéric Wielhorski (architect), engraved "Roubaix à ses enfants morts pour la défense du pays et pour la paix",[note 9] ordered by the City council and inaugurated on October 18, 1925
- Memorial to Jules Guesde: Georgette Agutte-Sembat (sculptor), Albert Bührer (architect), funded through public subscription and inaugurated on April 12, 1925
- Memorial to Amédée Prouvost: Hippolyte Lefèbvre (sculptor), ordered by the City council and inaugurated on October 29, 1922
- Memorial to Pierre Destombes: Corneille Theunissen (sculptor), engraved "Hortorum, Musicae, Librorumque, Studiosus",[note 10] ordered by the City council and inaugurated on October 29, 1922
- Memorial to Gustave Nadaud: Alphonse-Amédée Cordonnier (sculptor), Gustave Leblanc-Barbedienne (art founder), inaugurated on October 11, 1896
Roubaix has been home to two major museums of the region Hauts-de-France since the beginning of the 21st century: La Piscine[note 11] and La Manufacture;[note 12] inheriting both of the local socioeconomic history. La Piscine, also known as the Musée d'Art & d'Industrie André Diligent,[note 13] is one of the most lauded cultural attractions in northern France. This museum is housed in the Art Deco-style former swimming pool of Roubaix, a building remodelled in 2000 to accommodate and exhibit 19th and 20th century collections of the city.[note 14] After being closed for two years of renovation works and extension, it was reopened to the public in October 2018, becoming more successful than ever before. La Manufacture is the reference textile museum in northern France. It is hosted in an old weaving factory.
From the end of the Second World War to the beginning of the 1970s, a casual group of young artists from Roubaix and the surrounding region was formed and given the name Groupe de Roubaix. Two painters commonly associated with the group are Arthur Van Hecke and Eugène Leroy.
Anxious to restore the prestige of northern France's textile industry and operating under the label of Maisons de Mode, the cities of Lille and Roubaix have created spaces for new fashion designers to thrive since 2007. The Roubaisian location, next to La Piscine museum, is known as Le Vestiaire.[note 15] There are fifteen boutiques and fashion studios housed in an old industrial building.
Theatre and performing arts centresEdit
- Centre chorégraphique national Roubaix - Hauts-de-France[note 16]
- Condition publique
- Théâtre de l'Oiseau-Mouche "Le Garage"
- Théâtre Louis Richard
- Théâtre Pierre de Roubaix
The city of Roubaix was the filming location (mostly or partly) of the following films:
- I Am a Soldier (French: Je suis un soldat), directed by Laurent Larivière in 2015
- My Golden Days (French: Trois souvenirs de ma jeunesse), directed by Arnaud Desplechin in 2015
- Discount, directed by Louis-Julien Petit in 2014
- Queens of the Ring (French: Les Reines du ring), directed by Jean-Marc Rudnicki in 2013
- Blue Is the Warmest Colour (French: La Vie d'Adèle – Chapitres 1 & 2), directed by Abdellatif Kechiche in 2013
- A Christmas Tale (French: Un conte de Noël), directed by Arnaud Desplechin in 2008
- The Banishment (Russian: Изгнание, Izgnanie), directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev in 2007
- In His Hands (French: Entre ses mains), directed by Anne Fontaine in 2005
- The Axe (French: Le couperet), directed by Costa-Gavras in 2005
- Save Me (French: Sauve-Moi), directed by Christian Vincent in 2000
- Flat Land Cities (French: Les Cités de la plaine), directed by Robert Kramer in 1999
- The Dreamlife of Angels (French: La Vie rêvée des anges), directed by Erick Zonca in 1998
- Enigma, directed by Jeannot Szwarc in 1982
- Life Is a Long Quiet River (French: La vie est un long fleuve tranquille), directed by Étienne Chatiliez in 1988
- Hurricane Rosy (Italian: Temporale Rosy, French: Rosy la bourrasque), directed by Mario Monicelli in 1979
- Swimming Instructor (French: Le Maître-nageur), directed by Jean-Louis Trintignant in 1979
- Body of My Enemy (French: Le Corps de mon ennemi), directed by Henri Verneuil in 1976
- A Sunday in Hell, (Danish: En Forårsdag i Helvede) Danish documentary directed by Jørgen Leth in 1976
- The Confession (French: L'Aveu), directed by Costa Gavras in 1970
- Struggle in Italy (Italian: Lotte in Italia), directed by the Dziga Vertov Group in 1970
- The EDHEC Business School is one of the few Grandes École located outside the Paris Metropolitan Area. It is one of Europe's fastest rising business schools.
- ENSAIT is a higher education and research institute, gathering all the disciplines related to textiles
- ESAAT is a design education institute
- Decentralisation of the Universities of Lille II and Lille III
- Médiathèque "La Grand'Plage"
- National Archives of the World of Work
Roubaix has an old sporting heritage and is home to the finishing of one of the world's oldest races of professional road cycling at its velodrome: Paris–Roubaix known as the Hell of the North. While Roubaix is famous for its velodrome, there is more to this city than the cycling sports facilities.
The building of indoor and outdoor sports amenities in the city should be associated with its era of economic rise during the industrial revolution, in addition to the development of local sporting clubs and associations.
During the 19th century, Roubaix acquired an international reputation for textile industry and wool production. In the 1970s and 1980s, international competition and automation caused an industrial decline and resulted in the closure of many factories. From that moment on and since the implementation of the French urban policy in the early 1980s, around three-fourths of the town's territory has been regularly assigned specific zoning designations as well as health and welfare plans.
Roubaix's high level of unemployment is a consequence of the desindustrialisation. The town is listed among France's poorest cities. Successive local governments have tried to address difficulties associated with deindustrialisation by attracting new industries, making the most of the town's cultural credentials  and organising a strong student presence on different campuses. While undergoing conversion efforts, the city is experimenting with new models and able to take advantage of successful economic stories, with online retail and information technology, and seems to be on the way to reverse the decades of decline.
Nowadays, local textile companies are focussing on developing high-tech textile products.
Commerce and servicesEdit
Mail order companies of international renown such as La Redoute, Damart and 3 Suisses, stemmed from textile industries which were founded in Roubaix. Showroomprive.com has been locally established since 2016 as an e-commerce company that specialises in online flash sales.
Information technology and e-businessEdit
- OVH was created in Roubaix in 1999 and became a global IT infrastructure company, creating more than thousand jobs in the city and surroundings. Its head office is still in Roubaix.
- Ankama Games has established its head office in Roubaix since 2007.
- Blanchemaille, an e-commerce cluster helped by the incubator EuraTechnologies, has been established in the former building of La Redoute in Roubaix since 2014.
A22 autoroute, a French part of the European route E17 from Burgundy to Antwerp, is the only motorway, within a motorway roads network of the highest density in France after Paris, which passes by Roubaix.
The city is also served by the Lille Metro.
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s desindustrialisation dramatically influenced major urban landscapes across the arrondissement of Lille. Large areas of brownfield land came to mark the city of Roubaix. With the support of the local and national government programs, these areas are acquired and gradually restored or rebuilt.
Roubaix has one of the most efficient biomass district heating plant in France and is therefore among the most advanced cities for sustainability in Hauts-de-France. Since 2014, the city has been engaged in several related initiatives aimed at moving to a circular economy and a zero waste future.
- Stanislas Dehaene (1965–): cognitive psychologist, professor at the Collège de France and author
- Bernard Amadei (1954–): professor of civil engineering at the University of Colorado, founder of Engineers Without Borders (USA)
- Dominique Mulliez (1952–): epigrapher, archaeologist and Hellenist
- Marguerite Dupire (1920–2015): ethnologist
- Robert Jonckhèere (1888–1974): astronomer
- Joseph Willot (1875–1919): pharmacist and World War I resistance activist
Politicians and professionalsEdit
- Karima Delli (1979–): politician, Member of the European Parliament
- Olivier Henno (1962–): politician, mayor of Saint-André-lez-Lille and general councillor
- Benoît Duquesne (1957–2014): journalist, television reporter and newscaster
- Pierre Pribetich (1956–): politician, former Member of the European Parliament
- Marie-Christine Blandin (1952–): politician, member of the Senate of France, representing the Nord department
- Jean-Luc Brunin (1951–): clergyman, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Le Havre
- Alex Türk (1950–): politician, member of the Senate of France, representing the Nord department
- Bernard Arnault (1949–): business magnate, investor and art collector
- Bruno Masure (1947–): journalist, news anchor and television presenter
- Auguste Mimerel (1786–1871), industrialist and politician
- Gérard Mulliez (1931–): businessman, founder of the Auchan chain of department stores
- Robert Diligent (1924–2014): journalist, founding members of Télé Luxembourg
- Francis Pollet (1964-): general officer
- André Diligent (1919–2002): lawyer and politician, World War II resistance activist, deputy to the National Assembly, senator-mayor of Roubaix
- Marcel Verfaillie (1911–1945): communist militant, World War II resistance activist against Nazism, died in concentration camp
- Pierre Herman (1910–1990): politician, deputy to the National Assembly
- Pierre Pflimlin (1907–2000): lawyer and politician, last Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic
- Raymond Schmittlein (1904–1974): toponymist and politician, deputy to the National Assembly
- Jean-Baptiste Lebas (1898–1944): politician, mayor of Roubaix, deputy to the National Assembly, World War I and II resistance activist, died in deportation custody
- Antoine Cordonnier (1892–1918): military aviator, flying ace during World War I
- Jules Dumont (1888–1943): communist militant, commanded the Commune de Paris Battalion, a unit part of the XI International Brigade
- Jean Prouvost (1885–1978): businessman, media owner and politician
- Agnello van den Bosch (1883–1945): Belgian Catholic Franciscan priest (OFM), founder and president of the Belgian National Work for the Blind, died in concentration camp
- Louis Loucheur (1872–1931): writer and politician, deputy to the National Assembly
- Ferdinand Bonnel (1865–1945): Jesuit priest and missionary in Sri Lanka
- Théodore Vienne (1864–1921): textile manufacturer and co-founder of Paris–Roubaix cycle race
- Eugène Motte (1860–1932): politician and businessman, mayor of Roubaix, deputy to the National Assembly
- Pierre Wibaux (1858–1913): cattle-rancher, banker and gold-mine owner, emigrated from France to the United States
- Jules Guesde (1845–1922): Paris-born socialist journalist and politician, deputy of the constituency of Roubaix to the National Assembly
- Jean Desbouvrie (c. 1840-1847-?): inventor and bird tamer
- Marie Desplechin (1959–): writer and journalist
- Pierre Pierrard (1920–2005): historian
- Michel Décaudin (1919–2004): Romance linguist, literature professor and author
- Richard Cobb (1917–1996): British social historian. Lived in Roubaix in the 1940s.
- Octave Vandekerkhove (1911–1987): writer
- Maxence Van Der Meersch (1907–1951): writer
- Maurice Nédoncelle (1905–1976): personalist philosopher
- Yanette Delétang-Tardif (1902–1976): poet
- Amédée Prouvost (1877–1909): poet
- Jules Feller (1859–1940): Romance linguist and philologist, Belgian academician and Walloon militant
- Wanani Gradi Mariadi (1990–): rapper known as Gradur
- Kaddour Hadadi (1976–): singer and author known as HK
- Philippe Dhondt (1965–): singer, songwriter and composer known as Boris
- Arnaud Desplechin (1960–): film director
- Édouard Devernay (1889–1952): Organist, composer
- Wladyslaw Znorko (1958–2013): theatre author and director
- Philippe Barraqué (1954–): musicologist, music therapist, composer and singer
- Étienne Chatiliez (1952–): film director
- Roger Delmotte (1925–): classical trumpeter
- Philippe Lefebvre (1949–): musician, principal organist of Notre Dame Cathedral of Paris
- Chantal Ladesou (1948–): actress and comedian
- Agnès Guillemot (1931–2005): film editor
- Pierre Jansen (1930–2015): film music composer
- Jenny Clève (1930–): actress
- Elisabeth Yvonne Scatcherd (1928–): film actress known as Yvonne Furneaux
- Charles Gadenne (1925–2012): sculptor
- Georges Delerue (1925–1992): composer who worked on over 350 scores for cinema and television
- Arthur Van Hecke (1924–2003): painter
- Gabrielle Vervaecke (1921–2005): composer and singer known as Gaby Verlor
- Viviane Romance (1912–1991): actress
- Albert de Jaeger (1908–1992): sculptor, printmaker, medallist and smelter
- Charles Bodart-Timal (1897–1971): songwriter and chansonnier
- Jules Gressier (1897–1960): conductor
- Francis Bousquet (1890–1942): Marseille-born composer
- Léon Mathot (1886–1968): film actor and director
- Silas Broux (1867–1957): painter
- Jean-Joseph Weerts (1846–1927): painter
- Rémy Cogghe (1846–1927): Belgian-born painter who resided in Roubaix
- Gustave Nadaud (1820–1893): songwriter and chansonnier
- Wassim Aouachria (2000–): football player
- Moussa Niakhate (1996–): football player
- Christoffer Mafoumbi (1994–): goalkeeper
- Saoussen Boudiaf (1993–): sabre fencer
- Anthony Knockaert (1991–): football player
- Aliou Dia (1990–): football player
- Antoine Roussel (1989–): ice hockey player
- Pierrick Gunther (1989–): rugby union player
- Idir Ouali (1988–): football player
- Martial Mbandjock (1985–): sprinter
- Seïd Khiter (1985–): football player
- Daouda Sow (1983–): boxer
- Yero Dia (1982–): football player
- Icham Mouissi (1982–): Algerian football player
- David Coulibaly (1978–): football player
- Arnaud Tournant (1978–): track cyclist
- Christophe Landrin (1977–): football midfielder
- Jacques-Olivier Paviot (1976–): football player
- Fatiha Ouali (1974–): race walker
- Michel Breistroff (1971–1996): ice hockey player
- Pierre Dréossi (1959–): former football player, coach and football manager
- Alain Bondue (1959–): racing cyclist
- Jean-Christian Lang (1950–): football manager and former player
- Jacques Carette (1947–): athlete
- René Libeer (1934–2006): boxer
- Jacques Pollet (1922–1997): racing driver
- Jacques Leenaert (1921–2004): football player
- Prudent Joye (1913–1980): track and field athlete
- Georges Beaucourt (1912–2002): football player
- Raymond Dubly (1893–1988): football player
- Jean Alavoine (1888–1943): cyclist
- Charles Crupelandt (1886–1955): Wattrelos-born professional road bicycle racer
- Arthur Balbaert (1879–1938): Belgian sports shooter
Notes and referencesEdit
- The Jewish population of Roubaix dropped from 160 members in the beginning of its settlement to 68 in 1942.
- Under French State's dictatorship from 1940 to 1944, mayors of communes over 2,000 inhabitants were not elected democratically. The mayor was nominated by the government of Marshal Philippe Pétain in communes of over 10,000 inhabitants and the prefet in communes less than 10,000 inhabitants and more than 2,000. The mayor in communes less than 2,000 inhabitants was elected by the city council. Mayors of communes of the Zone interdite were nominated by prefects in agreement with the German authorities. Therefore, mayors are not affiliated to a political party for this period of time.
- Jean-Baptiste Lebas's mandate was interrupted when he was arrested on March 7, 1915 by German authorities to be imprisoned in the fortress of Rastatt.
- Henri Thérin, the first deputy mayor, stood in for Jean-Baptiste Lebas during his imprisonment time.
- Fleuris Vanherpe, the eldest deputy mayor of the city council, supplanted Jean-Baptiste Lebas after his forfeiture in June 1940, and was entrusted functions of mayor on December 18, 1940. His death, on August 17, 1941, put an early end to his mandate.
- Victor Provo accepted the mandate in 1942. He was maintained by resistance committees in 1944 then elected in April 1945.
- A local association (as per the 1901 law about association) called "Comité de quartier de l'Hommelet"
- "Roubaix has its martyrs of the Resistance" and "They broke the chains of oppression"
- "Roubaix to his children died in defense of the country and for peace"
- "Friend of the gardens, music and books"
- "The Swimming Pool"
- "The Manufactory"
- "André Diligent Museum of Art and Industry"
- The collections held at the museum include sculptures by Alberto Giacometti, Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel and Pablo Picasso
- The Cloakroom
- National choreographic centre Roubaix - Hauts-de-France
- "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). December 2, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. December 28, 2020.
- Pooley, Timothy (December 30, 1996). Chtimi: The Urban Vernaculars of Northern France. Applications in French Linguistics Series. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. pp. 15–44. ISBN 978-1-853-59345-1. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Lecigne, Constantin (1911). Amédée Prouvost (in French). Paris, F: Bernard Grasset. p. 71. OCLC 679906866. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
Roubaix donne l'impression d'une enclave américaine dans la France du Nord. C'est en même temps la ville de l'énergie frénétique et des fuites à travers le monde.
- Strikwerda, Carl (1984). Sweets, John F. (ed.). "Regionalism and Internationalism: The Working-Class Movement in the Nord and the Belgian Connection, 1871–1914". Proceedings of the ... Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History. 1983/1984. Lawrence (Kansas), USA: The University of Kansas: 222. hdl:2027/mdp.39015012965524. ISSN 0099-0329.
Contemporaries never tired of calling Roubaix an "American city," because of its raw, fast-growing character, or of referring to Roubaix and its sister cities of Lille and Tourcoing as the "French Manchester."
- Clark, Peter (January 29, 2009). European Cities and Towns: 400–2000. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-199-56273-2. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
Roubaix was another new town, originally a craft village, whose many textile mills attracted a population of 100,000 and generated massive social and environmental problems.
- Lecluyse, Frédérick (December 16, 2016). "MEL : on prend les mêmes ou presque et on recommence" [MEL: let's take the same ones, or almost, and start over]. La Voix du Nord (in French). Roubaix, F. 73 (349, ROUBAIX & SES ALENTOURS): 4. ISSN 1277-1422.
Bois-Grenier, Le Maisnil, Fromelles, Aubers et Radinghem-en-Weppes. Soit 6000 habitants supplémentaires pour une MEL qui compte désormais 90 communes…
- Ezelin, Perrine (April 2, 2015). "European Metropole of Lille Local Action Plan" (PDF). Edinburgh, UK: CSI Europe URBACT. p. 3. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- URBACT (May 29, 2015). "Lille". Edinburgh, UK. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Neveu, Clarisse (December 15, 2016). "Métropole Européenne de Lille : les vice-présidents et conseillers métropolitains délégués élus" [European Metropolis of Lille : elected vice-presidents and metropolitan delegate-councilors]. MEL. Communiqué de presse (in French). Lille, F: Métropole Européenne de Lille. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
La fusion, effective au 1er janvier 2017, acte un élargissement historique du territoire de la Métropole Européenne de Lille, passant de 85 à 90 communes pour près d'1.2 million d'habitants.
- Durand, Frédéric (May 12, 2015). "Theoretical framework of the cross border space production the case of the Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai" (PDF). Luxembourg, L: EUBORDERSCAPES. p. 18. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division, Naval Staff, Admiralty I.D. 1168. (February 1918). Hall, Frederick (ed.). A Manual of Belgium and the Adjoining Territories. Atlas. Oxford, UK: University Press, HMSO. p. 37. OCLC 10569037. Retrieved July 8, 2015.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Jäger, Martin (January 12, 2011). "Entfernungen (Luftlinie & Strecke) einfach online berechnen, weltweit" [Calculate distance between two cities in the world (free, with map)] (in German). Ascio Technologies, Inc. Danmark – Filial af Ascio technologies, Inc. USA. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Dercourt, Jean; Paquet, Jacques (December 6, 2012) [First published 1985]. Geology: Principles and Methods. Oxford, UK: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 328. ISBN 978-9-400-94956-0. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- Hack, Robert; Azzam, Rafig; Charlier, Robert (June 14, 2004). Engineering Geology for Infrastructure Planning in Europe: A European Perspective. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences. 104. Berlin, D: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 605–606. doi:10.1007/b93922. ISBN 978-3-540-21075-7. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Roubaix, EHESS. (in French)
- The Sanitary Record and Journal of Sanitary and Municipal Engineering. 47. London, UK: Sanitary Publishing Company. 1911. p. 3. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- United States, Dept.'s Bureau of Foreign Commerce (1898). Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries. Congressional Edition. 3695. Washington, US: Govt. Printing Office. p. 63. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
…and with the Deule by the Canal d'Espierre and that of RoubaixCS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Nothomb, M. (1838). Canal de Bossuyt à Courtray & projets, annexes, enquêtes, etc … [Bossuit-Kortrijk Canal & projects, appendix, surveys, etc…] (in French). Brussels, B: H. Rémy, imprimeur du roi. p. 17. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
Le but primitif du canal était de fournir à la ville de Roubaix les eaux dont elle manquait, et de la mettre en communication avec le système de canaux du Nord et du Pas-de-Calais.
- Lille Metropolitan Council (2008). Ruant, Olivia; Edwards-May, David (eds.). "A strategic route, an economic necessity". EU programme Blue Links: restoration and reopening of the Deûle-Escaut canal between France and Belgium: Roubaix Canal, Espierre Canal and Marque canalised river. Lille Métropole Communauté Urbaine. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- McKnight, Hugh (August 1, 2013) [1st pub. 1984]. Cruising French Waterways. London, UK: Adlard Coles Nautical. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-408-19796-7. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Marion Gadault, Teddy Grandsire, Patrice Gonzalez, Laure Join-Lambert, Dominique Leonardi, Véronique Malek, Carmen Momenceau, Nathalia Momenceau, Catherine Ruget (2015). Devisme, Philippe; Join-Lambert, Patrick (eds.). "From Marquette to la frontière Belge". Fluviacarte, cartes et guides pour la navigation intérieure. Lattes, F: Editions de l'Écluse. Retrieved July 13, 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Aime Cadot for the American Baptist Missionary Union (1899). "European Missions France – 1832". Eighty-fifth Annual Report. Baptist Missionary Magazine. 84–87. Boston (Massachusetts), USA: Missionary Rooms. p. 387. hdl:2027/wu.89082422338.
The evening of our visit at Roubaix the weather was dreadful – rain and cold wind.
- American McAll Association (1893). Annual Meeting of the American McAll Association. 10–18. Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), USA. p. 66. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
In the winter, Mrs. Tyng visited us and told us more about Roubaix, but, owing to the extremely cold weather, her audience was small.
- Lille Métropole Communauté Urbaine (October 8, 2004). "Présentation générale du territoire communautaire et environnement du 8 octobre 2004 (Titre I – présentation générale du site et caractéristiques géophysiques)" (PDF). PLU de Lille Métropole. RAPPORT DE PRESENTATION (in French). Lille, F: LMCU. pp. 17–18. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- Decker, Frédéric, ed. (2015). "Lille (Nord)". LaMétéo.org. Normales climatiques 1981–2010 (in French). Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- "Lille-Lesquin (59) – altitude 47m". ASSOCIATION INFOCLIMAT. Normes et records 1961–1990 (in French). 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- Guinet, Louis (1982). Les emprunts gallo-romans au germanique (du Ier à la fin du Ve siècle) [The Gallo-Romance borrowings from Germanic (from the 1st century to the end of the 5th century)]. Bibliothèque française et romane. Série A, Manuels et études linguistiques ; 44 (in French). Paris, F: Klincksieck. pp. 32–33.
- Nègre, Ernest (1996) [1st pub. 1991]. Toponymie générale de la France, vol. 2 [General Toponymy of France, Vol II] (in French). Geneva, CH: Librairie Droz. ISBN 978-2-600-00133-5. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- van Overstraeten, Jozef (1969). De Nederlanden in Frankrijk [Low Countries in France]. Beknopte encyclopedie (in Dutch). Antwerp, B: Vlaamse Toeristenbond. pp. 465–466. OCLC 901682478. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
…881 of 887 villa Rusbaci ≺ Germ. rausa = riet + baki = beek…
- Trénard, Louis; Diligent, André (1984). Hilaire, Yves-Marie (ed.). Histoire de Roubaix [History of Roubaix]. Collection Histoire des villes du Nord/Pas-de-Calais (in French). 6. Dunkerque, F: Éditions Des Beffrois : Westhoek-Editions. p. 10. ISBN 978-2-903-07743-3. OCLC 14127874. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Gastal, Pierre (2002). Sous le français, le gaulois: Histoire, vocabulaire, étymologie, toponymie [Gallic under the French: History, vocabulary, etymology, toponymy] (in French). Méolans-Revel, F: Éditions Le Sureau. ISBN 978-2-911-32807-7. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Gysseling, Maurits (1960). "Toponymisch Woordenboek van België, Nederland, Luxemburg, Noord-Frankrijk en West-Duitsland (vóór 1226) door Maurits Gysseling (1960)" [Toponymic dictionary of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Northern France and Western Germany (before 1226) by Maurits Gysseling (1960)] (in Dutch). Centrum voor Teksteditie en Bronnenstudie. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
- van den Broecke, Marcel; van den Broecke-Günzburger, Deborah, eds. (2008). "Cartographica Neerlandica Topographical names for Ortelius Map No. 76". Cartographica Neerlandica. FLANDRIA "Gerardus Mercator Rupelmundanus Describebat" [Flanders, which Gerardus Mercator from Rupelmonde has depicted] "Cum priuilegio" [With privilege]. Bilthoven, NL: Marcel & Deborah van den Broecke. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- Tilly, Louise; Tilly, Charles (June 1, 1981). Class Conflict and Collective Action. New Approaches to Social Science History. 1. Thousand Oaks (California), USA: Sage Publications. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-803-91587-9. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
In some areas of France, Flemish was spoken by the natives; but since Roubaix lies just outside French Flanders, native Roubaisians spoke only French, hence the language disparity.
- Schuermans, Lodewijk Willem (1865). Algemeen Vlaamsch idioticon, Met Tijd en Vlijt [General Flemish idioticon, with time and assiduity] (in Dutch). Leuven, B: Gebroeders Vanlinthout. p. 268. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Fortuné, Raymond (1899). Histoire du Hainaut français et du Cambresis [History of the French Hainaut and Cambresis] (in French). Paris, F: Editions Paul Lechevalier. p. 61. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Kolff, Gualtherus Johannes (October 28, 1914). "De Belgische Plaatsnamen" [Belgian place names]. Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). G.J. Kolff & Co.: 6. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Schuermans, Lodewijk Willem; David, Jan Baptist; Du Bois, Pierre (1883). Bejvoegsel : aan het Algemeen Vlaamsch idioticon uitgegeven in 1865-1870 [General Flemish idioticon issued in 1865-1870] (in Dutch). Leuven, B: K. Fonteyn. p. 268. OCLC 23400838. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
ROBAAIS, zoo las ik ergens vertaald den naam der fransche stad Roubaix, 't welk beter Roobeek of Robeke zou zijn
- "Buitenlandse Aardrijkskundige Namen" [Foreign Geographical Names] (in Dutch). taaladvies.net. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- Leuridan, Théodore (1862). Histoire des seigneurs et de la seigneurie de Roubaix [History of the lords and lordships of Roubaix]. Histoire de Roubaix (in French). 3. Roubaix, F: Imprimerie J. Reboux. p. 24. OCLC 466447211. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Ireland, Patrick Richard (January 1, 1994). The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland. Cambridge (Massachusetts), USA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-68375-4. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
Even very large immigrant communities managed to integrate into the ranks of the Roubaignos (native Roubaisians) through their membership in the working class.
- Landrecies, Jacques (March 2001). Boutet, Josiane (ed.). Cairn.info. "Une configuration inédite : la triangulaire français-flamand-picard à Roubaix au début du XXe siècle" [An original configuration: the French-Flemish-Picard linguistic triangle in Roubaix at the start of the 20th century]. Langage et Société (in French). Paris, F: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme. 97 (3): 27–69. doi:10.3917/ls.097.0027. ISBN 978-2-735-10894-7. ISSN 0181-4095. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- Bowen, Reginald (1937). La formation du féminin de l'adjectif et du participe passé dans les dialectes normands, picards et wallons d'après l'Atlas linguistique de la France [The Feminine formation of adjectives and past participles in Norman, Picard and Wallon dialects according to the Linguistic Atlas of France] (in French). Paris, F: Librairie Droz. OCLC 252979177.
- Marissal, Louis-Edmond (1844). Recherches pour servir à l'histoire de Roubaix de 1400 à nos jours (in French). Roubaix, F: Impr. de Beghin. pp. 108–109. OCLC 253762961. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
1716: 4 715; 1789: 8 559; 1801: 8 151; 1805: 8 703; 1817:8 724; 1830: 13 132; 1842: 24,892
- Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
- Declercq, Elien; Vanden Borre, Saartje (2013). Cultural integration of Belgian migrants in northern France (1870–1914): a Study of Popular songs. French History. 27. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 91–108. doi:10.1093/fh/crs123. ISSN 1477-4542. Archived from the original on February 21, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- Guerin-Gonzales, Camille; Carl, Strikwerda (1998). The Politics of Immigrant Workers: Labor Activism and Migration in the World Economy Since 1830 (2 revised ed.). New York (New York), USA: Holmes & Meier. pp. 115–133. ISBN 978-0-841-91298-4. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
All Merrheim's years living in a French city that was over a third Belgian never made him question the ability of workers of different nationalities to unite.
- de Planhol, Xavier; Clava, Paul (1994). An Historical Geography of France. Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography. 21. Cambridge (New York), USA: Cambridge University Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-521-32208-9. ISSN 1747-3128. OCLC 27266536. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Ministère des affaires étrangères du royaume de Belgique (1873). Recueil consulaire, contenant les rapports commerciaux des agents belges à l'étranger. 19. Brussels, B: P. Weissenbruch, Imprimeur du Roi. p. 971. ISBN 9780521322089. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
D'après un recensement récent, la population de Roubaix s'élève aujourd'hui à 75,987 habitants, dont 42,103 belges. En 1866 le recensement accusait une population totale de 64,706 habitants, dont 30,465 belges.
- Moch, Leslie Page (2003) [First published 1992]. Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe Since 1650. Interdisciplinary studies in history (Second ed.). Bloomington (Indiana), USA: Indiana University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-253-21595-6. OCLC 50774361. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Stone, David (June 1, 2015). The Kaiser's Army: The German Army in World War One. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 400. ISBN 978-1-844-86235-1. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- Kramer, Alan (July 12, 2007). Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-192-80342-9. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
The death rate is high; in ordinary times two gravediggers were enough in Roubaix, and now there are six of them
- Tilly, Charles (July 1983). Collective-action repertoires in five French provinces, 1789–1914 (PDF). CRSO Working Paper. 300. Ann Arbor (Michigan), USA: University of Michigan. p. 17. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
In fact, the population of Lille-Roubaix-Tourcoing, a combat zone in World War I, fell slightly between 1901 and 1921.
- Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, INSEE
- Landrecies, Jacques; Petit, Aimé (April 1, 2003). "Picard d'hier et d'aujourd'hui" [Yesterday's and today's Picard]. Bien dire et bien aprandre – Bulletin du Centre d'études médiévales et dialectales de l'Université de Lille III (in French). Villeneuve d'Ascq, F: Centre de Gestion de l'Édition Scientifique (CEGES) (21): 11. ISBN 978-2-907-30105-3. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
…aborder le difficile problème de l'"accent", cette dernière marque qui subsiste quand le patois a disparu et qui, plus que tout, permet de distinguer l'Abbevillois de l'Artésien ou du "Roubaignot".
- Pooley, Timothy (December 30, 1996). Chtimi: The Urban Vernaculars of Northern France. Applications in French Linguistics Series. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. pp. 104–140. ISBN 978-1-853-59345-1. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Pooley, Timothy (October 9, 2002). "The depicardization of the vernaculars of the Lille conurbation". In Jones, Mari C.; Esch, Edith (eds.). Language Change: The Interplay of Internal, External, and Extra-linguistic Factors. Contributions to the sociology of language. 86. Berlin, D: Walter de Gruyter GmbH. p. 34. ISBN 978-3-110-17202-7. ISSN 1861-0676. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
Viez notes the enduring prevalence of Picard in Roubaix in the early twentieth century despite progressive francization favoured by urbanization and industrialization
- Viez, Henri-Aimé (1978) [1st pub. 1910]. Le parler populaire patois de Roubaix : étude phonétique [Patois of Roubaix: a phonetic study of the popular dialect] (in French). Geneva, CH: Slatkine Reprints. p. 7. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
…du parler populaire de Roubaix, tel qu'il était couramment employé avant que l'instruction primaire ne fût devenue obligatoire.
- Gopnik, Adam (May 9, 1994). "A Reporter at Large: The Ghost of the Glass House". The New Yorker. New York (New York), USA: F-R Publishing Corporation: 58. ISSN 0028-792X.
Many of them had German names. They had fled from Alsace-Lorraine as the Franco-Prussian War ended, in 1871.
- Gilbert, Barbara C.; Fishel Deshmukh, Marion (September 30, 2005). Max Liebermann: from realism to impressionism. Los Angeles (California), USA: Skirball Cultural Center. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-970-42956-8. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
After Alsace-Lorraine territory is annexed by the German Empire, thousands of Alsatian Jews emigrate to France.
- Reboux, Alfred, ed. (October 5, 1872). "Roubaix et le nord de la France" [Roubaix and northern France] (PDF). Journal de Roubaix (in French). Roubaix, F. 17 (3052): 2. Retrieved December 4, 2017 – via Bibliothèque numérique de Roubaix.
- Viey, Frédéric; d'Almeida, Franck (June 2009). Histoire des communautés juives du Nord et de Picardie [History of the Jewish Communities of the North and Picardy Regions] (in French). Valenciennes, F: Synagogue de Valenciennes. pp. 24–25. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Cahen, Isidore; Prague, Hippolyte (1894). Archives israélites – Recueil politique et religieux [Israelite Archive – Political and religious reports] (in French). Tome LV. Paris, F: Bureau des Archives Israelites. p. 23. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
M. Maurice Marx, fils du ministre-officiant de la Synagogue de Roubaix, a été nommé dans le courant de novembre au commandement de la canonnière l'Onyx. Ce jeune officier est un ancien élève de l'École polytechnique.
- Delmaire, Danielle (2001). Les communautés juives septentrionales, 1791–1939 : Naissance, croissance, épanouissement [Jewries in Northern France from 1791 to 1939: birth, growth, development] (in French). volume 2. State doctoral thesis – Charles de Gaulle University – Lille III – January 1998. Villeneuve d'Ascq, F: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion. pp. 714–719. ISBN 978-2-284-01645-8. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
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- Renoul, Bruno (September 10, 2015). "Roubaix commémore l'époque où elle avait une synagogue" [Roubaix commemorates the time when it had a synagogue]. La Voix du Nord (in French). Roubaix, F. ISSN 0999-2189. Archived from the original on September 30, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Wigoder, Geoffrey; Spector, Shmuel (January 1, 2001). "K-Sered – Roubaix". The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. Volume 2. New York (New York), USA: New York University Press. p. 1098. ISBN 978-0-814-7935-65. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Michman, Dan (May 1998). Belgium and the Holocaust: Jews, Belgians, Germans. Jerusalem: Daf-Noy Press. pp. 335–336. ISBN 978-9-653-08068-3.
A massive round-up, i.e., large-scale random arrests, of Jews in northern France was conducted on September 11, 1942, at the same time as the one in Antwerp […] On October 27, 1943, the Germans arrested two Jewish families in Croix and Roubaix.
- Wieviorka, Michel; Bataille, Philippe (September 2007). The Lure of Anti-Semitism: Hatred of Jews in Present-Day France. Jewish Identities in a Changing World. Volume 10. Translated by Couper Lobel, Kristin; Declerck, Anna. Leiden, NL: Brill Publishers. p. 98. ISBN 978-9-004-16337-9. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
Roubaix does not have a Jewish community and there is no Jewish place of worship, intra muros.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Johannsen Rubin, Alissa (August 5, 2013). "A French Town Bridges the Gap Between Muslims and Non-Muslims". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
In Roubaix, the mayor's office estimates that the Muslim population is as much as 20,000, or about 20 percent of the population.
- Gilman, Julien (October 31, 2014). "Roubaix: la Ville veut vendre douze chapelles funéraires abandonnées" [The City of Roubaix is willing to sell twelve abandoned funeral chapels]. La Voix du Nord (in French). Roubaix, F. ISSN 0999-2189. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Liogier, Raphaël (March 29, 2004). Le bouddhisme mondialisé: Une perspective sociologique sur la globalisation du religieux [Globalised Buddhism: A sociological perspective on the globalisation of religions]. Référence géopolitique (in French). Paris, F: Ellipses Marketing. p. 268. ISBN 9782729814021. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
- Centre francophone d'étude et d'enseignement sur le bouddhisme (2006). "Annuaire des Centres bouddhistes : Nord - Pas-de-Calais" [Directory for Buddhist communities: Nord - Pas-de-Calais]. Institut d’Études Bouddhiques (in French). Paris, F: IEB. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- Leuridan, Théodore (1863). Histoire des institutions communales et municipales de la ville de Roubaix. Histoire de Roubaix (in French). 4. Roubaix, F: Imprimerie J. Reboux. p. 92. OCLC 466447211. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
- Tellier, Thibault (March 16, 2006). "Le développement urbain de Roubaix dans la première partie du XXe siècle". In David, Michel (ed.). Roubaix: cinquante ans de transformations urbaines et de mutations sociales [Fifty years of urban transformations and social mutations in Roubaix]. Histoire et civilisations (in French). 972. Villeneuve d'Ascq, F: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion. p. 43. ISBN 978-2-859-39926-9. ISSN 1284-5655. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
…c'est en fait le développement vers le sud qui semble le plus prometteur…
- État français (December 12, 1940). "Loi du 16 novembre 1940 RELATIVE A LA REORGANISATION DES CORPS MUNICIPAUX" [Law of November 16, 1940 RELATED TO REORGANISATION OF MUNICIPAL BODIES]. Journal Officiel de la République Française (in French). Imprimerie nationale: 6074.
- Pottrain, Martine (1993). Le Nord au cœur: historique de la Fédération du Nord du Parti socialiste, 1880–1993 [Nord at heart: history of the French socialist party federation of the Nord, 1880–1993] (in French). Lille, F: SARL de presse Nord-Demain. OCLC 34886141.
La loi de Vichy du 16 novembre 1940 réorganise l'administration communale : les maires et les conseillers municipaux sont désignés par le préfet, après accord des autorités allemandes.
- Piat, Jean (1985). Victor Provo : 1903–1983 : Roubaix témoigne et accuse (in French). Dunkerque, F: Éditions Des Beffrois. p. 11. ISBN 978-2-903-07747-1. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
Toutefois, Jean Lebas restera suspendu et le poste de maire sera confié, le 18 décembre 1940, au plus ancien adjoint : Fleuris Vanherpe.
- Jackson, Julian (April 26, 2001). France: The Dark Years, 1940–1944. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-191-62288-5. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
The pre-war mayor of Roubaix, Jean Lebas, who was involved in the Resistance from the beginning, had no qualms about encouraging his Socialist colleague Victor Provo to accept the post of mayor in 1942 on the grounds that the alternatives might be worse.
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…he was replaced successively by Fleuris Vanherpe, Marcel Guislain, Alphonse Verbeurgt, Charles Baudoin and Victor Provo. The latter, who was appointed by the Vichy regime, would be reinstalled as mayor of Roubaix after the war and govern the city from 1944 until 1977.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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Le 11 novembre 1948, le ciseau du grand prix de Rome, le Roubaisien Albert de Jaeger, grava leur souvenir dans la pierre d'un monument Aux Martyrs de la Résistance, érigé sur l'ancienne place Chevreul.
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In Roubaix, which has a Socialist majority on the town council, a memorial will be unveiled on Easter Sunday, in honour of Jules Guesde, the great pioneer of Marxian Socialism in France.
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Leroy, Roulland en Van Hecke behoorden tot de 'Groep van Roubaix'.
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…и кто-то посоветовал, городок Рубе на севере Франции. Это оказалось именно тем, что мы искали…
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The sport is very popular in the North of France, some fifty odd clubs existing in or near Roubaix, where a very large meeting was recently held.
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One of these was Pinault-Printemps-Redoute, a major retailing firm created by the merger of the Printemps-Prisunic department store chain and La Redoute, a leading mail-order house founded by a family of Roubaix wool spinners in the 1920s.
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In the French town of Roubaix in the 1950s, three brothers, members of the Despature family, had a weaving business manufacturing fine woollen cloths.
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C'est en 1932, à Roubaix, que Xavier Toulemonde crée les Filatures des 3 Suisses, qui deviendront par la suite les 3 Suisses.
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In January of 2007, the deal was done and Ankama moved into 75 Boulevard d'Armentières in Roubaix.
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