Saint Petersburg,[a] formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991; see below), is the second-largest city in Russia after Moscow. It is situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. The city had a population of roughly 5.6 million residents as of 2021. Saint Petersburg is the fourth-most populous city in Europe, the most populous city on the Baltic Sea, and the world's northernmost city of more than 1 million residents. As Russia's Imperial capital, and a historically strategic port, it is governed as a federal city.
|Anthem: "Anthem of Saint Petersburg"|
|Founded||27 May 1703|
|City raions||See list|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Governor||Alexander Beglov (UR)|
|• Federal city||1,439 km2 (556 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
|• Federal city||5,601,911|
|• Density||3,992.81/km2 (10,341.3/sq mi)|
|Gross Domestic Product|
|• Total||₽9.440 trillion|
US$128 billion (2021)
|• Per capita||₽1,754,423|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK)|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-SPE|
|Vehicle registration||78, 98, 178, 198|
The city was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703 on the site of a captured Swedish fortress, and was named after the apostle Saint Peter. In Russia, Saint Petersburg is historically and culturally associated with the birth of the Russian Empire and Russia's entry into modern history as a European great power. It served as a capital of the Tsardom of Russia, and the subsequent Russian Empire, from 1713 to 1918 (being replaced by Moscow for a short period of time between 1728 and 1730). After the October Revolution in 1917, the Bolsheviks moved their government to Moscow. The city was renamed Leningrad after Lenin's death in 1924. In June 1991, only a few months before the Belovezha Accords and the dissolution of the USSR, voters supported restoring the city's original appellation in a city-wide referendum.
As Russia's cultural centre, Saint Petersburg received over 15 million tourists in 2018. It is considered an important economic, scientific, and tourism centre of Russia and Europe. In modern times, the city has the nickname of being "the Northern Capital of Russia" and is home to notable federal government bodies such as the Constitutional Court of Russia and the Heraldic Council of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also a seat for the National Library of Russia and a planned location for the Supreme Court of Russia, as well as the home to the headquarters of the Russian Navy, and the Western Military District of the Russian Armed Forces. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world, the Lakhta Center, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup and the UEFA Euro 2020.
The name day of Peter I falls on 29 June, when the Russian Orthodox Church observes the memory of apostles Peter and Paul. The consecration of the small wooden church in their names (its construction began at the same time as the citadel) made them the heavenly patrons of the Peter and Paul Fortress, while Saint Peter at the same time became the eponym of the whole city. When in June 1703 Peter the Great gave the site a new name after Saint Peter, he did not issue a naming act that established an official spelling; even in his own letters he used diverse spellings, such as Санктьпетерсьбурк (Sanktpetersburk), emulating German Sankt Petersburg, and Сантпитербурх (Santpiterburkh), emulating Dutch Sint-Pietersburgh, as Peter was multilingual and a Hollandophile. The name was later normalized and russified to Санкт-Петербург.
A proponent of westernising Russia, Peter the Great, the then Tsar, who established the city, originally named it Sankt-Pieter-Burch (Сан(к)т-Питер-Бурхъ) in Dutch manner and later its spelling was standardised as Sankt-Peterburg (Санкт-Петербургъ[b]) under German influence.
A former spelling of the city's name in English was Saint Petersburgh, under the influence of burgh. This spelling survives in the name of a street in the Bayswater district of London, near St Sophia's Cathedral, named after a visit by the Tsar to London in 1814.
A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three roots, proved too cumbersome, and many shortened versions were used. The first General Governor of the city Menshikov is maybe also the author of the first nickname of Petersburg which he called Петри (Petri). It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this name finally settled. In 1740s Mikhail Lomonosov uses a derivative of Greek: Πετρόπολις (Петрополис, Petropolis) in a Russified form Petropol' (Петрополь). A combo Piterpol (Питерпол) also appears at this time. In any case, eventually the usage of prefix "Sankt-" ceased except for the formal official documents, where a three-letter abbreviation "СПб" (SPb) was very widely used as well.
In the 1830s Alexander Pushkin translated the "foreign" city name of "Saint Petersburg" to the more Russian Petrograd (Russian: Петроград[b], IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]) in one of his poems. However, it was only on 31 August [O.S. 18 August] 1914, after the war with Germany had begun, that Tsar Nicholas II renamed the city Petrograd in order to expunge the German words Sankt and Burg. Since the prefix "Saint" was omitted, this act also changed the eponym and the "patron" of the city from Saint Peter to Peter the Great, its founder. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), meaning 'Lenin's City'. On 6 September 1991, the original name, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned by citywide referendum. Today, in English the city is known as Saint Petersburg. Local residents often refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter (Russian: Питер, IPA: [ˈpʲitʲɪr]).
After the October Revolution the name Red Petrograd (Красный Петроград, Krasny Petrograd) was often used in newspapers and other prints until the city was renamed Leningrad in January 1924.
A referendum on restoring the historic name was held on 12 June 1991, with 55% of voters supporting "Saint Petersburg" and 43% supporting "Leningrad". The turnout was 65%. Renaming the city Petrograd was not an option. This change officially took effect on 6 September 1991. Meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is also in Saint Petersburg is still named Leningrad.
Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg, Moscow never relinquished the title of "capital", being called pervoprestolnaya ('first-throned') for 200 years. An equivalent name for Petersburg, the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several federal institutions were recently moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution" used in the Soviet era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here. Petropolis is a translation of a city name to Greek, and is also a kind of descriptive name: Πέτρ- is a Greek root for 'stone', so the "city from stone" emphasizes the material that had been forcibly made obligatory for construction from the first years of the city (a modern Greek translation is Αγία Πετρούπολη, Agia Petroupoli).[failed verification]
Saint Petersburg has been traditionally called the "Window to Europe" and the "Window to the West" by the Russians. The city is the northernmost metropolis in the world, and is also often described as the "Venice of the North" or the "Russian Venice" due to its many water corridors, as the city is built on swamp and water. Furthermore, it has strongly Western European-inspired architecture and culture, which is combined with the city's Russian heritage. Another nickname of Saint Petersburg is "The City of the White Nights" because of a natural phenomenon which arises due to the closeness to the polar region and ensures that in summer the night skies of the city do not get completely dark for a month. The city is also often called the "Northern Palmyra", due to its extravagant architecture.
Imperial era (1703–1917) edit
Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, which was later called Ingermanland. This area was inhabited by a Finnic tribe of Ingrians. The small town of Nyen grew up around the fort.
At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, who was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport to trade with the rest of Europe. He needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May [O.S. 1 May] 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May [O.S. 16 May] 1703, closer to the estuary (5 km (3 mi) inland from the gulf), on Zayachy (Hare) Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city.
The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia; in some years several Swedish prisoners of war were also involved under the supervision of Alexander Menshikov. Tens of thousands of serfs died while building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, nine years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. He referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704. While the city was being built, Peter lived in a three-room log cabin with his wife Catherine and their children.
During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed but is evident in the layout of the streets. In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg.
The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great.
In 1725, Peter died at age fifty-two. His endeavors to modernize Russia had been opposed by the Russian nobility. There were several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow. But four years later, in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737. The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka.
It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now known as Nevsky Prospect (which is considered the main street of the city), Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Avenue. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture.
Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the city could be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings. During the reign of Catherine the Great in the 1760s–1780s, the banks of the Neva were lined with granite embankments.
However, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent bridge across the Neva, Annunciation Bridge, was allowed to open. Before that, only pontoon bridges were allowed. Obvodny Canal (dug in 1769–1833) became the southern limit of the city.
The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint Petersburg included:
- Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (Imperial Academy of Arts, Small Hermitage, Gostiny Dvor, New Holland Arch, Catholic Church of St. Catherine)
- Antonio Rinaldi (Marble Palace)
- Yury Felten (Old Hermitage, Chesme Church)
- Giacomo Quarenghi (Academy of Sciences, Hermitage Theatre, Yusupov Palace)
- Andrey Voronikhin (Mining Institute, Kazan Cathedral)
- Andreyan Zakharov (Admiralty building)
- Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (Spit of Vasilievsky Island)
- Carlo Rossi (Yelagin Palace, Mikhailovsky Palace, Alexandrine Theatre, Senate and Synod Buildings, General staff Building, design of many streets and squares)
- Vasily Stasov (Moscow Triumphal Gate, Trinity Cathedral)
- Auguste de Montferrand (Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Alexander Column)
In 1810, Alexander I established the first engineering higher education, the Saint Petersburg Main military engineering School in Saint Petersburg. Many monuments commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleonic France in the Patriotic War of 1812, including the Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva Triumphal Arch.
By the 1840s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various romanticist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider (Mariinsky Palace, Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, New Michael Palace) and Konstantin Thon (Moskovsky railway station).
With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into the capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously developed on the outskirts of the city. Saint Petersburg surpassed Moscow in population and industrial growth; it became one of the largest industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval base (in Kronstadt), the Neva River, and a seaport on the Baltic.
The names of Saints Peter and Paul, bestowed upon the original city's citadel and its cathedral (from 1725—a burial vault of Russian emperors) coincidentally were the names of the first two assassinated Russian emperors, Peter III (1762, supposedly killed in a conspiracy led by his wife, Catherine the Great) and Paul I (1801, Nikolay Alexandrovich Zubov and other conspirators who brought to power Alexander I, the son of their victim). The third emperor's assassination took place in Saint Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II was murdered by terrorists (see the Church of the Savior on Blood).
The Revolution of 1905 began in Saint Petersburg and spread rapidly into the provinces.
Revolution and Soviet era (1917–1941) edit
On 7 November [O.S. 25 October] 1917, the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, stormed the Winter Palace in an event known thereafter as the October Revolution, which led to the end of the social-democratic provisional government, the transfer of all political power to the Soviets, and the rise of the Communist Party. After that the city acquired a new descriptive name, "the city of three revolutions", referring to the three major developments in the political history of Russia of the early 20th century.
In September and October 1917, German troops invaded the West Estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and invasion. On 12 March 1918, Lenin transferred the government of Soviet Russia to Moscow, to keep it away from the state border. During the Russian Civil War, in mid-1919 Russian anti-communist forces with the help of Estonians attempted to capture the city, but Leon Trotsky mobilized the army and forced them to retreat back to Estonia.
On 26 January 1924, five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. Later many streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly, with names in honour of communist figures replacing historic names given centuries before. The city has over 230 places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums, including the cruiser Aurora—a symbol of the October Revolution and the oldest ship in the Russian Navy.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into regularly planned boroughs. Constructivist architecture flourished around that time. Housing became a government-provided amenity; many "bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were assigned to what were called "communal" apartments (kommunalkas). By the 1930s, 68% of the population lived in such housing under very poor conditions. In 1935, a new general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the south. Constructivism was rejected in favour of a more pompous Stalinist architecture. Moving the city centre further from the border with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall with a huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt, designated as the new main street of Leningrad. After the Winter (Soviet-Finnish) war in 1939–1940, the Soviet–Finnish border moved northwards. Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Square maintained the functions and the role of a city centre.
In December 1931, Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast. At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in 1936 and turned into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944).
During the Soviet era, many historic architectural monuments of the previous centuries were destroyed by the new regime for ideological reasons. While that mainly concerned churches and cathedrals, some other buildings were also demolished.
On 1 December 1934, Sergey Kirov, the Bolshevik leader of Leningrad, was assassinated under suspicious circumstances, which became the pretext for the Great Purge. In Leningrad, approximately 40,000 were executed during Stalin's purges.
World War II (1941–1945) edit
During World War II, German forces besieged Leningrad following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. The siege lasted 872 days, or almost two and a half years, from 8 September 1941 to 27 January 1944.
The Siege of Leningrad proved one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of a major city in modern history. It isolated the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga, which could not make it through until the lake froze. More than one million civilians were killed, mainly from starvation. There were incidents of cannibalism, with around 2,000 residents arrested for eating other people. Many others escaped or were evacuated, so the city became largely depopulated.
On 1 May 1945 Joseph Stalin, in his Supreme Commander Order No. 20, named Leningrad, alongside Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odesa, hero cities of the war. A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero City" passed on 8 May 1965 (the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War), during the Brezhnev era. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded Leningrad as a Hero City the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal "for the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege". The Hero-City Obelisk bearing the Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985.
Post-war Soviet era (1945–1991) edit
In October 1946 some territories along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, which had been annexed into the USSR from Finland in 1940 under the peace treaty following the Winter War, were transferred from Leningrad Oblast to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District. These included the town of Terijoki (renamed Zelenogorsk in 1948). Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to pre-war plans. The 1948 general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban development in the north as well as in the south. In 1953, Pavlovsky District in Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad. In 1954, the settlements Levashovo, Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with Leningrad.
Leningrad gave its name to the Leningrad Affair (1949–1952), a notable event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR. It was a product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party organization—the second most significant one in the country after Moscow. The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed, including the former mayor Kuznetsov, the acting mayor Pyotr Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were sentenced to the death penalty, 181 to prison or exile (rehabilitated in 1954). About 2,000 ranking officials across the USSR were expelled from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions.
The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system, designed before the war, opened in 1955 with its first eight stations decorated with marble and bronze. However, after Stalin's death in 1953, the perceived ornamental excesses of the Stalinist architecture were abandoned. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from kommunalkas in the city centre to live in separate apartments.
Contemporary era (1991–present) edit
On 12 June 1991, simultaneously with the first Russian SFSR presidential elections, the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and a referendum upon the city's name, when the original name Saint Petersburg was restored. The turnout was 65%; 66.13% of the total count of votes went to Anatoly Sobchak, who became the first directly elected mayor of the city.
Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the 1940s, food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food aid from abroad. This dramatic time was depicted in photographic series of Russian photographer Alexey Titarenko. Economic conditions began to improve only at the beginning of the 21st century. In 1995, a northern section of the Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro was cut off by underground flooding, creating a major obstacle to the city development for almost ten years. On 13 June 1996, Saint Petersburg, alongside Leningrad Oblast and Tver Oblast, signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy. This agreement was abolished on 4 April 2002.
In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev defeated Anatoly Sobchak in the elections for the head of the city administration. The title of the city head was changed from "mayor" to "governor". In 2000, Yakovlev won re-election. His second term expired in 2004; the long-awaited restoration of the broken subway connection was expected to finish by that time. But in 2003 Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's office to Valentina Matviyenko.
The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the tradition of democratic election by universal suffrage that started in 1991. In 2006, the city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential building had intensified again; real-estate prices inflated greatly, which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical part of the city.
Although the central part of the city has a UNESCO designation (there are about 8,000 architectural monuments in Petersburg), the preservation of its historical and architectural environment became controversial. After 2005, the demolition of older buildings in the historical centre was permitted. In 2006, Gazprom announced an ambitious project to erect a 403 m (1,322 ft) skyscraper (the Okhta Center) opposite to Smolny, which[according to whom?] could result in the loss of the unique line of Petersburg landscape. Urgent protests by citizens and prominent public figures of Russia against this project were not considered by Governor Valentina Matviyenko and the city authorities until December 2010, when after the statement of President Dmitry Medvedev, the city decided to find a more appropriate location for this project. In the same year, the new location for the project was relocated to Lakhta, a historical area northwest of the city centre, and the new project would be named Lakhta Center. Construction was approved by Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in 2012. The 462 m (1,516 ft) high Lakhta Center has become the first tallest skyscraper in Russia and Europe outside of Moscow.
The area of Saint Petersburg city proper is 605.8 km2 (233.9 square miles). The area of the federal subject is 1,439 km2 (556 sq mi), which contains Saint Petersburg proper (consisting of eighty-one municipal okrugs), nine municipal towns – (Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Petergof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk) – and twenty-one municipal settlements.
Petersburg is on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, and islands of the river delta. The largest are Vasilyevsky Island (besides the artificial island between Obvodny canal and Fontanka, and Kotlin in the Neva Bay), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky. The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny Island are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian Isthmus, North of the city, is a popular resort area. In the south, Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Plateau.
The elevation of Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of 175.9 m (577 ft) at the Orekhovaya Hill in the Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west of Liteyny Prospekt is no higher than 4 m (13 ft) above sea level, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea, caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva Bay. The five most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (4.21 m or 13 ft 10 in above sea level, during which over 300 buildings were destroyed[c]); 1924 (3.8 m, 12 ft 6 in); 1777 (3.21 m, 10 ft 6 in); 1955 (2.93 m, 9 ft 7 in); and 1975 (2.81 m, 9 ft 3 in). To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed.
Since the 18th century, the city's terrain has been raised artificially, at some places by more than 4 m (13 ft), making mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the city. Besides the Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint Petersburg are Sestra, Okhta and Izhora. The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes, and other smaller lakes.
Due to its northerly location at c. 60° N latitude the day length in Petersburg varies across seasons, ranging from 5 hours 53 minutes to 18 hours 50 minutes. A period from mid-May to mid-July during which twilight may last all night is called the white nights.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Saint Petersburg is classified as Dfb, a humid continental climate. The distinct moderating influence of Baltic Sea cyclones results in warm, humid, and short summers and long, moderately cold wet winters. The climate of Saint Petersburg is close to that of Helsinki, although slightly more continental (i.e. colder in winter and warmer in summer) because of its more eastern location, while slightly less continental than that of Moscow.
The average maximum temperature in July is 23 °C (73 °F), and the average minimum temperature in February is −8.5 °C (16.7 °F); an extreme temperature of 37.1 °C (98.8 °F) occurred during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. A winter minimum of −35.9 °C (−32.6 °F) was recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is 5.8 °C (42.4 °F). The Neva River within the city limits usually freezes up in November–December and break-up occurs in April. From December to March there are 118 days on average with snow cover, which reaches an average snow depth of 19 cm (7.5 in) by February. The frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days. Despite St. Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer than Moscow's due to the Gulf of Finland and some Gulf Stream influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly above freezing. The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.
Average annual precipitation varies across the city, averaging 660 mm (26 in) per year and reaching maximum in late summer. Due to the cool climate, soil moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration. Air humidity is 78% on average, and there are, on average, 165 overcast days per year.
|Climate data for Saint Petersburg (1991–2020, extremes 1743–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.7
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||46
|Average extreme snow depth cm (inches)||15
|Average rainy days||9||7||10||13||16||18||17||17||20||20||16||10||173|
|Average snowy days||25||23||16||8||1||0.1||0||0||0.1||5||16||23||117|
|Average relative humidity (%)||86||84||79||69||65||69||71||76||80||83||86||87||78|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||18.9||45.5||120.5||177.9||255.6||254.3||267.7||228.1||134.8||61.8||23.0||8.1||1,596.2|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source 2: NOAA |
Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the 2021 Census, the federal subject's population is 5,601,911 or 3.9% of the total population of Russia; up from 4,879,566 (3.4%) recorded in the 2010 Census, and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the 1989 Census.
|Source: Census data|
- Births: 50,663 (9.4 per 1,000)
- Deaths: 65,137 (12.1 per 1,000)
Total fertility rate (2022):
1.28 children per woman
Life expectancy (2021):
Total — 72.51 years (male — 68.23, female — 76.30)
Ethnic composition of Saint Petersburg
During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population changes. From 2.4 million residents in 1916, its population dropped to less than 740,000 by 1920 during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and Russian Civil War. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely transferred from Leningrad during the 1930s. From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3 million to less than 600,000, as people died in battles, starved to death or were evacuated during the Siege of Leningrad. Some evacuees returned after the siege, but most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. The city absorbed about 3 million people in the 1950s and grew to over 5 million in the 1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city's population decreased to 4.6 million, while the suburban population increased due to privatization of land and massive move to suburbs. Based on the 2010 census results the population is over 4.8 million. For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000 and remained lower than the death rate (until 2012); people over 65 constitute more than twenty percent of the population; and the median age is about 40 years. Since 2012 the birth rate became higher than the death rate. But in 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic caused a drop in birth rate, and the city population decreased to 5,395,000 people.
Among the believers, the overwhelming majority of the residents of the city are Orthodox (57.5%), followed by small minority communities of Muslims (0.7%), Protestants (0.6%), and Catholics (0.5%), and Buddhists (0.1%).
In total, roughly 59% of the population of the city is Christian, of which over 90% are Orthodox. Non-Abrahamic religions and other faiths are represented by only 1.2% of the total population.
There are 268 communities of confessions and religious associations in the city: the Russian Orthodox Church (130 associations), Pentecostalism (23 associations), the Lutheranism (19 associations), Baptism (13 associations), as well as Old Believers, Roman Catholic Church, Armenian Apostolic Church, Georgian Orthodox Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Judaism, Buddhist, Muslim, Bahá'í and others.
229 religious buildings in the city are owned or run by religious associations. Among them are architectural monuments of federal significance. The oldest cathedral in the city is the Peter and Paul Cathedral, built between 1712 and 1733, and the largest is the Kazan Cathedral, completed in 1811.
Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia (a federal city). The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. The superior executive body is the Saint Petersburg City Administration, led by the city governor (mayor before 1996). Saint Petersburg has a single-chamber legislature, the Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly, which is the city's regional parliament.
According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint Petersburg, were nominated by the President of Russia and approved by local legislatures. Should the legislature disapprove the nominee, the President could dissolve it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according to the new system in December 2006. She was the only woman governor in the whole of Russia until her resignation on 22 August 2011. Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging and ballot stuffing by the opposition. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job. After her resignation, Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the same day. In 2012, following passage of a new federal law, restoring direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was again amended to provide for direct elections of governor. On 3 October 2018, Poltavchenko resigned, and Alexander Beglov was appointed acting governor.
Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but de facto administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District. The Constitutional Court of Russia moved to Saint Petersburg from Moscow in May 2008.
Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB, postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services.
Administrative divisions edit
|Saint Petersburg is divided into 18 administrative districts:|
|Within the boundaries of the districts, there are 111 intra-city municipalities, 81 municipal districts, and 9 cities: (Zelenogorsk, Kolpino, Krasnoe Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Petergof, Pushkin, and Sestroretsk), as well as 21 villages.|
Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry; technology, including radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment; mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys); chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment; publishing and printing; food and catering; wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other businesses. It was also home to Lessner, one of Russia's two pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Russo-Baltic); it was founded by machine tool and boilermaker G.A. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until 1910.
Ten per cent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ, which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world. Major local industries are Admiralty Shipyard, Baltic Shipyard, LOMO, Kirov Plant, Elektrosila, Izhorskiye Zavody; also registered in Saint Petersburg are Sovkomflot, Petersburg Fuel Company and SIBUR among other major Russian and international companies.
The Port of Saint Petersburg has three large cargo terminals, Bolshoi Port Saint Petersburg, Kronstadt, and Lomonosov terminal. International cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of Vasilyevsky Island. In 2008 the first two berths opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island. The new passenger terminal is part of the city's "Marine Facade" development project and was due to have seven berths in operation by 2010.[needs update]
A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva River are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the Baltic Sea and the rest of Russia through the Volga–Baltic Waterway.
The Saint Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins, medals and badges. Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that now grace the public parks of Saint Petersburg and many other cities. Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world-famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Mark Antokolsky, and others, were made there.
In 2007, Toyota opened a Camry plant after investing 5 billion roubles (approx. 200 mln dollars) in Shushary, one of the southern suburbs of Saint Petersburg. Opel, Hyundai and Nissan have also signed deals with the Russian government to build their automotive plants in Saint Petersburg. The automotive and auto-parts industry is on the rise there during the last decade.
Saint Petersburg has a large brewery and distillery industry. Known as Russia's "beer capital" due to the supply and quality of local water, its five large breweries account for over 30% of the country's domestic beer production. They include Europe's second-largest brewery Baltika, Vena (both operated by BBH), Heineken Brewery, Stepan Razin (both by Heineken) and Tinkoff brewery (SUN-InBev).
The city's many local distilleries produce a broad range of vodka brands. The oldest ones is LIVIZ (founded in 1897). Among the youngest is Russian Standard Vodka introduced in Moscow in 1998, which opened in 2006 a new $60 million distillery in Petersburg (an area of 30,000 m2 (320,000 sq ft), production rate of 22,500 bottles per hour). In 2007, this brand was exported to over 70 countries.
Saint Petersburg has the second-largest construction industry in Russia, including commercial, housing, and road construction.
In 2006, Saint Petersburg's city budget was 180 billion rubles (about 7 billion US$ at 2006 exchange rates),. The federal subject's Gross Regional Product as of 2016[update] was 3.7 trillion Russian rubles (or around US$70 billion), ranked 2nd in Russia, after Moscow and per capita of US$13,000, ranked 12th among Russia's federal subjects, contributed mostly by wholesale and retail trade and repair services (24.7%) as well as processing industry (20.9%) and transportation and telecommunications (15.1%).
Budget revenues of the city in 2009 amounted to 294.3 billion rubles (about 10.044 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates), expenses – 336.3 billion rubles (about 11.477 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates). The budget deficit amounted to about 42 billion rubles. (about 1.433 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates)
In 2015, St. Petersburg was ranked in 4th place economically amongst all federal subjects of the Russian Federation, surpassed only by Moscow, the Tyumen and Moscow Region.
Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower (140 m), Alexander Nevsky (124 m) and Atlantic City (105 m) all far from the historical centre. Regulations forbid the construction of tall buildings in the city centre. The 310-meter (1,020 ft) tall Saint Petersburg TV Tower is the tallest completed structure in the city. However, there was a controversial project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta Center, to build a 396 meters (1,299 ft) supertall skyscraper. In 2008, the World Monuments Fund included the Saint Petersburg historic skyline on the watch list of the 100 most endangered sites due to the expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically. The Okhta Center project was cancelled at the end of 2010 and the Lakhta Center project began in the city's outskirts. The complex includes 463-metre-tall (1,519-foot) office skyscraper and several low rise mixed-use buildings. The Lakhta Center project has caused much less controversy. Unlike the previous unbuilt project, it is not seen by UNESCO as a potential threat to the city's cultural heritage because it is far from the historical centre. The skyscraper was completed in 2019, and at 462.5 metres, it is currently the tallest in Russia and Europe.
Unlike in Moscow, the historic architecture of Saint Petersburg's city centre, mostly Baroque and Neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved; although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, during the Siege of Leningrad and in recent years. The oldest of the remaining building is a wooden house built for Peter I in 1703 on the shore of the Neva near Trinity Square. Since 1991 the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast have been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The ensemble of Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral takes a dominant position on Zayachy Island along the right bank of the Neva River. Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The Saint Petersburg Mosque, the largest mosque in Europe when opened in 1913, is on the right bank nearby. The Spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva, is connected to the northern bank (Petrogradsky Island) via the Exchange Bridge and occupied by the Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns. The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts. It hosts one of two campuses of Saint Petersburg State University.
On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge, lie the Admiralty building, the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace Embankment, which includes the Baroque Winter Palace, former official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical Marble Palace. The Winter Palace faces Palace Square, the city's main square with the Alexander Column.
Nevsky Prospekt, also on the left bank of the Neva, is the city's main avenue. It starts at the Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moika (Green Bridge), Griboyedov Canal (Kazansky Bridge), Garden Street, the Fontanka (Anichkov Bridge), meets Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station, where it meets Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The Passage, Catholic Church of St. Catherine, Book House (former Singer Manufacturing Company Building in the Art Nouveau style), Grand Hotel Europe, Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Great Gostiny Dvor, Russian National Library, Alexandrine Theatre behind Mikeshin's statue of Catherine the Great, Kazan Cathedral, Stroganov Palace, Anichkov Palace and Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace are all along that avenue.
The Alexander Nevsky Lavra, intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, is an important centre of Christian education in Russia. It also contains the Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many notable Petersburgers.
On the territory between the Neva and Nevsky Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace housing the Russian Museum, Field of Mars, St. Michael's Castle, Summer Garden, Tauride Palace, Smolny Institute and Smolny Convent are located.
Many notable landmarks are to the west and south of the Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace, Hotel Astoria, famous Mariinsky Theatre, New Holland Island, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, the largest in the city, and Senate Square, with the Bronze Horseman, 18th-century equestrian monument to Peter the Great, which is considered among the city's most recognisable symbols.
Other symbols of Saint Petersburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Palace Bridge drawn at night is yet another symbol of the city.
From April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea according to a schedule. It was not until 2004 that the first high bridge across the Neva, which does not need to be drawn, Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. The most remarkable bridges of our days are Korabelny and Petrovsky cable-stayed bridges, which form the most spectacular part of the city toll road, Western High-Speed Diameter. There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint Petersburg spanning numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moika, Fontanka, Griboyedov Canal, Obvodny Canal, Karpovka and Smolenka. Due to the intricate web of canals, Saint Petersburg is often called Venice of the North. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or cast iron parapets.
Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences, including Petergof, with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk, which has a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of Europe's largest English-style parks. Some other residences nearby and making part of the world heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina, actually belong to Leningrad Oblast rather than Saint Petersburg. Another notable suburb is Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland.
Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of the city's older districts. The authorities have recently been compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences in the city centre to private lessors. Many older buildings have been reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses.
Saint Petersburg is home to many parks and gardens. Some of the most well-known are in the southern suburbs, including Pavlovsk, one of Europe's largest English gardens. Sosnovka is the largest park within the city limits, occupying 240 ha. The Summer Garden is the oldest, dating back to the early 18th century and designed in the regular style. It is on the Neva's southern bank at the head of the Fontanka and is famous for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures.
Among other notable parks are the Maritime Victory Park on Krestovsky Island and the Moscow Victory Park in the south, both commemorating the victory over Nazi Germany in the Second World War, as well as the Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying Yelagin Island and the Tauride Garden around the Tauride Palace. The most common trees grown in the parks are the English oak, Norway maple, green ash, silver birch, Siberian Larch, blue spruce, crack willow, limes, and poplars. Important dendrological collections dating back to the 19th century are hosted by the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of the Forestry Academy.
In order to commemorate 300 years anniversary of Saint Petersburg a new park was laid out. The park is in the northwestern part of the city. The construction was started in 1995. It is planned to connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta Center's recreation areas. In the park 300 trees of valuable sorts, 300 decorative apple trees, 70 limes. 300 other trees and bushes were planted. These trees were presented to Saint Petersburg by non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its sister-cities, the city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia, German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.
Cameron gallery in Catherine park of Tsarskoe Selo
Grotto pavilion in Catherine park of Tsarskoe Selo
The Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo
Grand Menshikov Palace
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: Needs discussion on how the Russian invasion of Ukraine has affected tourism. (June 2023)
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Official name||Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments|
|Criteria||Cultural: (i), (ii), (iv), (vi)|
|Inscription||1990 (14th Session)|
|Area||3,934.1 ha (15.190 sq mi)|
The city's 18th and 19th-century architectural ensemble and its environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form. For various reasons (including large-scale destruction during World War II and construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the largest historical centres of Europe), Saint Petersburg has become a unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three centuries. Saint Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped it retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this largely prevented the rise of mid-to-late-20th century architecture and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city centre.
Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list as an area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around 4000 outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture. New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for those wishing to see Saint Petersburg's cultural heritage.
The city has 221 museums, 2,000 libraries, more than 80 theatres, 100 concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas, and 80 other cultural establishments. Every year the city hosts around 100 festivals and various competitions of art and culture, including more than 50 international ones.
Despite the economic instability of the 1990s, not a single major theatre or museum was closed in Saint Petersburg; on the contrary many new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets (opened in 1999) is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of more than 2000 dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint Petersburg' and Pushkin's Petersburg. The museum world of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum and the Russian Museum with its rich collection of Russian art, but also the palaces of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs, so-called small-town museums and others like the museum of famous Russian writer Dostoyevsky; Museum of Musical Instruments, the museum of decorative arts and the museum of professional orientation.
The musical life of Saint Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals. Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of the best in the world. Traditions of the Russian classical school have been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding educators. The art of famous and prominent Saint Petersburg dancers like Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and is, admired throughout the world. Contemporary Petersburg ballet is made up not only of traditional Russian classical school but also ballets by those like Boris Eifman, who expanded the scope of strict classical Russian ballet to almost unimaginable limits. Remaining faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet), he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde style, and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema, color, light, and finally with spoken word.
The Russian invasion of Ukraine has impacted on tourism. The British Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office advises against travelling to Russia, including Saint Petersburg, noting there have been reports of fires and explosions in areas close to the city.
Media and communications edit
All major Russian newspapers are active in Saint Petersburg. The city has a developed telecommunications system. In 2014, Rostelecom, the national operator, announced the beginning of a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city.
Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them in historic buildings. The largest is the Hermitage Museum that features the interiors of the former imperial residence and a vast collection of art. The Russian Museum is a large museum devoted to Russian fine art. The apartments of some famous Petersburgers, including Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Feodor Chaliapin, Alexander Blok, Vladimir Nabokov, Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Joseph Brodsky, as well as some palace and park ensembles of the southern suburbs and notable architectural monuments such as St. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums.
The Kunstkamera, with its collection established in 1714 by Peter the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the present-day Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The Russian Ethnography Museum, which has been split from the Russian Museum, is devoted to the cultures of the people of Russia, the former Soviet Union and Russian Empire.
The State Russian Museum is the world's largest depository of Russian fine art.
The Russian Museum of Ethnography is one of the largest ethnographic museums in the world.
A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains many authoritarian features of the USSR.
Other notable museums include the Central Naval Museum, and Zoological Museum, Central Soil Museum, the Russian Railway Museum, Suvorov Museum, Museum of the Siege of Leningrad, Erarta Museum of Contemporary Art, the largest non-governmental museum of contemporary art in Russia, Saint Petersburg Museum of History in the Peter and Paul Fortress and Artillery Museum, which includes not only artillery items, but also a huge collection of other military equipment, uniforms, and decorations. Amongst others, Saint Petersburg also hosts State Museum of the History of Religion, one of the eldest museums in Russia about religion depicting cultural representations from various parts of the globe.
Among the city's more than fifty theatres is the Mariinsky Theatre (formerly known as the Kirov Theatre), home to the Mariinsky Ballet company and opera. Leading ballet dancers, such as Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, Rudolph Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Galina Ulanova and Natalia Makarova, were principal stars of the Mariinsky ballet.
The first music school, the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, was founded in 1862 by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein. The school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Artur Kapp, Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri Shostakovich, who taught at the conservatory during the 1960s, bringing it additional fame. The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from 1871 to 1905. Among his students were Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Glazounov, Anatoly Liadov and others. The former St. Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer's only museum.
Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony". He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March 1942; a few months later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg. It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. In 1992, the 7th Symphony was performed by the 14 surviving orchestral players of the Leningrad premiere in the same hall as half a century before. The Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra remained one of the best known symphony orchestras in the world under the leadership of conductors Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri Temirkanov. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic—a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times—led the orchestra from a little-known provincial ensemble to one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras, especially for the performance of Russian music.
The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modelled after the royal courts of other European capitals.
Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country. The early Soviet jazz bands founded here included Leopold Teplitsky's First Concert Jazz Band (1927,) Leonid Utyosov 's TheaJazz (1928, under the patronage of composer Isaak Dunayevsky) and Georgy Landsberg's Jazz Cappella (1929). The first jazz appreciation society in the Soviet Union was founded here in 1958 as J58, and later named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the popular ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and Edita Piekha to become the first popular band in the USSR during the 1950s. In the 1960s student rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals. In 1972 Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium, which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music style was formed.
In the 1970s many bands came out from the "underground" scene and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club, which provided a stage to bands such as DDT, Kino, Alisa, Zemlyane, Zoopark, Piknik, and Secret. The first Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika, mixing over 300 people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the 1980s. The Sergey Kuryokhin International Festival (SKIF) is named after him. In 2004 the Kuryokhin Center was founded, where the SKIF and the Electro-Mechanica and Ethnomechanica festivals take place. SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant-garde music, Electro-Mechanica on electronic music, and Ethnomechanica on world music.
Today's Saint Petersburg boasts many notable musicians of various genres, from popular Leningrad's Sergei Shnurov, Tequilajazzz, Splean, and Korol i Shut, to rock veterans Yuri Shevchuk, Vyacheslav Butusov, and Mikhail Boyarsky. In the early 2000s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore, rapcore, and emocore, and there are bands such as Amatory, Kirpichi, Psychea, Stigmata, Grenouer and Animal Jazz.
Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world-famous tradition in literature. Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. It often appeared to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol, the novels of Dostoyevsky, the verse of Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam, and in the symbolist novel Petersburg by Andrey Bely. According to Lotman in his chapter, 'The Symbolism of Saint Petersburg' in Universe and the Mind, these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself. The effect of life in Saint Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important theme for authors such as Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoyevsky. Another important feature of early Saint Petersburg literature is its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories, as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of Saint Petersburg.
20th-century writers from Saint Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov, Ayn Rand, Andrey Bely and Yevgeny Zamyatin, along with his apprentices, The Serapion Brothers created entirely new styles in literature and contributed new insights to the understanding of society through their experience in this city. Anna Akhmatova became an important leader for Russian poetry. Her poem Requiem adumbrates the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. Another notable 20th-century writer from Saint Petersburg is Joseph Brodsky, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987). While living in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".
Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg. Well over a thousand feature films about tsars, revolution, people and stories set in Saint Petersburg have been produced worldwide but not filmed in the city. The first film studios were founded in Saint Petersburg in the 20th century and since the 1920s Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint Petersburg. The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina, starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean and made by an international team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers.
The cult comedy Irony of Fate (also Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!) is set in Saint Petersburg and pokes fun at Soviet city planning. The 1985 film White Nights received considerable Western attention for having captured genuine Leningrad street scenes at a time when filming in the Soviet Union by Western production companies was generally unheard of. Other movies include GoldenEye (1995), Midnight in Saint Petersburg (1996), Brother (1997) and Tamil romantic thriller film-Dhaam Dhoom (2008). Onegin (1999) is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In addition, the Russian romantic comedy, Piter FM, intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film.
Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the Festival of Festivals, Saint Petersburg, as well as the Message to Man International Documentary Film Festival, since its inauguration in 1988 during the White Nights.
Dramatic theatre edit
St Petersburg has a number of dramatic theatres and drama schools. These include the Student Theatre on Mokhovaya Street. Учебный театр «На Моховой», Leteiny Theatre and Youth Theatre on the Fontanka.
As of 2006[update]–2007, there were 1,024 kindergartens, 716 public schools and 80 vocational schools in Saint Petersburg. The largest of the public higher education institutions is Saint Petersburg State University, enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students; and the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law. Other famous universities are Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Herzen University, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance and Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical university. However, the public universities are all federal property and do not belong to the city.
In boating, the first competition here was the 1703 rowing event initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish fleet. The Russian Navy held Yachting events since the foundation of the city. Yacht clubs: St. Petersburg River Yacht Club, Neva Yacht Club, the latter is the oldest yacht club in the world. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and yachts and dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats.
Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and aristocracy, as well as part of military training. Several historic sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh.
Chess tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament, partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II to five players: Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall.
The city's main football team is FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, who have been champions of the Soviet and Russian league nine times, most notably claiming the RPL title in four consecutive seasons from 2018–19 to 2021–22, along with winning the Soviet/Russian Cup five times. The club also won the 2007–08 UEFA Cup and the 2008 UEFA Super Cup, spearheaded by successful player and local hero Andrey Arshavin.
Kirov Stadium formerly existed as Zenit's home from 1950 to 1993 and again in 1995, being one of the largest stadiums in the world at the time. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game attendance record for Soviet football. The stadium was knocked down in 2006, with Zenit temporarily moving to the Petrovsky Stadium before the Krestovsky Stadium was built on the same site as the Kirov Stadium. The Krestovsky Stadium opened in 2017, hosting four matches at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, including the final. The stadium then hosted seven matches at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, including a semi-final and the third-placed playoff. It also hosted seven matches at UEFA Euro 2020, including a quarter-final. The stadium was going to host the 2022 UEFA Champions League final, however UEFA removed St Petersburg as host in February 2022, citing the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
Hockey teams in the city include SKA Saint Petersburg in the KHL, HC VMF St. Petersburg in the VHL, and junior clubs SKA-1946 and Silver Lions in the Russian Major League. SKA Saint Petersburg is one of the most popular in the KHL, consistently being at or near the top of the league in attendance. Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice. Well-known players on the team include Pavel Datsyuk, Ilya Kovalchuk, Nikita Gusev, Sergei Shirokov and Viktor Tikhonov. During the NHL lockout, stars Ilya Kovalchuk, Sergei Bobrovsky and Vladimir Tarasenko also played for the team. They play their home games at Ice Palace Saint Petersburg.
The city's long-time basketball team is BC Spartak Saint Petersburg, which launched the career of Andrei Kirilenko. BC Spartak Saint Petersburg won two championships in the USSR Premier League (1975 and 1992), two USSR Cups (1978 and 1987), and a Russian Cup title (2011). They also won the Saporta Cup twice (1973 and 1975). Legends of the club include Alexander Belov and Vladimir Kondrashin. BC Zenit Saint Petersburg also play in the city, being formed in 2014.
Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway was built here in 1837, and since then the city's transport infrastructure has kept pace with the city's growth. Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and railway services, maintains a large public transport system that includes the Saint Petersburg tram and the Saint Petersburg Metro, and is home to several riverine services that convey passengers around the city efficiently and in relative comfort.
The city is connected to the rest of Russia and the wider world by several federal highways and national and international rail routes. Pulkovo Airport serves most of the air passengers departing from or arriving to the city.
Roads and public transport edit
Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport (buses, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas. In 2022 marshrutkas have been mostly phased out in favor of publicly owned buses. Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the main means of transport; in the 1980s this was the largest tram network globally, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s.
Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over 250 urban and a number of suburban bus routes. Saint Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has 5 lines with 72 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 2.3 million passengers daily. Metro stations are often elaborately decorated with materials such as marble and bronze.
As of 2018, the Saint Petersburg Metro will include new stations: Prospekt Slavy, Dunayskaya, Shushary, Begovaya, and Novokrestovskaya, the latter built specifically to offer convenient access to the stadium during the 2018 FIFA World Cup games and games played by FC Zenit.
|Saint Petersburg Metro map|
Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow. The construction of freeways such as the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, completed in 2011, and the Western High-Speed Diameter, completed in 2017, helped reduce the traffic in the city. The M11 Neva, also known as the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Motorway, is a federal highway, and connects Saint Petersburg to Moscow by a freeway.
Saint Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking Scandinavia to Russia and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the international European routes E18 towards Helsinki, E20 towards Tallinn, E95 towards Pskov, Kyiv and Odesa and E105 towards Petrozavodsk, Murmansk and Kirkenes (north) and towards Moscow and Kharkiv (south).
Saint Petersburg public transportation statistics edit
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Saint Petersburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 69 minutes. 19.6% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 minutes, while 16.1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km (4.3 mi), while 15% travel for over 12 km (7.5 mi) in a single direction.
The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports[clarification needed] in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up the Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. It is a terminus of both the Volga–Baltic and White Sea–Baltic waterways.
The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, the 2,824-meter-long (9,265 ft) Big Obukhovsky Bridge opened in 2004. Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt and Shlisselburg from May through October. In the warmer months many smaller boats and water-taxis navigate the city's canals.
The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky and Vitebsky),[d] as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject. Saint Petersburg has international railway connections to Helsinki, Finland, Berlin, Germany, and many former republics of the USSR. The Helsinki railway, built in 1870 and 443 kilometers (275 mi) long, had until 2022 trains running five times a day, in a journey lasting about three and a half hours with the Allegro train.
In 2009 Russian Railways launched a high speed service for the Moscow–Saint Petersburg route. The new train, known as Sapsan, is a derivative of the popular Siemens Velaro train; various versions of this already operate in some European countries. It set records for the fastest train in Russia on 2 May 2009, travelling at 281 km/h (174.6 mph) and on 7 May 2009, traveling at 290 kilometers per hour (180 mph).
From 12 December 2010 until March 2022, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg's Finlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. "Allegro" is known for suffering some big technical problems from time to time, which sometimes result in significant delays and even cancellation of tourists' trips. The service has been suspended indefinitely in the context of the Russian invasion of Ukraine and is not expected to resume.
|Intercity and suburban rail terminals of Petersburg|
Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in 1931. As of 2013[update], the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in Russia after Moscow's Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo. As a result, the steadily increasing passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire airport infrastructure. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on 4 December 2013 and integrated international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo-2. The renovated terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an extension of Terminal 1 in 2015. One of the oldest air carriers of the Russian Federation Rossiya is registered in Saint Petersburg and is the largest and the base carrier of Pulkovo Airport.
There is a regular rapid-bus connection (buses 39, 39E, K39) between Pulkovo airport and the Moskovskaya metro station as well as 24/7 taxi service.
Notable people edit
International relations edit
List of sister cities to Saint Petersburg as it appears on the official portal of the City Government, listing both sister cities and partnership ties:
Non CIS/Baltic states sister cities of Saint Petersburg (from official government list)
- Adana, Turkey (since 1997)
- Alexandroupoli, Greece (since 2015)
- Antwerp, Belgium (since 1958)
- Bangkok, Thailand (since 1997)
- Barcelona, Spain (since 1984)
- Bethlehem, Palestine (since 2003)
- Bordeaux, France (since 1991)
- Cape Town, South Africa (since 2001)
- Cebu, Philippines (since 2010)
- Colombo, Sri Lanka (since 1997)
- Chengdu, China (since 1998)
- Daegu, South Korea (since 1997)
- Dresden, Germany (since 1961)
- Edinburgh, United Kingdom (since 1995)[failed verification]
- Faisalabad, Pakistan
- Gothenburg, Sweden (since 1962)
- Hamburg, Germany (since 1957)
- Havana, Cuba (since 2000)
- Helsinki, Finland (since 1993)
- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (since 1977)
- Isfahan, Iran (since 1999)
- Istanbul, Turkey (since 1990)
- Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (since 2017)
- Le Havre, France (since 1965)
- Los Angeles, United States (since 1990)
- Lyon, France (since 1993)
- Manchester, United Kingdom (since 1956)
- Mariupol', Ukraine (since 2022)
- Mikkeli, Finland (since 1996)
- Montevideo, Uruguay (since 1998)
- Mumbai, India (since 1963)
- Nice, France (since 1997)
- Osaka, Japan (since 1961)
- Piraeus, Greece (since 1965)
- Plovdiv, Bulgaria (since 2001)
- Québec City, Canada (since 2002)
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (since 1986)
- Rotterdam, Netherlands (since 1966)
- Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
- Santiago, Cuba
- Shanghai, China (since 1959)
- Sofia, Bulgaria
- St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
- Stockholm, Sweden (since 1992)
- Tampere, Finland (since 1993)
- Thessaloniki, Greece (since 2002)
- Zagreb, Croatia (since 1968)
Sister cities in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Baltic states
Sister cities of Saint Petersburg (not included on official government list)
- Astana, Kazakhstan (since 2008)
- Aqaba, Jordan (since 2003)
- Bethlehem, Palestine
- Busan, South Korea (since 2008)
- Cebu City, Philippines (since 2008)
- Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea (since 2008)
- Debrecen, Hungary (since 2002)
- Florence, Italy (since 2001)
- Galveston, Texas, United States
- Guadalajara, Mexico (since 2008)
- Haifa, Israel (since 2008)
- Hai Phong, Vietnam (since 2008)
- Khartoum, Sudan (since 2002)
- Lansing, Michigan, United States (since 1992)
- Le Havre, France
- Lviv, Ukraine (since 2006)
- Mar del Plata, Argentina (since 2008)
- Maribor, Slovenia (since 2001)
- State of Maryland, United States
- Nampho, North Korea (since 2002)
- Osh, Kyrgyzstan (since 2004)
- Oslo, Norway (since 2002)
- Port Vila, Vanuatu
- Porto Alegre, Brazil (since 2002)
- Rishon LeZion, Israel (since 1966)
- Sousse, Tunisia (since 2008)
- Turin, Italy (since 2012)
- Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (since 2008)
- Westport, Connecticut, United States
Former twin towns edit
Italian cities Milan and Venice were formerly twin cities of Saint Petersburg, but suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay propaganda". Milan suspended the relationship with Saint Petersburg on 23 November 2012 and Venice did so on 28 January 2013.
Shortly after the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Gdańsk, Warsaw, Aarhus, Melbourne, Kotka, Turku, Riga and Tallinn terminated or suspended the cooperation, affiliation or sister city relationship with Saint Petersburg. On 17 March 2022, Košice joined the list of cities terminating the partnership. The cooperation began in 1995.
Twinning with occupied Mariupol edit
Some Russian cities are twinned with ones in occupied Ukraine, in particular, Saint Petersburg is twinned with Mariupol. An art symbol of the twinning was unveiled on Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, defaced and removed.
See also edit
- Fences in Saint Petersburg
- Hotels in Saint Petersburg
- List of buildings and structures in Saint Petersburg
- List of museums in Saint Petersburg
- List of notable people from Saint Petersburg
- List of Saint Petersburg Metro stations
- List of Saint Petersburg sister cities
- List of theatres in Saint Petersburg
- Outline of Saint Petersburg
- Timeline of Saint Petersburg
- // PEE-tərz-burg; Russian: Санкт-Петербург, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ⓘ.
- In the pre-1918 Russian orthography, these names were spelled Санктпетербургъ and Петроградъ with a trailing hard sign.
- The level of flooding is measured near Saint Petersburg Mining Institute, which is normally 11 cm (4.3 in) above sea level
- Until 2001, the Varshavsky Rail Terminal served as a major station; it now is a railway museum.
- Official website of St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg in Figures Archived 19 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Putin appointed an official from the "LPR" as the head of Chukotka". Novaya Gazeta Europe (in Russian). 15 March 2023. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
- Including parts of Leningrad Oblast
- "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
- "Валовой региональный продукт по субъектам Российской Федерации в 2016-2021гг". www.rosstat.gov.ru.
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- "Petersburg". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
- Shevchenko, Elizaveta (11 October 2021). "The Five Names of St. Petersburg". news.itmo.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 28 October 2023.
- Sobchak, Anatoly. Город четырех революций – Дух преобразования... (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "18th Century in the Russian history". Rusmania. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- McColl, R.W., ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of world geography. Vol. 1. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 633–634. ISBN 978-0-8160-5786-3. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Nelsson, Richard (1 September 2021). "Leningrad becomes St Petersburg – archive, 1991". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 July 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
- V. Morozov. The Discourses of Saint Petersburg and the Shaping of a Wider Europe, Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, 2002. ISSN 1397-0895
- "Saint Petersburg Tourism – A Look At The Growth of Tourism in Russia's Northern Capital". St Petersburg Essential Guide. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- Fes, Nick (4 February 2019). "Saint Petersburg: Number Of Tourists Increased As Well As The Black Market". TourismReview. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- "Leningrad, Petersburg and the Great Name Debate". The New York Times. 13 June 1991. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Masters, Tom; Richmond, Simon (2015). Lonely Planet St Petersburg. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1743605035. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2020 – via Google Books.
- E. M. Pospelow (1993). Имена городов: вчера и сегодня (1917—1992): Топонимический словарь [City names: yesterday and today (1917–1992): Toponymic dictionary]. Moscow: Русские словари. p. 128.
- Schmemann, Serge (13 June 1991). "Leningrad, Petersburg and the Great Name Debate". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Bonavia, Michael (1990). London Before I Forget. The Self-Publishing Association Ltd. p. 72. ISBN 1-85421-082-3.
- Nesterov, V. Знаешь ли ты свой город ("Do you know your city?"). Leningrad, 1958, p. 58.
- "Петроград – Энциклопедия "Вокруг света"". Vokrugsveta.ru. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "31 August 1914 St.Petersburg renamed to Petrograd" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Orttung, Robert W. (1995). "Chronology of Major Events". From Leningrad to Saint Petersburg. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 273–277. ISBN 978-0-312-12080-1. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- "Some non-official names of Saint Petersburg". ruslinguaschool.com. 22 December 2020.
- "Russia won't close Tsar Peter's 'window to Europe', Kremlin says". Reuters. 2 June 2022. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
Peter, who ruled from 1682 to 1725, oversaw Russia's transformation into a major European power and founded the city of Saint Petersburg, dubbed Russia's "window to Europe".
- Glancey, Jonathan (24 May 2003). "Window on the west". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
- "St. Petersburg". European Council. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Reise nach St. Petersburg – 6 Tage | Gruppen- und maßgeschneiderte Touren | Pauschalreisen nach Russland". Russlanderleben.de. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Winter in St. Petersburg". Autentic-distribution.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Doka, Konstantin Afanasʹevich (1997). Saint Petersburg : the city of the white nights. Doka, Natalʹi︠a︡ Aleksandrovna., Vesnin, Sergeĭ., Williams, Paul. St. Petersburg: P-2 Art Publishers. ISBN 5890910310. OCLC 644640534.
- "The City of White Nights – Saint Petersburg". Designcollector. 31 July 2018. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- Olivia, Griese (January 2005). ""Palmyra des Nordens": St. Petersburg – eine nordosteuropäische Metropole?". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 53 (3): 349–362. JSTOR 41051447.
- Wilson, Derek (2010). Peter the Great. Macmillan. p. 82. ISBN 978-1429964678. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Williams, Harold (1914). Russia of the Russians. Pitman & Sons. p. 33. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-300-10300-7.
- "Peter and Paul Fortress". Saint Petersburg.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- "Consulate General of Sweden – Sweden and Saint Petersburg". Swedenabroad.com. 17 October 2005. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "St Petersburg: Paris of the North or City of Bones? – Europe – World – The Independent". Independent.co.uk. 20 January 2012. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
- "Jean-Baptiste Le Blond, architect in St. Petersburg, Russia". saint-petersburg.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Matthew S. Anderson, Peter the Great (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978)
- Rex A. Wade The Russian Revolution, 1917 2005 Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-84155-0[page needed]
- "The common characteristic of Saint Petersburg". russia-travel.ws. 2005–2008. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Kann, Pavel Yakovlevich (1963). Leningrad: A Short Guide. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. pp. 132–133. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "Ленинградская область в целом: Административно-территориальное деление Ленинградской области". Lenobltrans.narod.ru. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Как советская власть уничтожала наследие русской истории". ВЗГЛЯД.РУ. Archived from the original on 27 January 2023. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
- "Ленинские, сталинские и хрущевские гонения на Церковь. Церковный ответ на гонения – читать, скачать". azbyka.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 28 May 2023. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
- "Жизнь без веры: утраченные церкви Петербурга". РИА Новости (in Russian). 15 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
- Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union, Barry McLoughlin and Kevin McDermott (eds). Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, p. 6
- "The Russian historian giving Stalin's victims back their identity". France 24. 29 January 2018. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "Siege of Leningrad | Nazi Germany, World War II, Blockade". Britannica. 1 September 2023. Archived from the original on 18 April 2023. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
- Baldack, Richard H. "Leningrad, Siege of", World Book Encyclopedia, Chicago, 2002, vol. 12, p. 195.[ISBN missing]
- TROUILLARD, Stéphanie (8 August 2021). "'An unprecedented humanitarian catastrophe': The siege of Leningrad, 80 years on". France24. Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
- Zubkova, Elena Yurievna (1998). "Chronology of Major Events". In Ragsdale, Hugh (ed.). Russia after the war: hopes, illusions, and disappointments, 1945–1957. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. pp. 132–133. ISBN 978-0-7656-0227-5. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Ollman, Leah (3 August 2001). "Russian Photos Trace Images of Mortality and Memory". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- Dunne, Aiden (17 May 2007). "Camera in a City of Shadows". The Irish Times. Dublin. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- "CАНКТ ПЕТЕРБУРГ ВАЛОВОЙ РЕГИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ПРОДУКТ в 1998–2003 гг" (PDF). Petrostat.gks.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "Newsline – June 14, 1996 Yeltsin Signs More Power-Sharing Agreements". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 June 1996. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Zagraevsky, Sergey (2008). "Will Saint Petersburg share the same fate as Moscow?". Zagraevsky.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Photos of the violations of the historical environment of Saint Petersburg". Rusarch.ru. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Nezhikhovsky, R.A. Река Нева и Невская губа [The Neva River and Neva Bay], Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1981.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
- "Climate St. Peterburg – Historical weather records". Tutiempo.net. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Архив погоды в Санкт-Петербурге, Санкт-Петербург". Rp5.ru. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Leningrad/Pulkovo Climate Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- "Information on the number of registered births, deaths, marriages and divorces for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
- "Birth rate, mortality rate, natural increase, marriage rate, divorce rate for January to December 2022". ROSSTAT. Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
- Суммарный коэффициент рождаемости [Total fertility rate]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLSX) on 10 August 2023. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
- "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
- "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
- "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
- "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
- "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 15 August 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
- "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
- "Национальный состав и владение языками, гражданство". perepis2002.ru. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
- "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 30 December 2022. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- Martin, Terry (1998). "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing" (PDF). The Journal of Modern History. 70 (4): 813–861. doi:10.1086/235168. ISSN 1537-5358. JSTOR 10.1086/235168. S2CID 32917643. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 December 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
- Chistyakova, N. Третье сокращение численности населения... и последнее? Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Demoscope Weekly 163–164, 1–15 August 2004.
- "Encyclopedia of Saint Petersburg" Chistyakov, A. Yu. Население (обзорная статья) Archived 4 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Энциклопедия Санкт-Петербурга
- "В первом полугодии продолжалось умеренное повышение числа рождений". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Russian statistics Основные показатели социально-демографической ситуации в Санкт-Петербурге
- "Пандемия COVID-19 привела к падению рождаемости в Петербурге". M.dp.ru. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
- Виталий Трофимов-Трофимов (30 September 2013). "Религиозное лицо Петербурга". ok-inform.ru. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia" Archived 6 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Sreda, 2012.
- 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27 August 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2017. Archived.
- "The Constitution of the Russian federation". Constitution.ru. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Russian source: Charter of Saint Petersburg City". Gov.spb.ru. Archived from the original on 31 May 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Федеральный закон от 02.05.2012 N 40-ФЗ "О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об общих принципах организации законодательных (представительных) и исполнительных органов государственной власти субъектов Российской Федерации" и Федеральный закон "Об основных гарантиях избирательных прав и права на участие в референдуме граждан Российской Федерации"". garant.ru. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- "Закон Санкт-Петербурга от 26.06.2012 N 339-59". ppt.ru. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Александр Беглов назначен врио Губернатора Санкт-Петербурга (in Russian). Rambler news. 3 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Official website of the Northwestern Federal District (Russian)". Szfo.ru. 25 June 2009. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "О территориальном устройстве Санкт-Петербурга". gov.spb.ru. Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
- "Cruise St Petersburg, Discover the Baltic". 30 December 2008. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
- "ЗАО "Терра-Нова" | Крупнейший в Европе проект по образованию и комплексному развитию территории в западной части Васильевского острова Санкт-Петербурга". Mfspb.ru. 12 March 2012. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Budget of Saint Petersburg (Russian document)". City of Saint Petersburg. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Валовой региональный продукт по субъектам Российской Федерации в 1998–2016гг. (в текущих основных ценах; млн.рублей)". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения (в текущих основных ценах; рублей)". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Отраслевая структура ВРП по видам экономической деятельности (по ОКВЭД) за 2005 год". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Data of the Government of Saint Petersburg
- "Passport of St. Petersburg Industrial Zones" (PDF). regionen-russland.de. 2015. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2017.
- "St. Petersburg Historic Skyline, Russian Federation". Wmf.org. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "График разводки мостов на Неве в Санкт-Петербурге". Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- Hudyakov, Artyom (12 March 2008). Виртуальная защита Петербурга [Virtual protection of Petersburg] (in Russian). bn.ru/. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- (in Russian) Archived 9 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Visit Saint Petersburg". Visit-Petersburg.ru. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Saint Petersburg Tourist Information Bureau". Petersburg.ru. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Welcome to Saint Petersburg!". Saint Petersburg.com. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "National Geographic – Saint Petersburg, Russia". NationalGeographic.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Saint Petersburg is a Stroll Along A Lovely Canal". LonelyPlanet.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Fodor's Travel – Saint Petersburg, Russia". Fodors.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Rick Steve's Europe – Saint Petersburg, Russia". RickSteves.com. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Foreign travel advice – Russia". HM Government. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
- "Rostelecom to invest RUB 15 bln in St Petersburg". Telecom Paper. 2 May 2014. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Hermitage in Figures and Facts". Archived from the original on 19 June 2022. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
- ""The Heart of Yugra" exhibition at the Russian Museum of Ethnography". forumspb.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2022. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
- "Выставка нерукотворных икон художника Журавлева открылась в петербургском Музее истории религии – Северо-Запад || Интерфакс Россия". Interfax-russia.ru (in Russian). 14 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- Close (16 October 2005). "Where a symphony silenced guns". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Vulliamy, Ed (25 November 2001). "Orchestral manoeuvres (part one)". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- "Рэпер Моргенштерн снялся в клипе группы Little Big" [Rapper Morgenstern starred in a music video of the group Little Big]. mgazeta.com (in Russian). Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- Joseph Brodsky. Less Than One: Selected Essays, 1986
- "Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "St. Petersburg, Russia"". IMDb. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "the irony of fate sat in st.petersburg". Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- "The XIX International "Message To Man" Film Festival". IFC Centaur. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "ОТЧЕТ за 2006/2007 учебный год". Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- "History of Yacht Clubs in Russia". Encspb.ru. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Nair, Rohith (25 February 2022). "Russia stripped of major events as invasion of Ukraine intensifies". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- "Datsyuk adds KHL title to Stanley Cup victories". ESPN.com. 17 April 2017. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
- New routes spb.ru Archived 16 August 2023 at the Wayback Machine
- "Official site of St. Petersburg Metro". Metro.spb.ru. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
- "Перспективы развития метрополитена". Metro.spb.ru. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- "Saint Petersburg Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Archived 16 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Trip by hydrofoil to Kronstadt from St. Petersburg". St.Petersburg travel guide. 24 September 2019. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
- "Riding the new ferry to St Petersburg". thisisFINLAND. 3 June 2010. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Бюпьюбяйхи Бнйгюк – Хярнпхъ". Russkialbum.ru. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Results of train ticket inquiry, Russian train schedules and Russian train tickets". RZD.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "Sapsan claims Russian rail speed record". Railway Gazette International. 7 May 2009. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
- "Allegro trains suffered from the biggest problems in its history". St. Petersburg Travel Guide. 15 August 2016. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- "Россия – российские авиалинии". Rossiya-airlines.com. 25 July 2007. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Аэропорт Пулково ввел в эксплуатацию дополнительное здание для обслуживания внутренних рейсов". pulkovoairport.ru. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
- "UzReport: Russian state-owned Rossiya and Pulkovo airlines merge". 25 November 2006. Archived from the original on 25 November 2006.
- "Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- "Barcelona's Sister cities". 2008 Ajuntament de Barcelona (City council's webpage). Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Bethlehem Municipality". bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
- "Bordeaux – Rayonnement européen et mondial" (in French). Mairie de Bordeaux. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures" (in French). Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "St. Petersburg to promote Cebu as tourism spot". Cebu Tourism News. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Colorful Daegu". Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Dresden Twin cities". 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden (City of Dresden: Dresden.de). Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
- Erdem, Selim Efe (3 November 2003). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. Archived from the original on 26 November 2004. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
49 sister cities in 2003
- "Le Havre Website – Twin Towns". (in English) 2006–2008 Ovidio Limited. Archived from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- "Los Angeles City Council: Sister cities of Los Angeles". Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- "Friendship Agreements". Manchester City Council. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai". Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "Osaka and the World, the official website of the Osaka city". Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- "Plovdiv.bg – Ïîáðàòèìåíè ãðàäîâå". 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
- "Tenerife". Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- "Twinning Cities". City of Thessaloniki. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Zagreb Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 8 February 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "О городе Даугавпилс". Gorod.lv. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Guide to Vilnuis". Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Yerevan – Partner Cities". 2005–2013 Yerevan. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "Yerevan Municipality – Sister Cities". 2005–2009 Yerevan. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- "Twinning with Palestine". Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Hungary-Russia sister cities". Vengria.ru. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Sister cities international". Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "US Africa Sister Cities Conference" (PDF). U.S. Africa sister cities foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Haifa agreement with partner" (in Russian). Mignews.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Sister cities:Saint Petersburg, Russia". Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- Florence, Jeanne. "Le Havre – Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre – Twin towns] (in French). Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "Le Havre – Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre – Twin towns] (in French). lehavre.fr. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "The city of Lviv, and its sister cities". Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- [dead link]
- "Online Directory: Russian Federation, Eurasia". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Sister partners of Oslo". Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- "Porto Alegre's International Sister Cities Program". Porto Alegre, RS. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "La Stampa – Torino-San Pietroburgo, c'è l'intesa sull'asse strategico". Lastampa.it. 22 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Town of Westport, Connecticut : Sister Cities Committee". Westportct.gov. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Milan severs twin city ties with St Petersburg over 'homosexual propaganda' ban". The Telegraph. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Associazione Radicale Certi Diritti (23 November 2012). "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti | Gemellaggio tra Milano e San Pietroburgo: Consiglio comunale approva mozione che ne chiede la sospensione". Certidiritti.it. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Associazione Radicale Certi Diritti. "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti | Venezia approva mozione per la sospensione degli effetti del gemellaggio con San Pietroburgo". Certidiritti.it. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Trójmiasto zrywa współpracę z rosyjskimi miastami". 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Gdańsk zrywa współpracę z rosyjskimi miastami. Na sali był konsul Ukrainy" (in Polish). 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Rada Warszawy: najważniejszym zadaniem jest stworzyć uchodźcom drugi dom" (in Polish). 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 11 May 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- "Aarhus dropper russisk venskabsby". TV2 ØSTJYLLAND (in Danish). Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
- "Melbourne cuts ties with sister city following Russia's invasion of Ukraine". 3AW 693. March 2022. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
- "Melbourne council cuts ties with Russian sister city over Ukraine war". The Age. 30 May 2023. Archived from the original on 30 May 2023. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
- "Kotka keskeyttää yhteistyön venäläisten kumppanien kanssa". Kotkan kaupunki (in Finnish). 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 10 August 2023. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
- "Turku keskeyttää ystävyyskaupunkitoiminnan Pietarin kanssa". Turku.fi (in Finnish). 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
- "Rīgas dome pārtrauc sadarbību ar sadraudzības pilsētām Baltkrievijā un Krievijā". Rīgas dome (in Latvian). 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 August 2023. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
- "City of Tallinn supports Ukraine and ends cooperation with Moscow and St Petersburg". Tallinn City Council. 8 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 August 2023. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
- "Tlačová agentúra Slovenskej republiky – TASR.sk". www.tasr.sk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
- Tenisheva, Anastasia (8 July 2022). "Russian Towns Get Ukrainian 'Twins' in PR Drive, Political Deflection Tactic". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
- ""Murderers, you bombed it": a schoolgirl was detained in St. Petersburg for writing on an installation about Mariupol". www.txtreport.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
- Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. St. Petersburg. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006. ISBN 0-7112-2492-7.
- Bater, James H. St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change. Montreal: McGuill-Queen's University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-7735-0266-1.
- Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. Histoire de Saint-Pétersbourg. Paris: Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2-213-59601-8.
- Brumfield, William Craft. The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. ISBN 0-520-06929-3.
- Buckler, Julie. Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-691-11349-1.
- Clark, Katerina, Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
- Cross, Anthony (ed.). St. Petersburg, 1703–1825. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 1-4039-1570-9.
- "San Pietroburgo, la capitale del nord" by Giuseppe D'Amato in Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. pp. 27–46. ISBN 88-7980-355-7. (Travel to the Baltic Hansa Archived 16 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. The European Union and its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian.
- George, Arthur L. & Elena George. St. Petersburg: Russia's Window to the Future, The First Three Centuries. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-58979-017-0.
- Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4.
- Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St. Petersburg. Helsinki: SKS Finnish literature Society, 2003. ISBN 951-746-491-6.
- Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10300-7.
- Duncan Fallowell, One Hot Summer in St Petersburg (London, Jonathan Cape,1995)
- Knopf Guide: Sat. Petersburg. New York: Knopf, 1995. ISBN 0-679-76202-7.
- Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg.[ISBN missing]
- Lincoln, W. Bruce. Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia. New York: Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-08323-4.
- Orttung, Robert W. From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Democratization in a Russian City. New York: St. Martin's, 1995. ISBN 0-312-17561-2.
- Richardson, Daniel; Humphreys, Robert (2004) . St. Petersburg: The Rough Guide (5th ed.). New York, London & Delhi: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-298-5. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- Ruble, Blair A. Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. ISBN 0-87772-347-8.
- Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. St. Petersburg: Architecture of the Tsars. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4.
- Volkov, Solomon. St. Petersburg: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874052-1.
- St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4
- Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections: A Guide to the Lesser Known Treasures of St. Petersburg. 2003. ISBN 1-59373-000-4.
- Ivanov, S.V. (2007). Unknown Socialist Realism: The Leningrad School. Saint Petersburg: NP-Print Edition. ISBN 978-5-901724-21-7..
- Nezhikhovsky, R.A. (1981). Река Нева и Невская губа [The Neva River and Neva Bay]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat.
- Vorhees, Mara (2008). St. Petersburg (5th ed.). Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-827-9. Archived from the original on 2 September 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- City Tourist Portal Archived 1 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- on YouTube by FIFA
- St Petersburg on In Our Time at the BBC
- St-Petersburg, Virtual Tour • 360° Aerial Panorama
- Atchinson, Bob (2010). "Saint Petersburg, 1900: a photographic travelogue of the capital of Imperial Russia". Retrieved 9 February 2011.[self-published source] 50 photographs of St. Petersburg from "Travelogues" of Burton Holmes (Vol. 8, 1914) and other sources
- Официальный портал администрации Санкт-Петербурга [The Official Portal of the Saint Petersburg City Authority] (in Russian). The Saint Petersburg City Authority: 191060, St. Petersburg, Smolny [Администрация Санкт-Петербурга 191060, СПб., Смольный]. 2001–2011. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "Encyclopaedia of Saint Petersburg". St. Petersburg: The Likhachov Foundation. 2004. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 3500 entries, 9200 personalities, 3500 addresses, 2000 pictures and 40 geographical maps, 3800 bibliographical references from the original "Encyclopaedia of Saint Petersburg" (SPb., Rosspen, 2004)
- Kropotkin, Peter Alexeivitch; Bealby, John Thomas (1911). . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–40.
- Байков В.Д. Ленинградские хроники: от послевоенных 50-х до "лихих 90-х". М. Карамзин, 2017. – 486 с., илл. – in English: Leningrad Chronicles: from the postwar fifties to the "wild nineties" ISBN 978-5-00071-516-1
- Old Maps of Saint Petersburg Archived 16 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Historic Cities Archived 25 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine site