Tampere (//, US also / /,, Finnish: [ˈtɑmpere] (listen); Swedish: Tammerfors [tɑmːærˈforsː] (listen); Latin: Tammerforsia) is a city in Pirkanmaa in the western part of Finland. Tampere is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries; it has a population of 238,140 with the urban area holding 334,112 people and the metropolitan area, also known as the Tampere sub-region, holding 385,301 inhabitants in an area of 4,970 km2 (1,920 sq mi). Tampere is the second-largest urban area and third most-populous individual municipality in Finland, after the cities of Helsinki and Espoo and the most populous Finnish city outside the Greater Helsinki area, within which both Helsinki and Espoo are located. Today, Tampere is one of the major urban, economic, and cultural hubs in the whole inland region.
|Tampereen kaupunkiTammerfors stad|
City of Tampere
|Founded||1 October 1779|
|• Mayor||Lauri Lyly|
|• City||689.59 km2 (266.25 sq mi)|
|• Land||525.03 km2 (202.72 sq mi)|
|• Water||164.56 km2 (63.54 sq mi)|
|• Urban||258.52 km2 (99.82 sq mi)|
|Area rank||166th largest in Finland|
|• Rank||3rd largest in Finland|
|• Density||460.3/km2 (1,192/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,211.0/km2 (3,136/sq mi)|
|Population by native language|
|• Finnish||94.9% (official)|
|Population by age|
|• 0 to 14||13.3%|
|• 15 to 64||67.5%|
|• 65 or older||19.2%|
|Time zone||UTC+02:00 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+03:00 (EEST)|
|Municipal tax rate||20.25%|
Tampere and its environs belong to the historical province of Satakunta. The area belonged to the Tavastia Province from 1831 to 1997, and over time it has often been considered to belong to Tavastia as a province. For example, in Uusi tietosanakirja published in the 1960s, the Tampere region is presented as part of the then Tavastia Province. Around the 1950s, Tampere and its surroundings began to establish itself as their own province of Pirkanmaa. Tampere became the center of Pirkanmaa, and in the early days of the province, Tammermaa was also used several times in its early days - for example, in the Suomi-käsikirja published in 1968. Tampere is wedged between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by 18 metres (59 ft), the rapids linking them, Tammerkoski, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "Manchester of the North" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse" and terms such as "Manserock". Also, Tampere has been officially declared the "Sauna Capital of the World", because it has the most public saunas in the world.
Helsinki is approximately 160 kilometres (100 mi) south of Tampere, and can be reached in 1 hr, 31 minutes by Pendolino high-speed rail service and 2 hours by car. The distance to Turku is roughly the same. Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is Finland's eighth-busiest airport, with over 230,000 passengers in 2017. Tampere also serves as an important transit route for three Finnish highways: Highway 3 (E12), Highway 9 (E63) and Highway 12.
Names and etymologyEdit
Although the name Tampere is derived from the Tammerkoski rapids (both the city and the rapids are called Tammerfors in Swedish), the origin of the Tammer- part of that name has been the subject of much debate. Ánte accepts the "straightforward" etymology of Rahkonen and Heikkilä in Proto-Samic *Tëmpël(kōškë), *tëmpël meaning "deep, slow section of a stream" and *kōškë "rapids" (cognate with the Finnish koski). This has become the most accepted explanation in the academia, according to the Institute for the Languages of Finland. Other theories include that it comes from the Swedish word damber, meaning milldam; another, that it originates from the ancient Scandinavian words þambr ("thick bellied") and þambion ("swollen belly"), possibly referring to the shape of the rapids. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word Kvatemberdagar, or more colloquially Tamperdagar, meaning the Ember days of the Western Christian liturgical calendar. The Finnish word for oak, tammi, also features in the speculation, although Tampere is situated outside the natural distribution range of the European oak.
The first coat of arms of Tampere was designed by Arvid von Cederwald in 1838, while the current coat of arms of 1960 in use was designed by Olof Eriksson. Changing the coat of arms was a controversial act and the restoration of the old coat of arms has from time to time been demanded even after the change. The new coat of arms has also been called Soviet-style in letters to the editor because of its colors.
The blazon of the old coat of arms has either not survived or it has never been done, but the description of the current coat of arms is explained as follows: "In the red field, a corrugated counter-bar, above which is accompanied by a piled hammer, and below, a Caduceus; all gold". The colors of the coat of arms are the same as in the coat of arms of Pirkanmaa. The hammer, which looks like the first letter of the city's name T, symbolizes Tampere's early industry, Caduceus its trading activities and the corrugated counter-bar represents the Tammerkoski rapids, which divides Tampere's industrial and commercial areas.
The earliest known permanent settlements around Tammerkoski were established in 7th century, when settlers from the west of the region started farming land in Takahuhti. The area was largely inhabited by the Tavastian tribes. For many centuries, the population remained low. By the 16th century, the villages of Messukylä and Takahuhti had grown to be the largest settlements in the region. Other villages nearby were Laiskola, Pyynikkälä and Hatanpää. At that time, there had been a market place in the Pispala area for centuries, where the bourgeoisies from Turku in particular traded. In 1638, Governor-General Per Brahe the Younger ordered that two markets be held in Tammerkoski each year, the autumn market on every Peter's Day in August and the winter market on Mati Day in February. In 1708 the market was moved from the edge of Tammerkoski to Harju and from there in 1758 to Pispala. The early industries in the Pirkanmaa region in the 17th century were mainly watermills and sawmills, while in the 18th century other production began to emerge, as several small-scale ironworks, Tammerkoski distillery and Otavala spinning school were founded.
The birth and industrialization of the cityEdit
Before the birth of the city of Tampere, its neighboring municipality of Pirkkala (according to which the current Pirkanmaa region got its name) was the most administratively significant parish in the area throughout the Middle Ages. This all changed in the 18th century when Erik Edner, a Finnish pastor, proposed the establishment of a city of Tampere on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1771–1772; it was officially founded as a market place in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, 1 October 1779, Tampere was granted full city rights. At this time, it was a rather small town, founded on the lands belonging to Tammerkoski manor, while its inhabitants were still mainly farmers. As farming on the city's premises was forbidden, the inhabitants began to rely on other methods of securing a livelihood, primarily trade and handicraft. When Finland became part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809, Tampere still had less than a thousand inhabitants.
Tampere grew as a major market town and industrial centre in the 19th century; the industrialization of Tampere was greatly influenced by the Finlayson textile factory, founded in 1820 by the Scottish industrialist James Finlayson. By the year 1850, the factory employed around 2000 people, while the population of the city had increased to 4000 inhabitants. Other notable industries that followed Finlayson's success in the 1800s were Tampella blast furnace, machine factory and flax mill, Frenckell paper mill, and Tampere broadcloth factory. Tampere's population grew rapidly at the end of the 19th century, from about 7,000 in 1870 to 36,000 in 1900. At the beginning of the 20th century, Tampere was a city of workers and women, with a third of the population being factory workers and more than half women. At the same time, the city's area almost increased sevenfold and impressive apartment buildings were built in the center of Tampere among modest wooden houses. The stone houses shaped Tampere in a modern direction. The construction of the sewerage and water supply network and the lighting of electric lights also showed renewal.
The world-famous Nokia Corporation, a multinational telecommunication company, also started in the Tammerkoski area; company's history dates from 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam (1838–1916) established a pulp mill on the shores of the rapids and after that, a second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, where there were better hydropower resources.
Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century; for example, the 1905 conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), led by Vladimir Lenin, was held at the Tampere Workers' Hall, where it was decided, among other things, to launch an armed uprising, which eventually led to the October 1917 revolution in the Russian Empire. Also, on 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed on Keskustori. In 1918, after Finland had gained independence, Tampere played a major role, being one of the strategically important sites for the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (FSWR) during the Civil War in Finland (28 January – 15 May 1918). Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command. White forces, led by General Mannerheim, captured the town after the Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red prisoners on 6 April 1918.
During the Winter War, Tampere was bombed by the Soviet Union several times. The reason for the bombing of Tampere was that the city was an important railway junction, and also housed the State Aircraft Factory and the Tampella factory, which manufactured munitions and weapons, including grenade launchers. The most devastating bombings were on March 2, 1940, killing nine and wounding 30 city residents. In addition, ten buildings were destroyed and 30 were damaged that day.
Post-war period and modern dayEdit
Prevalent in Tampere's post-World War II municipal politics was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis (aseveliakseli), which mostly constituted of the National Coalition Party and the Social Democrats. While the Centre Party was the largest political force in the Finnish countryside, it had no practical relevance in Tampere.
After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and finally Teisko in 1972. The limit of 100,000 inhabitants was crossed in Tampere in 1950. Tampere was long known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been largely replaced by information technology and telecommunications during the 1990s. The technology centre Hermia in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields. Yleisradio started broadcasting its second television channel, Yle TV2, in Ristimäki, Tampere in 1965, as a result of which Finland was the first of the Nordic countries to receive a second television channel, after Sweden's SVT2 started broadcasting only four years later. Tampere became a university city when the Social University moved from Helsinki to Tampere in 1960 and became the University of Tampere in 1966. In 1979, Tampere-Pirkkala Airport was opened 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from the center of Tampere on the side of the Pirkkala municipality.
At the turn of the 1990s, Tampere's industry underwent a major structural change, as the production of Tampella's and Tampere's textile industry in particular was heavily focused on bilateral trade with the Soviet Union, but when it collapsed in 1991 the companies lost their main customers. As a result of the sudden change and the depression of the early 1990s, Finlayson and the Suomen trikoo had to reduce their operations sharply. Tampella went bankrupt. But although the change left a huge amount of vacant industrial space in the city center, in the early 2000s it was gradually put to other uses, with the current Tampere cityscape being characterized above all by strong IT companies, most notably Nokia's Tampere R&D units.
Tampere is part of the Pirkanmaa region and is surrounded by the municipalities of Kangasala, Lempäälä, Nokia, Orivesi, Pirkkala, Ruovesi, and Ylöjärvi. There are 180 lakes that are larger than 10,000 m2 (1 ha) in Tampere, and fresh water bodies make up 24% of the city's total area. The lakes have formed as separate basins from Ancylus lake approximately 7500–8000 years ago. The northernmost point of Tampere is located in the Vankavesi fjard of Teisko, the southernmost at the eastern end of Lake Hervanta, the easternmost at the northeast corner of Lake Paalijärvi of Teisko and the westernmost at the southeast corner of Lake Haukijärvi near the borders of Ylöjärvi and Nokia. The city center itself is surrounded by three lakes, Näsijärvi, Pyhäjärvi and much smaller Iidesjärvi. Tampere region is situated in the Kokemäki River drainage basin, which discharges into the Bothnian Sea through river which flows through Pori, the capital of Satakunta region. The bedrock of Tampere consists of mica shale and migmatite, and its building stone deposits are diverse: in addition to traditional granite, there is an abundance of quartz diorite, tonalite, mica shale and mica gneiss. One of the most notable geographical features in Tampere is Pyynikinharju, a large esker formed from moraine during the Weichselian glaciation. It rises 160 meters above sea level and is said to be one of the largest gravel eskers in the world. It is also part of Salpausselkä, a 200 km long ridge system left by the ice age.
The center of Tampere (Keskusta), as well as the Pyynikki, Ylä-Pispala and Ala-Pispala districts, are located on the isthmus between Lake Pyhäjärvi and Lake Näsijärvi. The location of the city on the edge of the Tammerkoski rapids between two long waterways was one of the most important stimuli for its establishment in the 1770s. The streets of central Tampere form a typical grid pattern. On the western edge of the city center, there is a north–south park street, Hämeenpuisto ("Häme Park" or "Tavastia Park"), which leads from the shore of Lake Pyhäjärvi near Lake Näsijärvi. The wide Hämeenkatu street leads east–west from the Tampere Central Station to Hämeenpuisto and crosses Tammerkoski along the Hämeensilta bridge. Also along Hämeenkatu is the longest street in the city center, Satakunnankatu, which extends from Rautatienkatu to Pyynikki, which crosses Tammerkoski along the Satakunnansilta bridge. The Tampere Central Square is located on the western shore of Tammerkoski, close to Hämeensilta. The traffic center of Tampere is the intersection of Itsenäisyydenkatu,[b] Teiskontie, Sammonkatu, Kalevanpuisto park street, and Kaleva and Liisankallio districts.
Neighbourhoods and other subdivisionsEdit
The city of Tampere is divided into seven subdivisions, each of which includes the many districts and their suburbs. There are a total of 111 statistical areas in Tampere. However, the statistical areas made for Tampere's statistics do not fully correspond to the Tampere district division or the residents' perception of the districts, as the Amuri, Kyttälä and Tammela districts, for example, are divided into two parts corresponding to the official district division, and in addition to this, Liisankallio and Kalevanrinne are often considered to belong to the Kaleva district.
Tampere has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). Winters are cold and the average temperature from December to March is below 0 °C (32 °F). Summers are cool to warm. On average, snow cover lasts 4–5 months from late November to early April. Considering it being close to the subarctic threshold and inland, winters are, on average, quite mild for the classification, as is the annual mean temperature.
|Climate data for Tampere–Pirkkala Airport (TMP), elevation: 119 metres (390 ft),[c] 1991–2010 normals, precipitation 1981-2010, extremes 1900–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−37.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||41
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||22||18||16||12||12||13||15||15||14||17||21||22||197|
|Average relative humidity (%)||90||87||82||70||63||66||69||76||82||87||91||92||80|
|Source 1: weatheronline.co.uk|
|Source 2: FMI (precipitation, record highs and lows)|
Temperature records of TampereEdit
Temperature Records of Tampere
Lowest temperatures in Tampere:
Revival and nationalismEdit
Tampere has buildings from many architectural periods. Only the old stone church of Messukylä represents medieval building culture. Early 19th century neoclassicism, in turn, is represented by the Tampere Old Church and its belfry. The Gothic Revival buildings in Tampere that emerged from neoclassicism are the new Messukylä Church and the Alexander Church, and the Renaissance Revival buildings are the Hatanpää Manor, the Tampere City Hall, the Ruuskanen House and Näsilinna. The romantic nationalism design can be seen in the Commerce House, the Tirkkonen House, the Palander House, the Tampere Cathedral, the Tampere Central Fire Station and the National Bank Building in Tampere. At an early stage, the use of red brick as a material in the industrial buildings along Tammerkoskk, such as the Finlayson and Tampella factories, has left a strong imaginary mark on the city.
Functionalism and modernismEdit
Post-Art Nouveau classicism was largely Nordic, during which the Laikku Culture House, Hotel Tammer, the Tuulensuu House and the Viinikka Church were built in Tampere. After functionalism became the prevailing style in the 1930s, the Tampere Central Station, the Tempo House, a bus station and thr Kauppi Hospital were built in Tampere. There is no single accepted designation for the post-war style, but the key representatives of the reconstruction period are the Bank of Finland House, the Amurinlinna House and the Pyynikki Swimming Hall. The rationalist buildings of the modernist period are represented by the University of Tampere, the Tampere Central Hospital, Sampola, the School of Economics, Ratina Stadium and the Kaleva Church. After this, diverse modernism will be represented by, among others, the Metso Main Library, the Hervanta Operations Center, the Tampere Hall, the university extension and Nokia's office building in Hatanpää.
According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate was 15.7% in August 2020. 70% of the areas jobs are in the service sector. Less than 20% are in the manufacturing sector. 34.5% of employed people live outside the Tampere municipality and commute to Tampere for work. Meanwhile, 15.6% of Tampere's residents work outside Tampere. In 2014 the largest employers were Kesko, Pirkanmaan Osuuskauppa, Alma Media and Posti Group.
According to a study carried out by the Synergos Research and Training Center of the University of Tampere, the total impact of tourism in the Tampere region in 2012 was more than 909 million euros. Tourism also brought 4,805 person-years to the region. The biggest single attraction in Tampere is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which had about 630,000 visitors in 2016. In addition, in 2015, 1,021,151 overnight stays were made in Tampere hotels. The number exceeded the previous record year with more than 20,000 overnight stays. All that makes Tampere the second most popular city in Finland after Helsinki in terms of hotel stays. Leisure tourism accounted for 55,4% of overnight stays and occupational tourism for 43,2%. The occupancy rate of all accommodation establishments with more than 20 rooms was 57,0%, while that of accommodation establishments in the whole country was 48,3%.
Tampere's economic profit in 2015 was the worst of big Finnish cities. In 2016 the loss of the fiscal year was 18,8 million euros. In the city's economy, the largest revenues come from taxes and government contributions. In 2015, the city received 761 million euros in municipal tax revenue. In addition, 61,4 million euros came from corporate taxes and 64 million euros from property taxes. Tax revenues have not increased as expected in the 2010s, although the city's population has increased. This has been affected by high unemployment.
In 2013, Tampereen Energiantuotanto, which is part of the Tampereen Sähkölaitos Group, generated 1,254 GWh of electricity and 2,184 GWh of district heating. The two units of the Naistenlahti's power plant generated a total of about 65% and the Lielahti's power plant about 30% of the electricity production. In district heating production, the Naistenlahti power plant units accounted for 57% and the Lielahti power plant for 23%. Tampere's ten heating centers accounted for 21%.
In 2013, the share of natural gas in energy production was about 65%. Wood and peat accounted for about 17%. In addition, hydropower and oil were used. Emissions from energy production have decreased in the 21st century due to the growth of renewable forms of production and the modernization of the Naistenlahti plant. In 2013, approximately 669,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions and 297 tonnes of sulfur dioxide emissions were generated.
Water and waste managementEdit
66,5% of Tampere's domestic water is surface water and 33,5% groundwater. 58% of the water was diverted to economic use and 13% to industrial use. In addition to Tampere, Tampereen Vesi manages water in Pirkkala. Almost all surface water comes from Lake Roine. In addition, Tampereen Vesi has four surface water plants in Lake Näsijärvi and five groundwater intakes. Tampereen Vesi is 96% responsible for the wastewater of Tampere, Kangasala, Pirkkala and Ylöjärvi. In 2012, a total of 31,9 million cubic meters of wastewater was treated in Tampere. The Viinikanlahti treatment plant treats more than 75% of wastewater.
|Source: Statistics Finland|
Tampere has 238,671 inhabitants, making it the third most populous municipality in Finland and the tenth in the Nordics. The Tampere region, which has 410,689 inhabitants, is the second largest urban area after Helsinki. 8% of the population has a foreign background, which is lower than Helsinki and Turku but higher than Oulu.
|People with a foreign background|
|Country of origin||Population (2019)|
The demographic structure of Tampere shows the city's position as a very popular place to study, as the number of young adults is clearly higher than in other municipalities in the region. At the end of 2012, the population dependency ratio was 45. About 17,3% of the population was over 65 years of age. Just over half of the population is women, as in the whole country. The population is fairly educated, with two-thirds of those over 15 having completed post-primary education.
Tampere is Finland's largest monolingual Finnish-speaking municipality. In 2013, 1,172 Swedish-speakers lived in Tampere, ie their share of the Tampere population was about half a per cent. This is the second largest number of Swedish-speakers in monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities after Kaarina. Kaarina and Tampere are also the only monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities with a separate Swedish-speaking congregation. In 1900, Swedish-speakers accounted for more than six per cent of Tampere's population and in 1950 for less than two per cent.
At the end of 2018, there were a total of 140,039 dwellings in Tampere, of which 127,639 were permanently inhabited and 12,400 were not permanently inhabited. Of these, 74% were apartment buildings, 14 detached houses, 10 terraced houses and 2% other residential buildings. Between 2002 and 2020, more than 40,000 new apartments have been completed in Tampere. Living space has been growing for a long time, although growth virtually came to a halt after 2008. The average living space at the end of 2012 was about 36,8 km2 per inhabitant, compared to about 19,2 km2 in 1970 and about 31,8 km2 in 1990. The average population of a dwelling in 2012 was about 1,8 inhabitants.
In 2019, out of the total population of 238,140, 231,648 people lived in urban areas and 3,132 in sparsely populated areas, while the coordinates of 3,360 people were unknown. This made Tampere's degree of urbanization 98.7%. The urban population in the municipality was divided between three statistical urban areas as follows:
|1||Tampere urban area||225,440|
The comprehensive education is given mainly in Finnish but the city has special bilingual groups where students study in Finnish and a second language (English, French or German). Furthermore, there is a private Swedish-speaking school (Swedish Svenska samskolan i Tammerfors) that covers all levels of education from preschool to high school.
There are three institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: the university and two polytechnic institutions (Finnish: ammattikorkeakoulu). Tampere University (TUNI) has over 20,000 students and is located in two campuses, one in the Kalevanharju district, close to the city centre, and one in Hervanta, in the southern part of the city. The institution was formed in 2019 as a result of the merge of University of Tampere (UTA) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT). TUNI is also the major shareholder of the Tampere University of Applied Sciences (Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu, TAMK), a polytechnic counting about 10,000 students. The Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is also located in Tampere.
Tampere University Hospital (Tampereen yliopistollinen sairaala, TAYS) in the Kauppi district, one of the main hospitals in Finland, is affiliated with Tampere University. It is a teaching hospital with 34 medical specializations.
The Nurmi district in the northern part of city also houses the Tampere Christian School (Tampereen kristillinen koulu), which operates on a co-Christian basis and is maintained by the Adventist Church of Finland, offering free basic education based on Christian basic values and outlook on life for all grades of primary school.
Arts and cultureEdit
Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo, and Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These authors are known particularly as writers depicting the lives of working-class people, thanks to their respective backgrounds as members of the working class. Also from such a background was the poet Lauri Viita of the Pispala district, which was also the original home of the aforementioned Hannu Salama. On October 1, Tampere celebrates the annual Tampere Day (Finnish: Tampereen päivä), which hosts a variety of public events.
Tampere has a strong media city, as the television center in Tohloppi and Ristimäki districts has had a nationwide Yle TV2 television channel since the 1970s, and Finnish radio, for example, began in Tampere when Arvi Hauvonen founded the first broadcasting station in 1923. Yle TV2 has its roots in Tamvisio, which was transferred to Yleisradio in 1964. Kakkoskanava ("Channel 2") has been a major influence in Tampere, and several well-known television programs and series have been shot in the city, such as TV comedies Tankki täyteen, Reinikainen and Kummeli. The Tampere Film Festival, an annual international short film event, is held every March.
In 2014, Aamulehti, which was published in Tampere and was founded in 1881, was the third largest newspaper in Finland in terms of circulation, after Helsingin Sanomat and Ilta-Sanomat. The circulation of the magazine was 106,842 (2014). In addition, a free city newspaper Tamperelainen (literally translated "Tamperean", meaning person who live in Tampere) will be published in the city. In November 2016, the Tamperelainen was awarded the second best city newspaper in Finland.
A local food speciality is mustamakkara, which resembles the black pudding of northern England. It is a black sausage made by mixing pork, pig's blood and crushed rye and flour and is stuffed into the intestines of an animal. It is commonly eaten with lingonberry sauce. Especially Tammelantori square in the district of Tammela is known for its mustamakkara kiosks.
One of the specialties of Tampere's local barbecue dishes include the peremech (Finnish: pärämätsi) based on traditional Tatar food. It is a pie reminiscent of Karelian pasty with seasoned ground meat inside.
In the 1980s, in addition to mustamakkara and barley bread, the old parish dish of Tampere was also called a potato soup, home-made small beer (kotikalja), a sweetened lingonberry porridge and a sweetened potato casserole (Imelletty perunalaatikko).
Tampere is home to the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (Tampere Filharmonia), which is one of only two full-sized symphony orchestras in Finland; the other one is located in Helsinki. The orchestra's home venue is the Tampere Hall, and their concerts include classical, popular, and film music. Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: The Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years The Tampere Vocal Music Festival and the Tampere Biennale. Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts, and composition, is provided by Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere Conservatoire. Tammerfest, Tampere's urban rock festival, is held every July. The Blockfest, which also takes place in Tampere during the summer months, is the largest hip hop event in the Nordic countries. The Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer.
Manserock became a general term for rock music from Tampere, which was essentially rock music with Finnish lyrics. Manserock was especially popular during the 1970s and 1980s, and its most popular artists included Juice Leskinen, Virtanen, Kaseva, Popeda, and Eppu Normaali. In 1977, Poko Records, the first record company in Tampere, was founded.
In the 2010s, there has been a lot of popular musical activity in Tampere, particularly in the fields of rock and heavy/black metal; one of the most important metal music events in Tampere is the Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. Some of the most popular bands based in Tampere include Negative, Uniklubi, and Lovex. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene. Tampere hosts an annual World of Tango Festival (Maailmantango), which is one of the most significant tango events in Finland next to the Tangomarkkinat of Seinäjoki.
Tampere has a lengthy tradition of theater, with established institutions such as Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampereen Teatteri, and Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest revolving auditorium in Europe. The longest-running directors of the Tampereen Teatteri include Eino Salmelainen and Rauli Lehtonen, and the Tampereen Työväen Teatteri has Kosti Elo, Eino Salmelainen and Lasse Pöysti. The Tampere Theatre Festival (Tampereen teatterikesä) is an international theatre festival held in the city each August. Tampere also has the Tampere Opera, founded in 1946.
Tampere's other professional theaters are Teatteri Siperia; restaurant theater Teatteripalatsi; Teatteri Telakka, known for its artistic experiments; Ahaa Teatteri, which specializes in children's and young people's plays; puppet theater Teatteri Mukamas, and Tanssiteatteri MD, specializes in contemporary dance performances. In addition, there are also three cinemas in Tampere: two Finnkino's theaters, Cine Atlas and Plevna, and private Arthouse Cinema Niagara, which serves as the main venue for the Cinemadrome Festival, which presents horror, action, sci-fi, trash, and other cult films.
As is the case with most of the rest of Finland, most Tampere citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. One Lutheran church in Tampere is Finlayson Church in the district by the same name. Tampere also has a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to charismatic. There are also some English speaking services, such as the Tampere English Service, an international community affiliated with the Tampere Pentecostal Church. English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a LDS stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are the Baptist Church, the Evangelical Free Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Mission Diocese of Finland, the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Nokia Revival.
The Jews had an organized community until 1981. Though a small number of Jews remain in Tampere, organized communal life ended at that time.
City rivalry with TurkuEdit
Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of Turku, the first capital of Finland, and they tend to compete for the title of being the "second grand city of Finland" after Helsinki. This hostility is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, mustamakkara, the state of the Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Tampere is well known as a food destination because of its food culture. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the post-glacial rebound and push the city back into the Baltic Sea.
Sites of interestEdit
One of the main tourist attractions is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which includes the landmark Näsinneula tower, topped by a revolving restaurant. In addition to these, it used to house a dolphinarium. Other sites of interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere City Hall, Tampere Central Library Metso ("Capercaillie"), Kaleva Church (both designed by Reima Pietilä), the Tampere Hall (along Hämeenkatu) for conferences and concerts, the Tampere Market Hall and historical Pyynikki observation tower.
Tampere has at least seven hotels, the most noteworthy of which are Hotel Tammer, Hotel Ilves, and Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel building in Finland. There are also many significant shopping centers in the city center of Tampere and its suburbs; the most notable shopping centers are Ratina, DUO, Like and Tullintori.
Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to Vladimir Lenin. The museum is housed in the Tampere Workers' Hall (along Hallituskatu) where during a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met Joseph Stalin for the first time. Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905, but eventually fled for Sweden in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the Russian Empire until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
There are many museums and galleries, including:
- The Vapriikki Museum Centre which includes the Natural History Museum of Tampere, Finnish Hockey Hall of Fame, Finnish Museum of Games, Post Museum and the Shoe Museum
- Hatanpää Manor and Hatanpää Arboretum
- The Näsilinna Palace
- Tampere Art Museum
- Tampere Lenin Museum
- The Moomin Museum, about Moomins
- Rupriikki Media Museum
- Spy Museum in Siperia
- Workers' housing museum in Amuri.
- Finland's largest glass sculpture, owned by the City of Tampere, "Pack Ice / The Mirror of the Sea" by the renowned artist Timo Sarpaneva, was installed in the entrance lobby of the downtown shopping mall KoskiKeskus until it was moved to a warehouse.
Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes. It is divided into Ylä-Pispala ("Upper Pispala") and Ala-Pispala ("Lower Pispala"). It's the highest gravel ridge in the world, raising 80 metres (260 ft) above Lake Pyhäjärvi and around 160 metres (520 ft) above sea level. It was used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of Suur-Pirkkala and its successor Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It joined Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a residential area undergoing significant redevelopment and together with neighbouring Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.
Tampere's sporting scene is mainly driven by ice hockey. The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of Pyhäjärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish ice hockey. Three exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: Tappara, Ilves and KOOVEE. Especially both Tappara and Ilves have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere. Construction of a new main ice hockey arena, Tampere Deck Arena, began in 2018, and is supposed to be finished by 2021. The name of the new arena will be UROS LIVE.
Association football is also a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams. Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere. The city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö, plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010, 2011, and 2014. Tampere Saints is the American football club in the city. The Saints won division 2 in 2015 and plays in the Maple League (division 1) in summer 2017.
Tampere hosted some of the preliminaries for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the 1965 World Ice Hockey Championships and was co-host of the EuroBasket 1967. The city also hosted two canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the World Rowing Junior Championships and in 1995 the Senior World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th European Youth Olympic Festival from 17 to 25 July 2009 and the 2010 World Ringette Championships from 1 to 6 November at Hakametsä arena.
Ratina Stadium of Tampere, in the district by the same name, has served as the venue for many of the most significant concerts, most notably in connection with the Endless Forms Most Beautiful World Tour in 2015 by the band Nightwish. Other noteworthy tours from other bands held at Ratina Stadium include Iron Maiden (Somewhere Back in Time World Tour, 2008), Bruce Springsteen (Working on a Dream Tour, 2009), AC/DC (Black Ice World Tour, 2010), Red Hot Chili Peppers (I'm with You World Tour, 2012), Bon Jovi (Because We Can World Tour, 2013), Robbie Williams (The Heavy Entertainment Show Tour, 2017) and Rammstein (Rammstein Stadium Tour, 2019).
Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example, Helsinki, Turku and the Port of Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, and Pori. Every day about 150 trains with an annual total of 8 million passengers arrive and depart in the Tampere Central Railway Station, which is located in the city center. There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland. To the south of Tampere, there is the Tampere Ring Road, which is important for car traffic and which is part of Finnish highways number 3 (on the west side) and number 9 (on the east side). There are also plans for another ring road project that would run from Pirkkala to Tampere's Hervanta and possibly in the future to Kangasala. Teiskontie, which runs east of the city center, is part of Highway 12 in the direction of Lahti.
The public transport network in Tampere currently consists solely of a bus network. Between 1948 and 1976 the city also had an extensive trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland. As of 2017, construction is underway for a light rail system in the city to replace some of the more popular bus lines (see Tampere light rail), as well as initiating commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring towns of Nokia and Lempäälä. Light rail traffic is expected to begin in August 2021.
In 2015, the Port of Tampere, the charter port area carrying passengers on the shores of Lake Näsijärvi and Lake Pyhäjärvi, was the busiest inland waterway in Finland in terms of the number of passengers (71,750). A partial explanation for the high number of passengers can be found in the summer traffic to the Viikinsaari island in Lake Pyhäjärvi, where people travel for an excursion or various cultural events such as watching a summer theater. Domestic passenger and connecting vessel traffic was only busier in the Finnish sea area in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, between mainland Finland and the Åland Islands in the Archipelago Sea.
In the 2010s, Tampere has made efforts to invest in the smooth running of cycling and walkability. Thanks to it, the city was awarded the title of "Cycling Municipality of the Year" in 2013. According to a survey conducted in 2015, the attractiveness of both cycling and walking had increased during 2014 and 2015. In any case, during the 21st century, the growth of bicycle traffic has been clearly faster than the growth of the city's population, and the number of cycles has increased by an average of about 2% per year.
Distances to other citiesEdit
- Helsinki – 180 kilometres (110 mi)
- Hämeenlinna – 79 kilometres (49 mi)
- Joensuu – 396 kilometres (246 mi)
- Jyväskylä – 150 kilometres (93 mi)
- Kuopio – 297 kilometres (185 mi)
- Lahti – 130 kilometres (81 mi)
- Lappeenranta – 276 kilometres (171 mi)
- Oulu – 490 kilometres (300 mi)
- Pori – 110 kilometres (68 mi)
- Seinäjoki – 177 kilometres (110 mi)
- Turku – 163 kilometres (101 mi)
- Vaasa – 240 kilometres (150 mi)
In 2007, Tampere switched to a new model of government. Since then, a mayor and four deputy mayors have been chosen for a period of four years by the city council. The mayor also becomes the seat of the city council for the duration of the tenure.
Tampere was the first Finnish municipality to be elected mayor. However, the mayor does not have an official relationship with the municipality; the mayor serves as chairman of the city board and directs the municipality's activities, and the mayor's duties are defined in the city government's bylaws. Because the mayor and deputy mayors are trustees, they can be removed by the council if they lose the majority trust.
For the first two years, Timo P. Nieminen, representing the National Coalition Party from 2007 to 2012, served as mayor. In 2013, Anna-Kaisa Ikonen of the same party was elected mayor. As of June 1, 2017, the number of deputy mayors decreased from four to three. Lauri Lyly (SDP) was elected Mayor of the City of Tampere for the period 2017–2021 at the City Council meeting on 12 June 2017.
Mayors over timeEdit
Born before 1900Edit
- Emil Aaltonen (1869—1949), industrialist and philanthropist
- Emanuel Aromaa (1873—1933), politician
- Eero Berg (1898–1969), long-distance runner and Olympic gold medalist
- Minna Canth (1844–1897), author and social activist
- Minna Craucher (1891–1932), socialite and spy
- James Finlayson (1772–1852), Scottish Quaker and industrialist
- Väinö Hakkila (1882–1958), politician
- Gustaf Idman (1885–1961), diplomat and a non-partisan Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Alma Jokinen (1882-1939), politician
- Feliks Kellosalmi (1877-1939), politician
- Augusta Laine (1867-1949), teacher of home economics and politician
- Frans Oskar Lilius (1871-1928), politician
- Wivi Lönn (1872–1966), architect
- Kaapo Murros (1875–1951), journalist, lawyer, writer and politician
- Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1870–1956), the Prime Minister of Finland and the 7th President of Finland
- Aaro Pajari (1897–1949), Major General and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross
- Arvo Pohjannoro (1893–1963), Lutheran clergyman and politician
- Anders Rajala (1891–1957), wrestler
- Julius Saaristo (1891–1969) track and field athlete and Olympic gold medalist
- Matti Schreck (1897–1946), banker and film producer
- Frans Eemil Sillanpää (1888–1964), author and Nobel laureate
- Bertel Strömmer (1890–1962), architect
- Vilho Tuulos (1895–1967), triple jumper, long jumper and Olympic gold medalist
- August Wesley (1887–?), journalist, trade unionist and revolutionary
Born after 1900Edit
- Jonne Aaron (born 1983), singer
- Sinikka Antila (born 1960), lawyer and diplomat
- Aleksander Barkov (born 1995), Finnish-Russian professional ice hockey player
- Anu Bradford (born 1975), Finnish-American author and law professor
- Johanna Debreczeni (born 1980), singer
- Henrik Otto Donner (1939–2013), composer and music personality
- Anna Falchi (born 1972), Finnish-Italian model and film actress
- Mauri Favén (1920–2006), painter
- Jussi Halla-aho (born 1971), politician and current leader of the Finns Party
- Seppo Jokinen (born 1949), author
- Viljo Kajava (1909–1998), author and poet
- Tapani Kalliomäki (born 1970), stage and film actor
- Glen Kamara (born 1995), professional footballer
- Jorma Karhunen (1913–2002), Finnish Air Force ace and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross
- Leo Kinnunen (1943–2017), Formula One driver
- Mika Koivuniemi (born 1967), bowling coach and professional ten-pin bowler
- Kiira Korpi (born 1988), figure skater
- Urpo Lahtinen (1931–1994), journalist and magazine publisher, founder of Tamperelainen
- Patrik Laine (born 1998), professional ice hockey player
- Väinö Linna (1920–1992), author
- Tiina Lymi (born 1971), actress, director, screenwriter and author
- Taru Mäkelä (born 1959), film director and screenwriter
- Eeva-Liisa Manner (1921–1995), poet, playwright and translator
- Sanna Marin (born 1985), politician, current leader of the Social Democratic Party and current Prime Minister of Finland
- Sakari Mattila (born 1989), professional footballer
- Matthau Mikojan (born 1982), rock musician, singer, guitarist and songwriter
- Pate Mustajärvi (born 1956), rock singer
- Mikko Nousiainen (born 1975), actor
- Teppo Numminen (born 1968), professional ice hockey player
- Erno Paasilinna (1935–2000), author and journalist
- Pekka Paavola (born 1933), politician and Minister of Justice
- Oiva Paloheimo (1910–1973), author, poet and aphorist
- Veijo Pasanen (1930–1988), actor
- Sakari Puisto (born 1976), politician
- Raisa Räisänen (1983–?), still missing 16-year-old girl, who was declared dead in absentia in 2007
- Matti Ranin (1926–2013), actor
- Leo Riuttu (1913–1989), actor
- Seela Sella (born 1936), actress
- Heikki Silvennoinen (born 1954), musician and actor
- Kikka Sirén (1964–2005), pop and schlager singer
- Armi Toivanen (born 1980), actress
- Jussi Välimäki (born 1974), rally driver
- Lauri Viita (1916–1965), poet
- Sofia Vikman (born 1983), politician
- Olavi Virta (1915–1972), singer
- Hans Wind (1919–1995), fighter pilot, flying ace and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross
- Aki Yli-Salomäki (born 1972), composer, music critic and music journalist
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
Tampere is twinned with:
Tampere has two additional "friendship cities":
- Pronounced in almost the same way as Nashville
- Formerly known as Puolimatkankatu
- Mean value of the airport and not the weather station
- Mari Lind, Kimmo Antila & Antti Liuttunen (2011). Tammerkoski ja kosken kaupunki (in Finnish). Tampere: Vapriikki.
- Harry Lönnroth (2009). Tampere kieliyhteisönä (in Finnish). SKS. ISBN 978-952-222-119-3.
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014 (in Finnish). Tampere: City of Tampere. 2015. ISBN 978-951-609-755-1.
- YLE: Tampere on Manse ja Nääsville (in Finnish)
- "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan 31.12.2017" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland (Tilastokeskus). 31 December 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2018.[permanent dead link]
- "Preliminary population structure by area, 2021M01*-2021M03*". StatFin (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- "Population according to age (1-year) and sex by area and the regional division of each statistical reference year, 2003-2020". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2021" (PDF). Tax Administration of Finland. 1 December 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
- "Tampere" (US) and "Tampere". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
- "Tampere". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
- Ebbe Vilborg, Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok, editio secunda. Norstedts Akademiska Förlag, Holmia, 2009. Adiectivis, "Tammerforsiensis" et "Tamperensis". (in Latin)
- http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/sq/960bccd6-df90-4e56-acd3-8be6c28323d5[permanent dead link] Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan 31 December 2017
- "Facts and figures". tampereenseutu.fi. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- A dynamic city of growth – Tampere is the second largest urban centre in Finland
- Isomäki, Aarno. "Tampereen tarina" (PDF) (in Finnish). City of Tampere. Retrieved 9 April 2021.[permanent dead link]
- Mikko Heikkilä: Etymologinen tapaus Tammerkoski. Sananjalka 54, 2012. (in Finnish)
- Kortelainen, Kari (8 December 2019). "Suomen Manchesterin sydän on voimaa tuottanut Tammerkoski - alueen menestynein yritys oli Ruotsin vallan aikana valtion viinanpolttimo". Tekniikka & Talous (in Finnish). Retrieved 28 April 2021.
- "Tampere in brief" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Tampere Economy, Tampere International Business Office Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Katko, Tapio S. and Juuti, Petri S. Watering the city of Tampere Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, publications of the 5th IWHA Conference, 2007. Available at the website of the city of Tampere.
- Tampere is the Sauna Capital of the World
- Finnish Sauna Society and International Sauna Association: "Tampere is the Sauna Capital"
- Tampere – the sauna capital of the world
- Tampere – the Sauna Capital of the World ~ Sauna from Finland
- "Now Finland is even faster - VR". www.vr.fi. Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "Passenger stats" (PDF). www.finavia.fi. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- WORLD’S MOST HIPSTER CITIES REVEALED: TAMPERE RANKED NUMBER 26!
- YLE: Tampere rated Finland's most popular city
- "Ratikan verran rakastettavampi! Listasimme 14 syytä, joiden vuoksi Tampere on aivan ykkösmesta" [Why is Tampere so popular? Here's 14 reasons!]. Me Naiset (in Finnish). Ilta-Sanomat. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
- Tampere Deck Arena – Visit Tampere
- Nieminen, Elina (26 August 2020). "Tampereen areena valmistuu joulukuussa 2021". YLE (in Finnish).
- IIHF: Arena in Tampere gets ready for 2022 Worlds
- Ánte, Luobbal Sámmol Sámmol (2012), "An essay on Saami ethnolinguistic prehistory", A Linguistic Map of Prehistoric Northern Europe, Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, 266, pp. 63–117
- Heikkilä, Mikko (2012), "Tampere–saamelaisen Tammerkosken kaupunki", Virittäjä, 1
- Rahkonen, Pauli (2011), "Tampere–saamelainen koskiappellatiivi", Virittäjä, 2
- "Tampere". Kotimaisten kielten keskus (in Finnish). Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Utain – Tampereen yliopiston toimittajakoulutuksen viikkolehti". Uta.fi. Archived from the original on 26 March 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "Metsätammi (Quercus robur)". Kasviatlas. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- Tampereen vaakunat (in Finnish)
- Yrjö Kotivuori, Ylioppilasmatrikkeli 1640–1852: Arvid von Cederwald (in Finnish)
- Tampereen kaupungin ensimmäinen vaakuna (in Finnish)
- 38 § Erkki Axénin ja Peter Löfbergin ym. valtuustoaloite vanhan Arvid von Cedervallin suunnitteleman vaakunan käyttöönottamiseksi. (in Finnish)
- Aamulehti: Kumpi Tampereen vaakunoista on parempi? Archived 8 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine (in Finnish)
- Willberg, Leena (1987). Pirkanmaan kuntien tunnukset (in Finnish). Tampereen kaupungin museot, Pirkanmaan maakuntamuseo. ISBN 951-9430-21-0.
-  City of Tampere (in Finnish)
- Iltanen, Jussi (2013). Suomen kuntavaakunat (in Finnish). Karttakeskus. p. 88.
- Lind, Mari (2015). Tampereen tarina (PDF) (in Finnish). ISBN 978-951-609-783-4. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- PIRKANMAA KULTTUURIALUEENA - Pirkan Kylät ry[permanent dead link] (in Finnish)
- Uuno Sinisalo: Tampereen kirja , Tampere seura, Tampere, 1947.
- Maija Louhivaara: Tampereen kadunnimet, p. 16. Tampereen museoiden julkaisuja 51, 1999. Tampere. ISBN 951-609-105-9. (in Finnish)
- "Teollistumisen varhaisvaiheet". Pirkanmaa (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- Rasila, Viljo (1985). Pirkanmaan synty (in Finnish). Tampereen historiallinen seura. pp. 6–25.
- Kotivuori, Yrjö: Ylioppilasmatrikkeli 1640–1852: Erik Edner (in Finnish)
- Uola, Mikko (1978). Mitä Missä Milloin 1979 (in Finnish). Otava. p. 198. ISBN 951-1-04873-2.
- "The City Of Tampere – Tampere in brief – History". Archived from the original on 28 December 2009.
- Mari Lind: ”Tampere – kasvava ja muuttuva kaupunki”. (in Finnish)
- Symington, Andy; Dunford, George (2009). Finland. Lonely Planet. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-1-74104-771-4.
- HS: Nokian juuret ovat Tammerkosken rannalla (in Finnish)
- Palonen, Osmo. "KOSKESTA VOIMAA - VUODET - 1905". www15.uta.fi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 4 June 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- Brackman, Roman (2001). The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780714650500.
- Kaunonen, Gary (19 February 2010). Challenge Accepted: A Finnish Immigrant Response to Industrial America in Michigan's Copper Country. MSU Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-62895-154-7.
- The Finnish Civil War 1918: History, Memory, Legacy. BRILL. 14 August 2014. p. 100. ISBN 978-90-04-28071-7.
- Norum, Roger (1 June 2010). The Rough Guide to Finland. Rough Guides. p. 438. ISBN 978-1-84836-969-6.
- Esko Lammi: Talvisodan Tampere. Vammala: Häijää Invest (Vammaspaino), 1990. ISBN 952-90-1707-3. (in Finnish)
- Jouko Juonala: Ilmahälytys! Talvisota: Ilta-Sanomien erikoislehti 2019, pp. 62–66. Helsinki: Sanoma Media Finland Oy. (in Finland)
- Ekman, Marianne; Gustavsen, Björn; Bjorn Terje Asheim (15 January 2011). Learning Regional Innovation: Scandinavian Models. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-230-27560-7.
- Lind, Mari; Antila, Kimmo; Liuttunen, Antti (2011). Tammerkoski ja kosken kaupunki (in Finnish). Tampere: Vapriikki.
- "Vapaat toimitilat Hermia". Technopolis (in Finnish). Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Iikka Taavitsainen. Television musiikkiohjelmat vuosina 1958–1972. Televisio määrällisenä musiikkisivistäjänä (in Finnish). Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. p. 60.
- "Tesvision joutsenlaulu". YLE (in Finnish). Retrieved 30 April 2021.
- Kaataja, Sampsa. "Korkeakoululaitos saapuu Tampereelle". Koskesta voimaa (in Finnish). Retrieved 23 January 2021.
- "Tampere-Pirkkala: tärkeä kenttä, loistava sijainti". Business Tampere (in Finnish). 6 September 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
- Repo, Toni (17 May 2018). "Pääsy kielletty: Tältä näyttää Tampere-Pirkkalan lennonjohtotornissa – 156 askelmaa johdattaa ainutlaatuisen maiseman äärelle". Aamulehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 28 April 2021.
- "Nokia-kännyköiden tutkimuskeskus Tampereelle". Uusi Teknologia (in Finnish). 2 July 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
- "Paikkatietoikkuna". Paikkatietoikkuna.fi. maanmittauslaitos.fi. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- Palomäki, Risto. Tampereen kaupungin alueella sijaitsevien järvien kehitys ja niiden vedenlaatu 1990-2005 (PDF). Sanna Junttanen, Heli Ylinen. ISBN 978-951-609-320-1. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, s. 11.
- Kähkönen, Yrjö (2009). "Tampereen alueen kallioperä" (PDF). GTK (in Finnish). Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- "Tampereen maaperä". Tampereen seudun taajamageologinen kartoitus- ja kehittämishanke (TAATA) (in Finnish). Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- "Pyynikki". www.tampere.fi (in Finnish). 28 October 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- R. Hautamäki (2015). Tampereen tarina (in Finnish). ISBN 978-951-609-783-4.
- "Tampereen kartat". Tampere.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 February 2021.
- "Kaupungin maantieteellinen asema EUREF-FIN-koordinaattijärjestelmässä". Tampere.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 February 2021.
- Niemelä, Jari (2008). Tamperelaisen tiedon portaat (in Finnish). Tampere-seura. ISBN 978-952-5558-05-0.
- "weatheronline.uk". weatheronline.co.uk. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
- "FMI open data". FMI. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
- "Temperatures in Tampere". Retrieved 31 July 2019.
- "Lukijalta: Pyhä Mikko on Tampereen vanhin rakennus, mutta se jää yllättävän vähälle huomiolle". Aamulehti (in Finnish). 9 January 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- Punatiilinen perintö – Visit Tampere (in Finnish)
- Tulli Halls by Schauman & Nordgren Architects + MASU Planning and Schauman Arkkitehdit wins competition in the old customs area in Tampere – Aasarchitecture
- Kauta, Jasmina; Keinänen, Milja; Pietiläinen, Olli (7 June 2019). "Kaupungin kasvot". Aamulehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- "Finland's tallest hotel can now be found in Tampere". Visit Finland. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- "EURES - Labour market information - Pirkanmaa - European Commission". ec.europa.eu.
- "Appendix table 1. Turnover of establishments by region in 2014". stat.fi. Statistics Finland. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
- "Tampere Region The Council of Tampere Region 2017" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
- "Pirkanmaa Employment Bulletin August 2020". Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, s. 14.
- "Matkailu tuo euroja ja työtä luultua enemmän". Tampereen kauppakamarilehti (in Finnish). 28 May 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
- "Särkänniemi yrityksenä • Särkänniemi". Sarkanniemi.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 February 2021.[permanent dead link]
- "Uusi ennätys on 1 021 151!". Tampereenseudunvetovoima.fi (in Finnish). 19 February 2016. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Talousarvio 2016" (PDF) (in Finnish). City of Tampere. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
- Korhonen, Antti (26 May 2016). "Kasvava työttömyys alentaa Tampereen verotuottoja". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Alma Media Oyj. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, p. 44. (in Finnish)
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, p. 46–47. (in Finnish)
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, p. 68–69. (in Finnish)
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, p. 85. (in Finnish)
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, p. 92. (in Finnish)
- see above source
- Ympäristön tila Tampereella 2014, p. 13. (in Finnish)
- Tietoa Tampereesta (in Finnish)
- Vaalitulos toi poreita Tampereen ankkalammikkoon. - Tamperelainen Archived 14 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine (in Finnish)
- Tampereen asuntokanta ja asuntorakentamisen näkymät (in Finnish)
- Kaupunkiympäristö (in Finnish)
- "Väestö kielen mukaan sekä ulkomaan kansalaisten määrä ja maa-pinta-ala alueittain 1980 – 2016" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. 29 March 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
- "Degree of urbanisation by area, 2019". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
- "Population in the urban and sparsely areas in term of age and gender, 2019". Statistics Finland. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
- "Vieraskielinen perusopetus". www.tampere.fi (in Finnish). 15 October 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- "Samskolan". www.samskolan.fi. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- TAMK. 22 January 2010. Tampere polytechnic. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "Together we are greater | Tampere universities". www.tuni.fi. Tampere University. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Tampere3: A motor, developer and interpreter of an affluent society . Tampere3. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
- Kristillistä kasvatusta Tampereella – TaKriKo (in Finnish)
- Ala-Honkola, Tuula (22 September 1999). "Tampereen päivä pähkinänkuoressa" (PDF) (in Finnish). Tampere: City of Tampere. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
- Tampere Film Festival – Visit Tampere
- Antti Ainamo (May 2006). "Between West and East: A Social History of Business Journalism in Cold War Finland" (PDF). Human Relations. 59 (5): 611–636. doi:10.1177/0018726706066550. hdl:10227/397. S2CID 146337547.
- "History". Alma Media. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "Sanomalehtien levikkikehitys 2012–2014" (in Finnish). Sanomalehtien Liitto. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- "Paras verkkolehti, ja finaalissa myös lehtikilpailussa". Karjalan Heili (in Finnish). 9 November 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
- Sensenig, Kate (19 April 2016). "Welcome to the 'Hydraulic Press' YouTube channel, a truly crushing experience". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Vesanummi, Mari (10 August 2012). "Kastike koukuttaa kanansiipien kavereita". YLE (in Finnish). Retrieved 18 April 2021.
- Aleksandrou, Anna Maria (8 November 2012). "The black sausage is the pride of Tampere". Helsinki Times. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- Stenroos, Päivi (27 April 2018). "Kun Pyynikillä leivottiin maailman paras munkki". VisitTampere. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Linkosuon kahvilat 50 vuotta - Pirkanmaan Sanomat (in Finnish)
- Vuosara, Pekka (2004). Kantapöydässä (in Finnish). Linkosuo. ISBN 9789529178698.
- Jaakko Kolmonen: Kotomaamme ruoka-aitta: Suomen, Karjalan ja Petsamon pitäjäruoat, p. 76. Helsinki: Patakolmonen Ky, 1988. (in Finnish)
- "Top 10 Kesätapahtumat". Visit Tampere (in Finnish). Visit Tampere Matkailuneuvonta. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- "Blockfest 2016". Visit Tampere (in Finnish). Visit Tampere Matkailuneuvonta. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- "Poko Rekords 30 vuotta -näyttely avautuu Tampereella". YLE (in Finnish). 29 May 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
- Sauna Open Air – Official Site
- C.G. (11 October 2017). "Explaining the Finnish love of tango". The Economist.
- Tampere Opera (in Finnish)
- Teatterit - Opiskelijan Tampere (in Finnish)
- Finnkino Cine Atlas
- Finnkino Plevna
- Arthouse Cinema Niagara (in Finnish)
- Cinemadrome – Arthouse Cinema Niagara (in Finnish)
- "Pyhä Risti Seurakunta". Kolumbus.fi. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "About Our Community". Jewish Community of Helsinki (in Finnish and English). Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- "Islam arkistot". Uskonnot Suomessa (in Finnish). Retrieved 5 June 2021.
- YLE: Kumpi on kovempi, Turku vai Tampere? Testaa tietosi ikuisista tappelupukareista (in Finnish)
- HS: Nyt valitaan Suomen kakkoskaupunki (in Finnish)
- "Data" (PDF). www.students.tut.fi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- DUO Shopping Center
- Like Shopping Center
- Tullintori Shopping Center
- "J. V. Stalin: ″Lenin: A Speech Delivered at a Memorial Meeting of the Kremlin Military School, January 28, 1924″". Marxists.org. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- Kotkin, Stephen (2014). Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928. London: Allen Lane. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-7139-9944-0.
- "Museum Centre Vapriikki [City of Tampere]". tampere.fi. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "Tampere Art Museum [City of Tampere]". tampere.fi. Archived from the original on 17 December 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "Front Page – Muumimuseo". Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "Vakoilumuseo – Spy Museum". Vakoilumuseo.fi. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "City of Tampere – Amuri museum of workers' housing". Tampere.fi. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "Ahtojäälle ei ole helppo löytää uutta kotia". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- NIGHTWISH – The Greatest Show(s) On Earth (in Italian)
- Greatest show on Earth - Matkailua pilke silmäkulmassa (in Finnish)
- "Tampereen asemakeskus, kilpailuohjelma" (PDF). City of Tampere (in Finnish). 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- Uusitalo, Kaisa (10 January 2018). "Moottoritien oikaisu ja uusi kehätie nostattivat kommenttivyöryn – Mahtava juttu vai asukkaiden ja luonnon laiminlyömistä?". Aamulehti (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 July 2021.
- Alameri, Mikko. "Trolleybus City of Tampere". Raitio (in Finnish). Suomen Raitiotieseura. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- "Joukkoliikennejärjestelmävaihtoehdot – Vaikutusten arviointi ja suositus Tampereen kaupunkiseudun joukkoliikennejärjestelmäksi" (PDF). TASE 2025 (in Finnish). City of Tampere. March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- "Kehitysvaihe". www.tampere.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- "United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations (UN/LOCODE)- (FI) Finland". unece.org. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Tietoa meistä". hopealinjat.fi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Kotimaan vesiliikennetilasto 2015" (PDF). Liikenneviraston tilastoja 1/2016. Suomen virallinen tilasto, ISSN 1796-0479 (pdf), ISBN 978-952-317-241-8 (in Finnish). Helsinki: Liikennevirasto. 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- Nupponen, Sakari (9 April 2014). "Katso miltä näyttää Viikinsaaressa juuri nyt". tamperelainen.fi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Pyöräilyn ja jalankulun edistäminen" (in Finnish). City of Tampere. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- Matson-Mäkelä, Kirsi (8 March 2013). "Tampere valittiin vuoden pyöräilykunnaksi". YLE (in Finnish). Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- "Liikenteen kehitys Tampereella – Kävelyn ja pyöräilyn tyytyväisyyskyselyn tutkimusraportti 2015" (PDF) (in Finnish). City of Tampere. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- "Liikenteen kehitys Tampereella vuonna 2019" (PDF) (in Finnish). City of Tampere. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- "Pormestari Lauri Lyly" (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 July 2021.
- "Tampereen kaupunki, Johtamisjärjestelmän kuvaus" (PDF) (in Finnish). City of Yampere. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
- "Twin Cities". City of Tampere. 15 February 2016. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Miasta partnerskie – Urząd Miasta Łodzi [via WaybackMachine.com]". City of Łódź (in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer" (in Norwegian). Trondheim.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Some 15 Finnish towns have twinned with friendship cities in China". Helsingin Sanomat International Edition. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tampere.|
- City of Tampere – Official website
- The official Tampere Region visitor website
- Virtual City Guide: VirtualTampere.com
- 1952 Summer Olympics official report Archived 11 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine pp. 62–3.
- Tammerkoski Heritage – Town's Industrial Heritage Portal
- CSSA Tampere Ry
- Lunch restaurants in Tampere
- Tampere travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .