Tampere (//, also US: /-/, Finnish: [ˈtɑmpere] (listen); Swedish: Tammerfors [tamɛrˈfɔʂː] (listen)) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries.
|Tampereen kaupunkiTammerfors stad|
Manchester of the North, Manse (in Finnish), Nääsville (in Finnish)
|• Mayor||Lauri Lyly|
|• City||689.59 km2 (266.25 sq mi)|
|• Land||525.03 km2 (202.72 sq mi)|
|• Water||164.56 km2 (63.54 sq mi)|
|• Urban||258.52 km2 (99.82 sq mi)|
|Area rank||166th largest in Finland|
|• Rank||3rd largest in Finland|
|• Density||448.76/km2 (1,162.3/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,211.0/km2 (3,136/sq mi)|
|Population by native language|
|• Finnish||94.9% (official)|
|Population by age|
|• 0 to 14||13.8%|
|• 15 to 64||70.6%|
|• 65 or older||15.7%|
|Time zone||UTC+02:00 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+03:00 (EEST)|
|Municipal tax rate||19%|
Tampere has a population of 235,615 with the urban area holding 334,112 people and the metropolitan area, also known as the Tampere sub-region, holding 385,301 inhabitants in an area of 4,970 km2. Tampere is the second-largest urban area and third most-populous individual municipality in Finland, after the cities of Helsinki and Espoo. It's also the most populous Finnish city outside the Greater Helsinki area and a major urban, economic, and cultural hub for central Finland.
Tampere is wedged between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by 18 metres (59 ft), the rapids linking them, Tammerkoski, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "Manchester of Finland" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse" and terms such as "Manserock".
Helsinki is approximately 160 kilometres (100 mi) south of Tampere, and can be reached in 1h 31m by Pendolino high-speed rail service  and 2 hours by car. The distance to Turku is roughly the same. Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is Finland's eighth-busiest airport, with over 230,000 passengers in 2017.
Names and etymologyEdit
Although the name Tampere is derived from the Tammerkoski rapids (both the city and the rapids are called Tammerfors in Swedish), the origin of the Tammer- part of that name has been the subject of much debate. Ánte accepts the "straightforward" etymology of Rahkonen and Heikkilä in Proto-Samic *Tëmpël(kōškë), *tëmpël meaning "deep, slow section of a stream" and *kōškë "rapids" (cognate with the Finnish koski). Other theories include that it comes from the Swedish word damber, meaning milldam; another, that it originates from the ancient Scandinavian words þambr ("thick bellied") and þambion ("swollen belly"), possibly referring to the shape of the rapids. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word Kvatemberdagar, or more colloquially Tamperdagar, meaning the Ember days of the Western Christian liturgical calendar. The Finnish word for oak, tammi, also features in the speculation, although Tampere is situated outside the natural distribution range of the European oak and the town was founded by Swedes, which makes this explanation less plausible.
Tampere was founded as a market place on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, 1 October 1779, Tampere was granted full city rights. At this time, it was a rather small town, consisting of only a few square kilometres of land around the rapids.
Tampere grew as a major market town and industrial centre in the 19th century.
Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century. On 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed on Keskustori. In 1918, after Finland had gained independence, Tampere played a major role, being one of the strategically important sites during the Civil War in Finland (28 January – 15 May 1918). Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command. White forces captured the town after the Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red prisoners on 6 April 1918.
After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and finally Teisko in 1972. Tampere was known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been largely replaced by information technology and telecommunications during the 1990s. The technology centre Hermia in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields.
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Tampere has an isolated humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) in the downtown area due to heat island but the most remote neighborhoods or neighboring cities have a continental subarctic climate border (Dfc [t]) as in the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport (TMP) with only 3 months above 10 °C. Winters are cold and the average temperature from November to March is below 0 °C (32 °F). Summers are cool to warm. On average, the snow season lasts 4–5 months from late November to early April. Considering it being at the subarctic threshold and inland, winters are on average quite mild for the classification, as is the annual mean temperature.
|Climate data for Tampere–Pirkkala (TMP), elevation: 119 m,[a]1981–2010 normals, extremes 1900- present|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−37.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||41
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||22||18||16||12||12||13||15||15||14||17||21||22||197|
|Average relative humidity (%)||90||87||82||70||63||66||69||76||82||87||91||92||80|
|Source #1: FMI|
|Source #2: FMI (record highs and lows)|
The Tampere region, Pirkanmaa, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 509,000 residents, 244,000 employed people, and a turnover of 28 billion euros as of 2014[update]. According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate was 14.8% in June 2017.
|People with a foreign background|
|County of origin||Population (2017)|
There are four institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: two universities and two polytechnic institutions (Finnish: ammattikorkeakoulu). The universities are University of Tampere (UTA), which has more than 16,000 students and is located right next to the city center, and Tampere University of Technology (TUT), which has more than 12,000 students and is located in Hervanta. The regional polytechnic institution is the Tampere University of Applied Sciences (Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu), which has about 10,000 students. The Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is also located in Tampere. Three of these institutions, TUT, UTA, and TAMK are merging into a new Tampere University in the beginning of 2019.
Tampere University Hospital (Tampereen yliopistollinen sairaala, TAYS), one of the main hospitals in Finland, is affiliated with the University of Tampere. It is a teaching hospital with 34 medical specializations.
Arts and cultureEdit
Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo, and Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These authors are known particularly as writers depicting the lives of working-class people, thanks to their respective backgrounds as members of the working class. Also from such a background was the famous poet Lauri Viita of the Pispala district, which was also the original home of the aforementioned Hannu Salama.
Tampere is home to the television channel Yle TV2, with its studios in the Ristimäki district, known for popular TV comedies such as Tankki täyteen, Reinikainen and Kummeli. The Tampere Film Festival, an annual international short film event, is held every March. Tammerfest, Tampere's urban rock festival, is held every July. The Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer.
A local food speciality is mustamakkara, which resembles the black pudding of northern England. It is a black sausage made by mixing pork, pig's blood and crushed rye and flour and is stuffed into the intestines of an animal. It is commonly eaten with lingonberry sauce. Especially Tammelantori square in the district of Tammela is famous for its mustamakkara kiosks.
Tampere is home to the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (Tampere Filharmonia), which is one of only two full-sized symphony orchestras in Finland; the other one is located in Helsinki. The orchestra's home venue is the Tampere Hall, and their concerts include classical, popular, and film music. Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: The Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years The Tampere Vocal Music Festival and the Tampere Biennale. Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts, and composition, is provided by Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere Conservatoire.
Manserock became a general term for rock music from Tampere, which was essentially rock music with Finnish lyrics. Manserock was especially popular during the 1970s and 1980s, and its most popular artists included Juice Leskinen, Virtanen, Kaseva, Popeda, and Eppu Normaali. In 1977, Poko Records, the first record company in Tampere, was founded.
In the 2010s, there has been a lot of popular musical activity in Tampere, particularly in the fields of rock and heavy/black metal. Some of the most popular bands based in Tampere include Negative, Uniklubi, and Lovex. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene. Tampere hosts an annual World of Tango Festival (Maailmantango).
Tampere has a lengthy tradition of theater, with established institutions such as Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampereen Teatteri, and Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest revolving auditorium in Europe. The Tampere Theatre Festival (Tampereen teatterikesä) is an international theatre festival held in the city each August.
As is the case with most of the rest of Finland, most Tampere citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. One Lutheran church in Tampere is Finlayson Church. Tampere also has a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to charismatic. There are also some English speaking services, such as the Tampere English Service, an international community affiliated with the Tampere Pentecostal Church. English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross  also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a LDS stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are the Baptist Church, the Evangelical Free Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Mission Diocese of Finland, the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Nokia Revival.
The Jews had an organized community until 1981. Though a small number of Jews remain in Tampere, organized communal life ended at that time.
City rivalry with TurkuEdit
Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of Turku, the first capital of Finland. This hostility is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, mustamakkara, the state of the Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Tampere is well known as food destination because of its food culture. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the post-glacial rebound and push the city back into the Baltic Sea.
Sites of interestEdit
One of the main tourist attractions is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which includes the landmark Näsinneula tower, topped by a revolving restaurant. In addition to these, it used to house a dolphinarium. Other sites of interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere City Hall, Tampere City Library Metso ("wood grouse"), Kaleva Church (both designed by Reima Pietilä), the Tampere Hall for conferences and concerts, and the Tampere Market Hall.
Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to Vladimir Lenin. The museum is housed in the Tampere Workers' Hall where during a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met Joseph Stalin for the first time. Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905, but eventually fled for Sweden in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the Russian Empire until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
There are many museums and galleries, including:
- The Vapriikki Museum Centre  which includes the Natural History Museum of Tampere, Finnish Hockey Hall of Fame, Finnish Museum of Games, Post Museum and the Shoe Museum
- Tampere Art Museum 
- Tampere Lenin Museum
- The Moomin Museum, about Moomins
- Rupriikki Media Museum
- Spy Museum in Siperia 
- Workers' housing museum in Amuri.
- Finland's largest glass sculpture, owned by the City of Tampere, "Pack Ice / The Mirror of the Sea" by the renowned artist Timo Sarpaneva, was installed in the entrance lobby of the downtown shopping mall KoskiKeskus until it was moved to a warehouse.
Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes. It's the highest gravel ridge in the world, raising 80 metres above Lake Pyhäjärvi and around 160 metres above sea level. It was used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of Suur-Pirkkala and its successor Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It joined Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a residential area undergoing significant redevelopment and together with neighbouring Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.
Tampere's sporting scene is mainly driven by ice hockey. The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of Pyhäjärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish ice hockey. Two exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: Ilves and Tappara. They both have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere. Construction of a new main ice hockey arena, Tampereen monitoimiareena, began in 2018.
Association Football is also a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams. Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere. The city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö, plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010, 2011, and 2014. Tampere Saints is the American football club in the city. The Saints won division 2 in 2015 and plays in the Maple League (division 1) in summer 2017.
Tampere hosted some of the preliminaries for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the 1965 World Ice Hockey Championships and was co-host of the EuroBasket 1967. The city also hosted two canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the World Rowing Junior Championships and in 1995 the Senior World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th European Youth Olympic Festival from 17 to 25 July 2009 and the 2010 World Ringette Championships from 1 to 6 November at Hakametsä arena.
Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example, Helsinki, Turku and the Port of Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, and Pori. The Tampere Central Railway Station is located in the city center. There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland.
The public transport network in Tampere currently consists solely of a bus network. Between 1948 and 1976 the city also had an extensive trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland. As of 2017, construction is underway for a light rail system in the city to replace some of the more popular bus lines (see Tampere light rail), as well as initiating commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring towns of Nokia and Lempäälä.
In 2007, Tampere switched to a new model of government. Since then, a mayor and four deputy mayors have been chosen for a period of two years by the city council. The mayor also becomes the seat of the city council for the duration of the tenure.
Mayors over timeEdit
For a list of notable persons, see Category:People from Tampere.
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
Tampere is twinned with:
Tampere has two additional "friendship cities":
- Mean value of the airport and not the weather station
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tampere.|
- City of Tampere – Official website
- The official Tampere Region visitor website
- Virtual City Guide: VirtualTampere.com
- 1952 Summer Olympics official report pp. 62–3.
- Tammerkoski Heritage – Town's Industrial Heritage Portal
- CSSA Tampere Ry
- Lunch restaurants in Tampere
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