International Ice Hockey Federation

(Redirected from IIHF)

The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; French: Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace; German: Internationale Eishockey-Föderation) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey.[1] It is based in Zurich, Switzerland, and has 82 member countries.

International Ice Hockey Federation
Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace
Internationale Eishockey-Föderation
AbbreviationIIHF
Formation15 May 1908; 116 years ago (1908-05-15)
Founded atParis, France
TypeSports federation
Legal statusGoverning body of
ice hockey
PurposeSport governance
HeadquartersZurich, Switzerland
Region served
Worldwide
Membership
82 members
Official languages
English, French, German
President
Luc Tardif
WebsiteIIHF.com

The IIHF maintains the IIHF World Ranking based on international ice hockey tournaments. Rules of play for IIHF events differ from hockey in North America and the rules of the National Hockey League (NHL). Decisions of the IIHF can be appealed through the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland. The IIHF maintains its own hall of fame for international ice hockey. The IIHF Hall of Fame was founded in 1997, and has been located within the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1998.

Previously, the IIHF also managed the development of inline hockey; however, in June 2019, the IIHF announced that they would no longer govern inline hockey or organize the Inline Hockey World Championships.[2]

Functions edit

 
IIHF Headquarters in Zurich (Villa Freigut, Enge).

The main functions of the IIHF are to govern, develop and organize hockey throughout the world. Another duty is to promote friendly relations among the member national associations and to operate in an organized manner for the good order of the sport.[3] The federation may take the necessary measures in order to conduct itself and its affairs in accordance with its statutes, bylaws and regulations as well as in holding a clear jurisdiction with regards to ice hockey at the international level. The IIHF is the body responsible with arranging the sponsorships, license rights, advertising and merchandising in connection with all IIHF competitions.

Another purpose of the federation is to provide aid in the young players' development and in the development of coaches and game officials. On the other hand, all the events of IIHF are organized by the federation along with establishing and maintaining contact with any other sport federations or sport groups. The IIHF is responsible for processing the international players' transfers. It is also the body that presides over ice hockey at the Olympic Games as well as over all levels of the IIHF World Championships.[4] The federation works in collaboration with local committees when organizing its 25 World Championships, at five different categories.

The IIHF is also responsible for the organization of European club competitions such as the Champions Hockey League or the Continental Cup.

The federation is governed by the legislative body of the IIHF which is the General Congress along with the executive body, which is the Council. The Congress is entitled to make decisions with regard to the game's rules, the statutes and bylaws in the name of the federation. It is also the body that elects the president and the council or otherwise known as board.[5] The president of the IIHF is the representative of the federation. He represents the federation's interests in all external matters and he is also responsible that the decisions are made according to the federation's statutes and regulations. The president is assisted by the General Secretary, who is also the highest ranked employee of the IIHF.

History edit

The International Ice Hockey Federation was founded on 15 May 1908 at 34 Rue de Provence in Paris, France, as Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace (LIHG).[6] The 1920 Olympics were the first to integrate hockey into their program.

 
The Poland men's national ice hockey team debuted at the 1928 Winter Olympics.

The 1928 Winter Olympics, which also served as the World and European Championship for the year, saw a record 11 countries participate.[7]

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 which had caused Hungary to be occupied by the Soviet Army, led to a boycott of the 1957 World Championships, which were being staged in Moscow. Canada and the United States led the boycott, and were joined by Norway, West Germany, Italy, and Switzerland.[8]

The 1962 World Championship, hosted by the American cities of Colorado Springs and Denver, was boycotted by the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia, which led to a further boycott by the other Eastern Bloc countries. At issue was the boycott of the 1957 championships in Moscow by Canada and the United States, and the Americans refusal of East German passports in reaction to the building of the Berlin Wall by East Germany.[9]

For the 1965–66 season, the IIHF created the European Cup, a tournament consisting of the top club teams from around Europe. The competition was originated by Günther Sabetzki, based on the Association football European Cup (now UEFA Champions League). In 1968 the IIHF organized the European U19 Championship, a junior competition for players aged 19 and under. The age limit was later reduced to 18 in 1977.[8]

During the 1980s Canada stopped boycotting the World Championships and Olympic Games. The Canadians had boycotted these tournaments between 1970 and 1976 after the IIHF had refused to allow them to roster professional players at the World Championships from NHL teams that had not qualified for the Stanley Cup playoffs. President Sabetzki found a compromise that resulted in the return of Canada to international events beginning in 1977. The pro players whose teams had been eliminated from the playoffs were allowed to compete and in exchange, Canada agreed to participate in the World Championships. They also waived their right to host any World Championships. The creation of the Canada Cup (a competition organized by the NHL in Canada every four years) was also part of the new agreement between the IIHF and North American professional hockey.[9]

The IIHF continued to grow in numbers during the 1980s and 1990s, both due to political events and the continued growth of hockey worldwide. The dissolution of the Soviet Union saw its membership transferred to Russia, and the addition of four ex-Soviet republics; Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine to the federation. In addition, the memberships of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania - all of which had initially joined the IIHF in the 1930s but were expelled following their annexation by the Soviet Union - were renewed. The breakup of Yugoslavia also resulted in an increase in membership. Croatia and Slovenia joined as new members, while the membership of the old Yugoslavia was transferred to FR Yugoslavia (which later became known as Serbia and Montenegro and still later dissolved into the independent republics of Serbia and Montenegro). When Czechoslovakia broke up, its membership rights were transferred to the Czech Republic, and Slovakia was admitted as a new member. The influx of new members resulted in the IIHF increasing the size of the Group A tournament. It expanded from 8 teams to 12 in 1992 and from 12 to 16 in 1998.[10]

The IIHF celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2008. As part of the celebrations, the 2008 World Championship was held in Canada for the first time (the tournament was co-hosted by the cities of Halifax and Quebec City).[11]

The number of members grew in the 21st century: Chile (2000), Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001), Liechtenstein (2001), North Macedonia (2001), the United Arab Emirates (2001), Macau (2005), Malaysia (2006), Moldova (2008; presumably expelled from IIHF membership in 2023), Georgia (2009), Kuwait (2009; had originally joined in 1985, but was expelled in 1992), Morocco (2010), Kyrgyzstan (2011), Jamaica (2012), Qatar (2012), Oman (2014), Turkmenistan (2015), Indonesia (2016), Nepal (2016), the Philippines (2016), Algeria (2019), Colombia (2019), Iran (2019), Lebanon (2019), Uzbekistan (2019), Tunisia (2021), and Puerto Rico (2022).[10]

The IIHF received international criticism for holding the 2014 Men's Ice Hockey World Championships in Belarus, because of the poor human rights record of the country. Several human rights organisations launched the "Don't play with the dictator!" boycott campaign[12] and there were appeals from the US Congress, the German Parliament, and the European Parliament.[13]

The IIHF again received criticism for planning to partly hold the 2021 Men's Ice Hockey World Championships in Belarus.[14][15] In January 2021, the IIHF withdrew the 2021 World Championship from Minsk due to safety and security issues during the political unrest, besides the COVID-19 pandemic and decided to solely hold the tournament in Riga, Latvia.[16]

On 23 May 2021, civilian Ryanair Flight 4978, which was enroute from Athens to Vilnius, was forced to land in Minsk and a passenger of that flight was detained. In protest, Latvian officials replaced the Belarusian state flag in Riga with the former flag associated with the Belarusian opposition groups, including at the 2021 IIHF World Championship display of flags. This was by order of Mayor of Riga Mārtiņš Staķis and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Latvia Edgars Rinkēvičs. The IIHF issued a statement protesting the replacement of the flag, and IIHF president René Fasel asked the mayor to remove the IIHF name, its flag and its symbols from such sites, or to restore the flag, insisting that the IIHF is an "apolitical sports organization".[17] In response, Staķis said he would remove the IIHF flags.[18][19]

On 28 February 2022, the IIHF suspended the memberships of the Russian and Belarusian ice hockey federations until further notice due to the countries' invasion of Ukraine.[20]

Still, non-Russian players in Russian clubs are according to IIHF rules bound by their contracts, and cannot leave their clubs and Russia until their contracts expire or are terminated by their club. If players leave anyway they can be sued and would be blocked from playing for other clubs.[21]

On 22 March 2023, the IIHF excluded Russian and Belarusian national and club teams from IIHF competitions during the 2023–24 season, based on safety considerations.[22]

IIHF Hall of Fame edit

 
The Hockey Hall of Fame in Toronto has hosted the IIHF Hall of Fame since 1998.

Prior to the establishment of the IIHF Hall of Fame, the IIHF displayed a collection of historical artifacts from World Championships and the Olympic Games in temporary exhibits. From 1992 to 1997, the IIHF loaned its exhibits to the International Hockey Hall of Fame in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.[23]

The first step taken by the IIHF to create its own hall of fame was a proposal made in 1996, which was later ratified at the 1997 IIHF summer congress to host the museum in Zürich.[23] The approval came exactly 89 years from the foundation of the IIHF, with the purpose of honoring former international ice hockey players, builders (administrators) and officials.[24] The annual induction ceremony takes place on the medal presentation day of the Ice Hockey World Championships.[23][24] The IIHF agreed with the National Hockey League to transfer its exhibits to the Hockey Hall of Fame in Toronto, Canada, as of 29 July 1998.[23]

Tournaments edit

Men's edit

Current top four per tournament[25]Current pool: 58 countries
Tournament Year Champions Runners-up Third place Fourth place
Winter Olympics   2022   Finland   Russia[26]   Slovakia   Sweden
IIHF World Championship  /  2023   Canada   Germany   Latvia   United States
U-20 IIHF World Championship   2024   United States   Sweden   Czechia   Finland
U-18 IIHF World Championship   2024   Canada   United States   Sweden   Slovakia

Women's edit

Current top four per tournament[25]Current pool: 44 countries
Tournament Year Champions Runners-up Third place Fourth place
Winter Olympics   2022   Canada   United States   Finland    Switzerland
IIHF Women's World Championship   2024   Canada   United States   Finland   Czechia
U-18 IIHF Women's World Championship   2024   United States   Czechia   Canada   Finland

Club edit

Current top four per tournament[27]
Tournament Year Champions Runners-up Third place Fourth place
Champions Hockey League 2023–24   Genève-Servette HC   Skellefteå AIK   Lukko &   Vítkovice Ridera
IIHF Continental Cup 2023–24   Nomad Astana   Herning Blue Fox   Cardiff Devils   GKS Katowice

Developmental edit

Since 2017, the IIHF has sanctioned the IIHF Development Cup for developing men's and women's national teams that do not qualify to compete in the IIHF World Championships.

Tournament Year Gender Champions Runners-up Third place
IIHF Development Cup 2024 Men   Ireland   Portugal   Colombia
2023 Women   Colombia   Argentina   Iran

Executives and personnel edit

The IIHF employs twenty staff members at the headquarters in Zurich.[28]

Presidents edit

Name Years
  Louis Magnus 1908–1912
  Henri van den Bulcke 1912–1914
  Louis Magnus 1914
  Peter Patton 1914
  Henri van den Bulcke 1914–1920
  Max Sillig 1920–1922
  Paul Loicq 1922–1947
  Fritz Kraatz 1947–1948
  W. G. Hardy 1948–1951
  Fritz Kraatz 1951–1954
  Walter A. Brown 1954–1957
  Bunny Ahearne 1957–1960
  Robert Lebel 1960–1963
  Bunny Ahearne 1963–1966
  William Thayer Tutt 1966–1969
  Bunny Ahearne 1969–1975
  Günther Sabetzki 1975–1994
  René Fasel 1994–2021
  Luc Tardif 2021–present

Chief Medical Officers edit

Members edit

 
Map of the world with current members of the IIHF. (Red indicates full members, blue indicates associate members, green indicates affiliate members and black indicates suspended members.)

As of 2024, the IIHF has 82 members.[32]

The federation has 60 full members, including two suspended members: Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus (suspended), Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, North Korea, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia (suspended), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States. Full members have a national body dedicated to the sport, and participate annually in the international championships. Only full members have voting rights.

In addition, there are 21 associate members who either do not have a national body dedicated to the sport, or do not regularly participate in the international championships (Chile would be 22nd but is still listed as 'affiliate' despite having ice hockey now). They are Algeria, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Greece, Indonesia, Jamaica, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Macau, Morocco, Nepal, North Macedonia, Oman, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Tunisia, and Uzbekistan.


By division edit

Men edit

The following are countries who will compete in the 2025 Men's Ice Hockey World Championships, divided by tier:[33]

Division IIHF Members
Top                                
I                        
II                        
III                        
IV        

Men U20 edit

The following are countries who will compete in the 2025 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships, divided by tier:[34]

Division IIHF Members
Top                    
I                        
II                        
III                  

Women edit

The following are countries who are competing in the 2024 Women's Ice Hockey World Championships, divided by tier:[35]

Division IIHF Members
Top                    
I                        
II                        
III                      

Registered players edit

Based on the number of registered ice hockey players, including male, female and junior, provided by the respective countries' federations. This list includes 71 out of 82 IIHF member countries with more than 100 registered players as of October 2022.[32][36]

Country Registered players % of registered players % of population
  United States 551,006 35.44% 0.166%
  Canada 513,674 33.04% 1.361%
  Russia 103,101 6.63% 0.071%
  Finland 66,687 4.29% 1.204%
  Sweden 61,547 3.96% 0.609%
  Czechia 34,341 2.21% 0.321%
   Switzerland 29,360 1.89% 0.339%
  Germany 21,090 1.36% 0.025%
  France 18,686 1.20% 0.029%
  Japan 16,219 1.04% 0.013%
  China 13,388 0.86% 0.001%
  Great Britain 13,327 0.86% 0.020%
  Slovakia 11,447 0.74% 0.210%
  Hungary 8,943 0.58% 0.093%
  Norway 8,618 0.55% 0.159%
  Latvia 7,898 0.51% 0.419%
  Austria 7,232 0.47% 0.080%
  Belarus 7,053 0.45% 0.075%
  Australia 6,150 0.40% 0.024%
  Ukraine 5,341 0.34% 0.012%
  Denmark 5,147 0.33% 0.089%
  Italy 5,136 0.33% 0.008%
  Kazakhstan 4,320 0.28% 0.023%
  Poland 3,950 0.25% 0.010%
  Netherlands 3,515 0.23% 0.021%
  South Korea 3,044 0.20% 0.006%
  Kyrgyzstan 2,702 0.17% 0.041%
  Romania 2,213 0.14% 0.012%
  New Zealand 2,035 0.13% 0.042%
  Belgium 1,793 0.12% 0.015%
  North Korea 1,700 0.11% 0.007%
  India 1,502 0.10% 0.000%
  Turkey 1,486 0.10% 0.002%
  Lithuania 1,340 0.09% 0.049%
  Mexico 1,232 0.08% 0.001%
  Slovenia 1,072 0.07% 0.052%
  Estonia 995 0.06% 0.075%
  Argentina 980 0.06% 0.002%
  Bulgaria 945 0.06% 0.014%
  Spain 893 0.06% 0.002%
  Chinese Taipei 868 0.06% 0.004%
  Mongolia 828 0.05% 0.025%
  Iceland 752 0.05% 0.220%
  United Arab Emirates 695 0.04% 0.007%
  Serbia 668 0.04% 0.008%
  Thailand 624 0.04% 0.001%
  Georgia 598 0.04% 0.015%
  Hong Kong 576 0.04% 0.008%
  Croatia 520 0.03% 0.013%
  Israel 508 0.03% 0.006%
  Luxembourg 492 0.03% 0.079%
  South Africa 480 0.03% 0.001%
  Uzbekistan 421 0.03% 0.001%
  Kuwait 402 0.03% 0.009%
  Ireland 350 0.02% 0.007%
  Turkmenistan 347 0.02% 0.006%
  Greece 269 0.02% 0.003%
  Chile 250 0.02% 0.001%
  Bosnia and Herzegovina   242 0.02% 0.007%
  Iran 233 0.01% 0.000%
  Morocco 225 0.01% 0.001%
  Singapore 220 0.01% 0.004%
  Lebanon 208 0.01% 0.003%
  Puerto Rico 205 0.01% 0.007%
  Armenia 187 0.01% 0.006%
  Philippines 185 0.01% 0.000%
  Qatar 165 0.01% 0.006%
  Indonesia 139 0.01% 0.000%
  Macau 121 0.01% 0.019%
  Colombia 110 0.01% 0.000%
  Malaysia 110 0.01% 0.000%

IIHF World Ranking edit

The IIHF World Ranking is a tool to reflect the long-term quality of the countries' national team program.[37] The IIHF World Ranking is released following each IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship and the Olympic Ice Hockey Tournament.

References edit

  1. ^ "IIHF - Who we are". International Ice Hockey Federation.
  2. ^ "Statutes, Regulations amended". International Ice Hockey Federation. 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  3. ^ International Ice Hockey Federation. "IIHF Mission" 8 May 2019.
  4. ^ International Hockey online portal. "International hockey and the olympics" Archived 10 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine 18 February 2010.
  5. ^ International Ice Hockey Federation. "IIHF Statutes and Bylaws" 8 May 2019.
  6. ^ It all Started in Paris, 1908 International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved on 7 May 2019
  7. ^ "IIHF 1914-1933". iihf.com. IIHF. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  8. ^ a b "IIHF 1957-1974". iihf.com. IIHF. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  9. ^ a b "IIHF 1975-1989". iihf.com. IIHF. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  10. ^ a b "IIHF 1990-today". iihf.com. IIHF. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  11. ^ "IIHF Timeline". iihf.com. IIHF. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  12. ^ "International Campaign: Don't play with the dictator!". 17 April 2012.
  13. ^ Davide Tuniz (15 March 2012). "European Parliament calls to move the 2014 World Championship from Belarus".
  14. ^ "Ice hockey-IIHF president to meet Belarus' Lukashenko to discuss 2021 world championship – RIA". Reuters. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  15. ^ "Ice Hockey: Belarus must meet 'specific requirements' to host World Championship". Deutsche Welle. 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  16. ^ "IIHF to move 2021 World Championship". International Ice Hockey Federation. 18 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  17. ^ "Latvia and hockey body spar over Belarus opposition flag". France 24. 25 May 2021.
  18. ^ "Ice Hockey Federation boss Fasel unhappy with Belarus flag switch". lsm.lv. 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  19. ^ "Latvia removes ice hockey body's banner in row over Belarus flag swap". Reuters. 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  20. ^ "IIHF - IIHF Council takes definitive action over Russia, Belarus". IIHF.com. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  21. ^ IIHF won’t be able to cancel KHL Legionnaires’ contracts until 2023
  22. ^ "Update on Russia and Belarus", IIHF, 22 March 2023
  23. ^ a b c d "IIHF Hall of Fame". Hockey Archives (in Russian). Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  24. ^ a b "IIHF Hall of Fame". International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  25. ^ a b "IIHF - Tournaments". IIHF. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  26. ^ Competed as the   Russian Olympic Committee due to sanctions from the Russian doping scandal
  27. ^ "IIHF - Tournaments (Club)". IIHF. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  28. ^ "IIHF Staff". International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  29. ^ "Wolf-Dieter Montag – Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Gesellschaft für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin (in German). 19 November 2014. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2018.
  30. ^ "Paul Loicq Award: Dr Mark Aubry (CAN)". IIHF. 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  31. ^ "Dr. Mark Aubry – 2006 Dr. Tom Pashby Sports Safety Award". Dr. Pashby Sports Safety Fund. 18 November 2006. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  32. ^ a b "IIHF Member National Associations". International Ice Hockey Federation. 29 September 2022.
  33. ^ "2025 IIHF Men's World Championships Divisions". IIHF. Retrieved 21 May 2024.
  34. ^ "2025 IIHF World Junior Championships Divisions". IIHF. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  35. ^ "2024 IIHF Women's World Championships Divisions". IIHF. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
  36. ^ "Countries in the world by population (2022)". Worldometer. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  37. ^ "IIHF World Ranking". iihf.com. IIHF. Retrieved 4 October 2022.

Sources edit

  • Podnieks, Andrew; Szemberg, Szymon (2007). World of hockey : celebrating a century of the IIHF. Fenn Publishing. ISBN 9781551683072.

External links edit

  Media related to International Ice Hockey Federation at Wikimedia Commons