Doping in Russia
Doping in Russian sports is a significant issue. Russia has had the most (37) Olympic medals stripped for doping violations – triple the number of the second country. From 2011 to 2015, more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a cover-up.
Media attention began growing in December 2014 when German broadcaster ARD reported on state-sponsored doping in Russia, comparing it to doping in East Germany. In November 2015, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) published a report and the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) suspended Russia indefinitely from world track and field events. The United Kingdom Anti-Doping agency later assisted WADA with testing in Russia. In June 2016, they reported that they were unable to fully carry out their work and noted intimidation by armed Federal Security Service (FSB) agents. After a Russian former lab director made allegations about the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, WADA commissioned an independent investigation led by Richard McLaren. McLaren's investigation found corroborating evidence, concluding in a report published in July 2016 that the Ministry of Sport and the FSB had operated a "state-directed failsafe system" using a "disappearing positive [test] methodology" (DPM) from "at least late 2011 to August 2015".
In response to these findings, WADA announced that RUSADA should be regarded as non-compliant with respect to the World Anti-Doping Code and recommended that Russia be banned from competing at the 2016 Summer Olympics. The International Olympic Commission (IOC) rejected that recommendation, stating that the IOC and each sport's international federation would make decisions on each athlete's individual basis. On 4 August 2016, one day prior to the opening ceremony, 270 athletes were cleared for competition, while 167 were removed because of doping. In contrast to the IOC, the International Paralympic Committee voted unanimously to ban the entire Russian team from the 2016 Summer Paralympics, having found evidence that the DPM was also in operation at the 2014 Winter Paralympics.
In February 2017, WADA stated that evidence against many individuals named in the McLaren report might be insufficient because the Moscow laboratory had disposed of doping samples and Russian authorities were not answering requests for additional evidence.
Background: Soviet eraEdit
According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts". On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games."
Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements. The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Doping issues from 2001 to 2009Edit
In 2008, seven Russian track and field athletes were suspended ahead of the Summer Olympics in Beijing for manipulating their urine samples. The president of the International Biathlon Union, Anders Besseberg, said, "We are facing systematic doping on a large scale in one of the strongest teams of the world."
Reviewing 7289 blood samples from 2737 athletes from 2001 to 2009, a report found that the number of suspicious samples from "Country A" notably exceeded other countries. One of the authors said that Country A was Russia.
In October 2009, IAAF general secretary Pierre Weiss wrote to Valentin Balakhnichev that blood samples from Russian athletes "recorded some of the highest values ever seen since the IAAF started testing" and that tests from the 2009 World Championships "strongly suggest a systematic abuse of blood doping or EPO-related products."
Allegations of state-sponsored doping and 2014 ARD documentaryEdit
In 2010, an employee at the Russian Anti-Doping Agency RUSADA, Vitaly Stepanov, began sending information to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) alleging that RUSADA was enabling systemic doping in athletics. He said that he sent 200 emails and 50 letters over three years. In December 2012, Darya Pishchalnikova sent an email to WADA containing details on an alleged state-run doping program in Russia. According to The New York Times, the email reached three top WADA officials but the agency decided not to open an inquiry and instead sent her email to Russian sports officials. British journalist Nick Harris said that he contacted the International Olympic Committee with allegations about Grigory Rodchenkov's laboratory in Moscow in early July 2013.
According to Stepanov, "Even at WADA there were people who didn't want this story out" but he said that a person at the organisation connected him with the German broadcaster ARD. WADA's chief investigator Jack Robertson believed that the organisation was reluctant to take action and that media attention was necessary, so he obtained David Howman's permission to contact a journalist. The journalist, Hajo Seppelt, had previously reported on doping in East Germany and other countries. In December 2014, ARD aired Seppelt's documentary – Geheimsache Doping: Wie Russland seine Sieger macht (The Doping Secret: How Russia Creates its Champions). The documentary alleged Russian state involvement in systematic doping, which it described as "East German-style". In the documentary, Stepanov and his wife, Yuliya Stepanova (née Rusanova), alleged that Russian athletics officials supplied banned substances in exchange for 5% of an athlete's earnings and falsified tests together with doping control officers. It included conversations secretly recorded by Stepanova, e.g. Mariya Savinova saying that contacts at a Moscow drug-testing laboratory had covered up her doping. Russian long-distance runner Liliya Shobukhova allegedly paid 450,000 euros to cover up her positive doping result. According to the allegations, Dr. Sergei Portugalov, who is also accused of organising state-sponsored doping going back to the early 1980s in the Soviet Union, was involved in the Russian system.
In January 2015, then-ARAF President Valentin Balakhnichev resigned as treasurer of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
In response to the ARD documentary, WADA commissioned an investigation, the report of which was published on 9 November 2015. The 323-page document, described as "damning" by The Guardian, reported widespread doping and large-scale cover-ups by the Russian authorities. It stated that the Federal Security Service (FSB) had regularly visited and questioned laboratory staff and instructed some of them not to cooperate with the WADA investigation.:196–197 Two staff members said that they suspected that the offices and telephones were bugged.:196–197 The report recommended that ARAF be declared non-compliant with respect to the World Anti-Doping Code and that the International Olympic Committee not accept any 2016 Summer Olympics entries from ARAF until compliance was reached.
A day later, WADA suspended the Moscow Anti-doping Center, prohibiting the laboratory "from carrying out any WADA-related anti-doping activities including all analyses of urine and blood samples." On 13 November, the IAAF council voted 22–1 in favour of prohibiting Russia from world track and field events with immediate effect. Under other penalties against the ARAF, Russia has been also prohibited from hosting the 2016 World Race Walking Team Championships (Cheboksary) and 2016 World Junior Championships (Kazan), and ARAF must entrust doping cases to Court of Arbitration for Sport. AFAR accepted the indefinite IAAF suspension and did not request a hearing. ARAF's efforts towards regaining full IAAF membership will be monitored by a five-person IAAF team. On 18 November 2015 WADA suspended RUSADA, meaning that Russia does not have a functioning NADO for any sport.
In November 2015, France began a criminal investigation into former IAAF president Lamine Diack, alleging that in 2011 he accepted a 1 million euro bribe from the All-Russia Athletic Federation to cover up positive doping results of at least six Russian athletes.
January to May 2016Edit
In January 2016, the IAAF gave lifetime bans to the former head of the Russian athletics federation, Valentin Balakhnichev, and a top Russian coach, Aleksey Melnikov.
Two former directors of RUSADA, Vyacheslav Sinyev and Nikita Kamaev, died in February 2016. The Sunday Times reported that Kamaev had approached the newspaper shortly before his death planning to publish a book on "the true story of sport pharmacology and doping in Russia since 1987". Grigory Rodchenkov, a lab director described by WADA as "the heart of Russian doping", was fired by Russian authorities and fled in fear of his safety to the United States, where he shared information.
In March 2016, ARD broadcast the documentary "Russia's Red Herrings", alleging that athletes were alerted about testing plans and offered banned substances by individuals at RUSADA and ARAF. According to a May 2016 report in The New York Times, the director of a prominent laboratory, Grigory Rodchenkov, said that doping experts collaborated with Russia's intelligence service on a state-sponsored doping programme in which urine samples were switched through a hole in the laboratory's wall. He said that at least fifteen medalists at the 2014 Winter Olympics were involved. On 19 May, WADA appointed Richard McLaren to lead an investigation into the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.
An ARD documentary in June 2016 implicated Russian sports minister Vitaly Mutko in covering up doping by a football player at FK Krasnodar. In the same month, IAAF deputy general secretary Nick Davies was provisionally suspended over allegations that he took money to delay naming Russian athletes. According to the BBC, emails from July 2013 showed that Davies had discussed how to delay or soften an announcement on Russians who had tested positive.
In June 2016, WADA released a report stating that the work of its Doping Control Officers (DCO) had been limited by a "significant amount of unavailable athlete reports and missed tests", insufficient or incorrect athlete location information, and little information about the location or date of competitions. Some athletes named military cities requiring special permission to enter as their location and some national championships, including Olympic qualifiers, were held in cities with restricted access due to civil conflicts, preventing testing of the competitors. WADA also reported intimidation of DCOs by armed Federal Security Service (FSB) agents; "significant delays" before being allowed to enter venues; consistent monitoring by security staff; delays in receiving athlete lists; and opening of sample packages by Russian customs. 90% of Russian athletes did not respond or "emphatically" refused when WADA requested to interview them as part of its investigation. Director general David Howman stated, "It was the very right time for those who considered themselves clean [to approach WADA]. They had nine months, plenty of time, and none came forward."
On 17 June, the IAAF Council held an extraordinary meeting "principally to give the Russian Athletics Federation (RusAF) a further opportunity to satisfy the Reinstatement Conditions for IAAF Membership." A task force chaired by Rune Andersen recommended against reinstating Russia after reporting that criteria had not been met and that there were "detailed allegations, which are already partly substantiated, that the Russian authorities, far from supporting the anti-doping effort, have in fact orchestrated systematic doping and the covering up of adverse analytical findings." The IAAF voted unanimously to uphold its ban.
A week later, the International Weightlifting Federation (IWF) decided to give a one-year ban to Russia, along with two other countries; on 3 August 2016 the IOC ratified the decision, and Russia's weightlifting team missed the 2016 Summer Olympics.
On 18 July 2016, Richard McLaren, a Canadian attorney retained by WADA to investigate Rodchenkov's allegations, published a 97-page report covering significant state-sponsored doping in Russia. Although limited by a 57-day time frame, the investigation found corroborating evidence after conducting witness interviews, reviewing thousands of documents, analysis of hard drives, forensic analysis of urine sample collection bottles, and laboratory analysis of individual athlete samples, with "more evidence becoming available by the day.":5 The report concluded that it was shown "beyond a reasonable doubt" that Russia's Ministry of Sport, the Centre of Sports Preparation of the National Teams of Russia, the Federal Security Service (FSB), and the WADA-accredited laboratory in Moscow had "operated for the protection of doped Russian athletes" within a "state-directed failsafe system" using "the disappearing positive [test] methodology" after the country's poor medal count during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver. McLaren stated that urine samples were opened in Sochi in order to swap them "without any evidence to the untrained eye". The official producer of BEREG-KIT security bottles used for anti-doping tests, Berlinger Group, stated, "We have no knowledge of the specifications, the methods or the procedures involved in the tests and experiments conducted by the McLaren Commission."
According to the McLaren report, the Disappearing Positive Methodology operated from "at least late 2011 to August 2015.":35 It was used on 643 positive samples, a number that the authors consider "only a minimum" due to limited access to Russian records.:39 The system covered up positive results in a wide range of sports::41
- Athletics (139)
- Weightlifting (117)
- Non-Olympic sports (37)
- Paralympic sport (35)
- Wrestling (28)
- Canoe (27)
- Cycling (26)
- Skating (24)
- Swimming (18)
- Ice hockey (14)
- Skiing (13)
- Football (11)
- Rowing (11)
- Biathlon (10)
- Bobsleigh (8)
- Judo (8)
- Volleyball (8)
- Boxing (7)
- Handball (7)
- Taekwondo (6)
- Fencing (4)
- Triathlon (4)
- Modern pentathlon (3)
- Shooting (3)
- Beach volleyball (2)
- Curling (2)
- Basketball (1)
- Sailing (1)
- Snowboard (1)
- Table tennis (1)
- Water polo (1)
In response to these findings, WADA announced that RUSADA should be regarded as non-compliant with respect to the World Anti-Doping Code and recommended that Russian athletes be banned from competing at the 2016 Summer Olympics. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided to decline 2016 Summer Olympics accreditation requests by Russian sports ministry officials and any individuals implicated in the report, to begin re-analysis and a full inquiry into Russian competitors at the Sochi Olympics, and to ask sports federations to seek alternative hosts for major events that had been assigned to Russia.
On July 21, 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) turned down an appeal by the Russian Olympic Committee and 68 Russian athletes. The following day, the International Paralympic Committee began suspension proceedings against the National Paralympic Committee of Russia. On 24 July, the IOC rejected WADA's recommendation to ban Russia from the Summer Olympics and announced that a decision would be made by each sport federation. With each positive decision having to be approved by a CAS arbitrator. WADA's president Craig Reedie said, "WADA is disappointed that the IOC did not heed WADA's Executive Committee recommendations that were based on the outcomes of the McLaren Investigation and would have ensured a straight-forward, strong and harmonized approach." On the IOC's decision to exclude Stepanova, WADA director general Olivier Niggli stated that his agency was "very concerned by the message that this sends whistleblowers for the future."
August to September 2016Edit
Originally Russia submitted a list of 389 athletes for the Rio Olympics competition. On 7 August 2016, the IOC cleared 278 athletes, while 111 were removed because of the scandal (including 67 athletes removed by IAAF before the IOC's decision).
Having sent samples for forensic analysis, the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) found evidence that the Disappearing Positive Methodology was in operation at the 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi. On 7 August 2016, the IPC's Governing Board voted unanimously to ban the entire Russian team from the 2016 Summer Paralympics, citing the Russian Paralympic Committee's (RPC) inability to enforce the IPC's Anti-Doping Code and the World Anti-Doping Code, which is "a fundamental constitutional requirement". IPC President Sir Philip Craven described the Russian anti-doping system as "entirely compromised" and 18 July 2016 as "one of the darkest days in the history of all sport", and stated that the Russian government had "catastrophically failed its Para athletes". IPC Athletes' Council Chairperson Todd Nicholson said that Russia had used athletes as "pawns" in order to "show global prowess". On 23 August 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport dismissed Russia's appeal, stating that the IPC's decision was "made in accordance with the IPC Rules and was proportionate in the circumstances" and that Russia "did not file any evidence contradicting the facts on which the IPC decision was based." The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland rejected another appeal by Russia, saying that the RPC "needed to demonstrate it had fulfilled its obligations in upholding... anti-doping protocols, and that its interests in an immediate lifting of its suspension outweigh the International Paralympics Committee's interests in fighting doping and in the integrity of athletics. It did not succeed in this in any way." Rejecting an appeal by ten athletes, a German court stated that the IPC had no obligation to allow them to compete and that the committee had "comprehensibly justified" its decision.
In an interview with NRK, WADA's director general Olivier Niggli said that "Russia is threatening us and our informers", mentioning daily hacking attempts and bugging of houses. He said that the agency had "a pretty good suspicion" that the hackers were Russian and that Western governments were already familiar with them. He stated, "I think this will cease if they stop looking at us as an enemy, and instead accept that there is a problem that we must work together to solve. But for the moment they are sending out completely the wrong signals."
October to December 2016Edit
On 3 November 2016, Russia approves anti-doping law targeting coaches.
On 15 November 2016, Berlinger introduced a new design for doping sample bottles. A spokesman later said, "We work with forensic specialists from different nations. We want to always stay a little bit ahead of those cheating but you cannot avoid a system like the Russians built up."
On 9 December 2016, McLaren published the second part of his report. From 2011 to 2015, more than 1,000 Russian competitors in various sports (including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports) benefited from the cover-up. Emails indicate that they included five blind powerlifters, who may have been given drugs without their knowledge, and a fifteen-year-old. An IAAF taskforce announced that Russia could not be reinstated because the country still had no functional drug-testing agency and had not accepted the findings of investigations.
In February 2017, All-Russia Athletic Federation vice-president Andrey Silnov held a press conference in Moscow alongside a former Soviet athlete who said that East German successes due to state-sponsored doping are legitimate results of "good pharmacology" and should not be condemned. Later that month, WADA stated that evidence against many individuals named in the McLaren report might be insufficient because the Moscow laboratory had disposed of doping samples and Russian authorities were not answering requests for additional evidence.
An IAAF taskforce chaired by Rune Andersen published an interim report in April 2017. President Sebastian Coe stated, "There is testing but it is still far too limited. The Russian investigative committee is still refusing to hand over athlete biological passport samples for independent testing from labs, we still have got athletes in closed cities that are difficult or impossible to get to, the ongoing employment of coaches from a tainted system, and we have got the head coach of RUSAF effectively refusing to sign their own pledge to clean athletics." The report also noted the case of whistleblower Andrei Dmitriev, who had fled Russia after being threatened with imprisonment. Coe said, "Anyone with information about a system which has failed to protect the goals and aspirations of clean athletes must feel it is safe to speak out." Andersen questioned the selection of Yelena Isinbayeva, who had called for whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova to be "banned for life", as the chair of RUSADA's supervisory board. Andersen stated, "It is difficult to see how this helps to to achieve the desired change in culture in track and field, or how it helps to promote an open environment for Russian whistleblowers", noting that Isinbayeva had called a WADA report "groundless" without reading it, publicly criticised whistleblowers (Dmitriev and the Stepanovs), and had not signed a pledge for clean sport or endorsed a Russian anti-doping group.
Although the IOC stated in July 2016 that it would ask sports federations to seek alternative hosts, Russia has retained hosting rights for some major international sports events, including the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2018 FIFA World Cup, and 2019 Winter Universiade. In September 2016, Russia was awarded hosting rights for the 2021 World Biathlon Championships because the IOC's recommendation did not apply to events that had already been awarded or planned bids from the country.
Olympic medalists Steven Holcomb, Matt Antoine, Martins Dukurs, and Lizzy Yarnold questioned the decision to hold the FIBT World Championships 2017 in Sochi, with boycotts considered by Austria, Latvia, and South Korea. Latvia's skeleton team confirmed that it would boycott if Sochi remained the host, saying that the "Olympic spirit was stolen in 2014." On 13 December 2016, the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation announced that it would relocate the event. Some athletes were concerned that they might unwittingly ingest a banned substance if the host tampered with food or drinks, while others "were worried about the evidence that Russian laboratories had been opening tamper-proof bottles. If they have opened these bottles to help their athletes, what is to stop them also opening them to tamper with samples from any athlete in the competition?"
Biathlon teams from the Czech Republic and Great Britain decided to boycott a 2016–17 Biathlon World Cup stage in Tyumen. On 22 December 2016, Russia announced it would not host the World Cup event or the 2017 Biathlon Junior World Championships in Ostrov. The same day, the International Skating Union decided to relocate a speed skating event, the 2016–17 ISU Speed Skating World Cup stage in Chelyabinsk, due to "a substantial amount of critical evidence and the uncertainty relating to the attendance of the athletes." Russia was later removed as host of the 2016–17 FIS Cross-Country World Cup final stage in Tyumen and 2021 World Biathlon Championships.
19 national anti-doping organisations recommended suspending Russia from participation in all sports. Russia was suspended from athletics, weightlifting, Paralympic sport competitions, but has continued its participation in other sports.
The IAAF permitted Russian athletes who have undergone testing by non-Russian agencies to compete as neutrals.
Russian doping has been featured in several documentaries broadcast in Germany, France, and the United States:
- Geheimsache Doping: Wie Russland seine Sieger macht (The Doping Secret: How Russia Creates Champions), ARD / Das Erste, aired 3 December 2014
- Geheimsache Doping. Im Schattenreich der Leichtathletik (The Doping Secret: The Shadowy World of Athletics), ARD / Das Erste, aired 1 August 2015
- Geheimsache Doping: Russlands Täuschungsmanöver (The Doping Secret: Russia's Red Herrings), ARD / Westdeutscher Rundfunk, aired 6 March 2016
- Russia's Dark Secret, 60 Minutes / CBS News, aired 8 May 2016
- Plus vite, plus haut, plus dopés (Faster, higher, more doped), Arte in partnership with Le Monde, aired 7 June 2016
Some athletes from other countries have criticised WADA, alleging that the agency has been reluctant to investigate Russia despite multiple tips over several years. WADA officials stated that the agency lacked the authority to carry out its own investigations until 2015. Arne Ljungqvist, WADA's former vice chairman, commented that "WADA always had an excuse as to why they wouldn't move forward. They expected Russia to clean up themselves." In June 2016, The Guardian reported that a letter approved by over twenty athletes' groups from multiple sports and countries as well as the chairs of the IOC's and WADA's athletes committees, Claudia Bokel and Beckie Scott, had been sent to IOC president Thomas Bach and WADA head Craig Reedie; the letter criticised the organisations for inaction and silence until the media became involved and said that athlete confidence in the anti-doping system had been "shattered".
On 18 July 2016, WADA's Athlete Committee stated, "Although we have known of the allegations, to read the report today, to see the weight of the evidence, and to see the scale of doping and deception is astounding." The athlete committee, the Institute of National Anti-Doping Organizations, and the leaders of anti-doping agencies in Austria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States called for Russia to be banned from the 2016 Olympics in Rio. After Bach delayed a decision on whether to ban the entire Russian team, IOC member Dick Pound said, "the IOC is for some reason very reluctant to think about a total exclusion of the Russian team. But we've got institutionalized, government-organised cheating on a wide scale across a whole range of sports in a country. You've got to keep from turning [zero tolerance] into: ‘We have zero tolerance except for Russia.'" Bruce Arthur of the Toronto Star said, "If the threshold Russia established is not high enough to merit a total ban from an Olympic Games, it's a remarkable precedent to set." Former IOC vice president, Kevan Gosper of Australia, said, "we have to be very careful [about making] the wrong move with an important country like Russia", to which Richard Hind of The Daily Telegraph (Australia) responded, "And there is the IOC in a nut shell. There are nations, and there are 'important nations'. Not everyone pees in the same specimen jar."
The IOC's decision on 24 July 2016 was criticised by some athletes and writers. It received support from the European Olympic Committees, which said that Russia is "a valued member". Cam Cole of Canada's National Post said that the IOC had "caved, as it always does, defaulting to whatever compromise it could safely adopt without offending a superpower." Expressing disappointment, a member of the IOC Athletes' Commission, Hayley Wickenheiser, wrote, "I ask myself if we were not dealing with Russia would this decision to ban a nation [have] been an easier one? I fear the answer is yes." Writing for Deutsche Welle in Germany, Olivia Gerstenberger said that Bach had "flunked" his first serious test, adding, "With this decision, the credibility of the organization is shattered once more, while that of state-sponsored doping actually receives a minor boost." Bild (Germany) described Bach as "Putin's poodle". Paul Hayward, chief sports writer of The Daily Telegraph (UK), remarked, "The white flag of capitulation flies over the International Olympic Committee. Russia's deep political reach should have told us this would happen."
Leaders of thirteen national anti-doping organisations wrote that the IOC had "violated the athletes' fundamental rights to participate in Games that meet the stringent requirements of the World Anti-Doping Code" and "[demonstrated that] it lacks the independence required to keep commercial and political interests from influencing the tough decisions necessary to protect clean sport." WADA's former chief investigation, Jack Robertson, said that the "The anti-doping code is now just suggestions to follow or not" and that "WADA handed the IOC that excuse [not enough time before the Olympics] by sitting on the allegations for close to a year." McLaren was dissatisfied with the IOC's handling of his report, saying "It was about state-sponsored doping and the mis-recording of doping results and they turned the focus into individual athletes and whether they should compete. [...] it was a complete turning upside down of what was in the report and passing over responsibility to all the different international federations."
Some Russians have called the allegations an anti-Russian plot while others consider that Russia was "just doing what the rest of the world does". Russian President Vladimir Putin said that Russia had "never supported any violations in sport, we have never supported it at the state level, and we will never support this" and that the allegations were part of an "anti-Russia policy" by the West. Aleksei Pushkov, chairman of Russia's parliamentary foreign affairs committee, said that the IAAF's decision to uphold its ban was "an act of political revenge against Russia for its independent foreign policy." A member of Russia's parliament, Vadim Dengin, stated, "The entire doping scandal is a pure falsification, invented to discredit and humiliate Russia." After the Court of Arbitration for Sport turned down an appeal by Russian athletes, pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva wrote, "Let all those pseudo clean foreign athletes breathe a sigh of relief and win their pseudo gold medals in our absence. They always did fear strength." The Ministry of Foreign Affairs called the ruling a "crime against sport". A poll by the Levada Center found that 14% of Russians believed that the country's athletes had doped in Sochi, 71% did not believe WADA's reports, and 15% decided not to answer.
A spokesman for Putin called Stepanova a "Judas". The Russian media have also criticised the Stepanovs. Yuliya Stepanova said, "All the news stories call me a traitor and not just traitor but a traitor to the Motherland." Vitaly Stepanov said, "I wasn't trying to expose Russia, I was trying to expose corrupt sports officials that are completely messing up competitions not just inside the country but globally." Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reported that the Russian media portrayed the German documentaries as "part of a Western conspiracy with the aim of weakening the great nation that Vladimir Putin lifted from its knees." Hajo Seppelt had the "impression that he and the Stepanovs were being styled as enemies of the state".
Dick Pound described Russia's response as "a bit like when you get stopped for speeding on the freeway by the police and you say 'why me? everyone else was doing it'." He stated that if Russia's authorities had "responded to their issues they could easily have enough time to sort everything out in time for Rio. But instead they played the role of victims, claiming there was a plot against them for too long." Leonid Bershidsky, a Russian writer for Bloomberg View, wrote that Russia's "officials need to understand that "whataboutism" doesn't avert investigations". The Moscow correspondent of Deutsche Welle, Juri Rescheto, wrote that the response he saw in Russia "shows that the country is living in a parallel universe" and seeks to blame others. Writing for The New York Times, Andrew E. Kramer said that Russia responded to the IAAF's decision against reinstatement with "victimhood" reflecting a "culture of grievances that revolves around perceived slights and anti-Russian conspiracies taking place in the outside world, particularly in Western countries". The newspaper's editorial board also saw a "narrative of victimization" in Russia, and wrote that it resembled how the Soviet Union would respond to a punishment – by saying that it was "politically motivated, always a provocation, never justified. [Even] though the Cold War is long over, President Vladimir Putin remains stuck in the same, snarling defensive crouch in his responses to any accusations of Russian foul play". Andrew Osborn of Reuters wrote that the Russian government had "deftly deflected the blame by passing it off as a Western Cold War-style plot to sabotage Russia's international comeback." In response to Russia's opinion that the allegations were "politically motivated", WADA's former chief investigator, Jack Robertson, said that he saw politics "when Craig Reedie tried to intervene by writing emails to the Russian ministry to console them."
Match TV said that Americans had orchestrated the doping scandal and modern pentathlon champion Aleksander Lesun called it an unfair "attack" because "Doping is in all countries and there are violators everywhere." Following the IOC's announcement on 24 July 2016, Russian sports minister Vitaly Mutko said it was "a just and fair decision and we hope every federation will take the same kind of decision. Doping is a worldwide evil, not only of Russia." The Russian media's reaction was "nearly euphoric at points."
A reporter from Russian state-owned television told IOC President Thomas Bach that "It looked like you personally were helping us" and asked whether the doping investigation was a "political attack" on Russian athletes. After Russian athletes said that McLaren was about "politics" rather than sport, the British biathlon association stated that their comments were "brain-washed, deluded and dishonest" and decided to boycott an event in Russia. Russia's Deputy Prime Minister Vitaly Mutko said that athletes should be "punished" for calls to boycott.
WADA publishes annual summaries of anti-doping rule violations (ADRV). Russia ranked first in the world for ADRVs during 2013, 2014, and 2015. WADA's 2016 report is not yet published.
|Year||Russian ADRV||Total world ADRV||Russian proportion||Russian rank||As of|
|2013||225||1953||11.5%||1||15 May 2015|
|2014||148||1647||9%||1||21 February 2016|
|2015||176||1901||9.3%||1||31 January 2017|
Stripped Olympic medalsEdit
Due to doping violations, Russia has been stripped of 36 Olympic medals – the most of any country and triple the number for the second nation. It was the leading country in terms of the number of medals removed due to doping at the 2002 Winter Olympics (5 medals), the 2008 Summer Olympics (14 medals), and the 2012 Summer Olympics (13 medals).
- "Electronic Documentary Package of the IP Professor Richard H. McLaren, O.C.". December 2016.
- "McLaren Independent Investigation Report into Sochi Allegations - Part II". World Anti-Doping Agency. 9 December 2016.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (9 December 2016). "Russia's Doping Program Laid Bare by Extensive Evidence in Report". The New York Times.
- Ostlere, Lawrence (9 December 2016). "McLaren report: more than 1,000 Russian athletes involved in doping conspiracy". The Guardian.
- "Update on the status of Russia testing" (PDF). WADA. 15 June 2016.
- "McLaren Independent Investigations Report into Sochi Allegations". WADA. 18 July 2016.
- "WADA Statement: Independent Investigation confirms Russian State manipulation of the doping control process". WADA. 18 July 2016.
- "Decision of the IOC Executive Board concerning the participation of Russian athletes in the Olympic Games Rio 2016". IOC. 24 July 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "IOC sets up 3-person panel to rule on Russian entries". San Diego Tribune. Archived from the original on 2016-07-31. Retrieved 2016-07-31.
- "Rio 2016: 270 Russians cleared to compete at Olympic Games". BBC. Archived from the original on 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2016-08-04.
- "The IPC suspends the Russian Paralympic Committee with immediate effect". International Paralympic Committee. 7 August 2016.
- Winters, Max (25 February 2017). "WADA confirms McLaren evidence may not be sufficient to sanction some Russian athletes". Inside the Games.
- Hunt, Thomas M. (2011). Drug Games: The International Olympic Committee and the Politics of Doping. University of Texas Press. p. 66. ISBN 0292739575.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (13 August 2016). "The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to '84 Olympics". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Macur, Juliet; Austen, Ian (15 June 2016). "Even With Confession of Cheating, World's Doping Watchdog Did Nothing". The New York Times.
- Sottas, PE; Robinson, N; Fischetto, G; Dollé, G; Alonso, JM; Saugy, M (May 2011). "Prevalence of Blood Doping in Samples Collected From Elite Track and Field Athletes". Clin Chem. 57: 762–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2010.156067. PMID 21427381.
- Leicester, John (12 January 2016). "IAAF knew of Russians' rampant doping years before ban: report". Associated Press. CBC Sports.
- Schwartz, Daniel (13 January 2016). "Whistleblowers Yuliya and Vitaly Stepanov describe Russia's sports doping system". CBC News.
- Cherry, Gene (10 May 2016). "Whistleblower nearly aborted efforts to expose Russian doping". Reuters.
- Pells, Eddie (8 May 2016). "60 Minutes: WADA received 200 emails from whistleblower about Russian doping scandal". Associated Press. CBC News.
- Harris, Nick (25 July 2016). "The story behind the story of Russia, doping and the I.O.C". Sporting Intelligence.
- Epstein, David (4 August 2016). "On Eve of Olympics, Top Investigator Details Secret Efforts to Undermine Russian Doping Probe". ProPublica.
- Olterman, Philip (3 December 2014). "Russia accused of athletics doping cover-up on German TV". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "ARD-Dokumentation deckt Doping und Vertuschungsapparat in Russland auf" [ARD documentary on doping in Russia] (in German). Westdeutscher Rundfunk. 3 December 2014.
- "English script of the ARD-documentary "Top-secret Doping: How Russia makes its Winners"" (PDF). Das Erste. Westdeutscher Rundfunk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 November 2015.
- "Russian doping claims: 99% of athletes guilty, German TV alleges". BBC News. 4 December 2014.
- "Russian Olympic champion Savinova stripped of gold, banned". Associated Press. Yahoo News. 10 February 2017. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017.
- "IAAF investigating Russian Olympic gold medallist Elena Lashmanova". The Guardian.
- "Independent Commission – Report 1". World Anti-Doping Agency. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Ban All Russian Track Athletes: World Anti-Doping Agency Panel". NBC. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Gibson, Owen (9 November 2015). "Russia accused of 'state-sponsored doping' as Wada calls for athletics ban". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Athletics doping: Wada commission recommends Russia suspension". BBC. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "WADA suspends Moscow anti-doping laboratory". Deutsche Welle. 10 November 2015.
- "IAAF provisionally suspends Russian Member Federation ARAF". IAAF. 13 November 2015.
- "Russia accepts full, indefinite ban from world athletics over doping scandal". The Guardian. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "Athletics doping: IAAF names team to inspect Russian reforms". BBC. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Faloyin, Dipo (19 November 2015). "WADA Suspends Russia's Anti-Doping Agency". Newsweek. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Ingle, Sean (18 November 2015). "Russian Anti-Doping Agency suspended by Wada for non-compliance". Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Prosecutors: Former IAAF president Diack under investigation". Associated Press. Sports Illustrated. 4 November 2015.
- Phillips, Mitch (7 January 2016). "Former top officials get life bans for doping blackmail". Reuters.
- "The Independent Commission Report #2" (PDF). WADA. 14 January 2016.
- "IAAF freezing nationality switches, upholding Russia ban". Associated Press. Yahoo News. 6 February 2017.
- Ellingworth, James (21 February 2016). "Nikita Kamaev, leading Russian anti-doping official, was planning on writing a book before sudden death". Associated Press. CBC News.
- "Late Russian anti-doping agency boss was set to expose true story: report". Reuters. 21 February 2016.
- "WADA dismayed by latest doping allegations in Russian athletics". WADA. 7 March 2016.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Schwirtz, Michael (12 May 2016). "Russian Insider Says State-Run Doping Fueled Olympic Gold". The New York Times.
- "WADA Names Richard McLaren to Sochi Investigation Team". WADA. 19 May 2016.
- "Doping: TV revelations cast further doubt on Russia's Olympic participation". Deutsche Welle. 6 June 2016.
- "IAAF: Nick Davies one of three officials provisionally suspended in ethics case". BBC News. 10 June 2016.
- Roan, Dan; Nathanson, Patrick (22 December 2015). "Athletics doping crisis: Secret plan to delay naming Russian cheats". BBC News.
- Pells, Eddie (16 June 2016). "Anti-doping leader has no sympathy for unhelpful Russians". Associated Press.
- "'RusAF has not met reinstatement conditions' – IAAF Council Meeting, Vienna". IAAF. 17 June 2016.
- Trevelyan, Mark; Stubbs, Jack (17 June 2016). "IAAF votes to keep Russia banned, Rio participation in balance". Reuters.
- "Rio 2016: Russia, Kazakhstan & Belarus weightlifting teams face doping ban". BBC News. 23 June 2016.
- "Court of Arbitration for Sports – Media Release: 18 cases registered – Status as of 3 August 2016" (PDF). Court of Arbitration for Sports. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (18 July 2016). "Russia May Face Olympics Ban as Doping Scheme Is Confirmed". The New York Times.
- "McLaren/WADA investigation of Sochi 2014 allegations". Berlinger. 18 July 2016.
- "Statement of the Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee on the WADA Independent Person Report". International Olympic Committee. 19 July 2016.
- . helsinkitimes.fi (19 July 2016). Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- "ATHLETICS - CAS rejects the claims/appeal of the Russian Olympic Committee and 68 Russian athletes" (PDF). Court of Arbitration for Sport. 21 July 2016.
- "The IPC opens suspension proceedings against NPC Russia". International Paralympic Committee. 22 July 2016. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016.
- "Decision of the IOC Executive Board concerning the participation of Russian athletes in the Olympic Games Rio 2016". International Olympic Committee. 24 July 2016.
- "WADA acknowledges IOC decision on Russia, stands by Agency's Executive Committee recommendations". WADA. 24 July 2016.
- "Rio 2016: IOC panel to have final say on Russian athletes' participation". BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- "IOC confirm 278 Russian athletes are eligible to compete at Rio". 2016-07-09. Archived from the original on 2016-08-09. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
- "Russian athletes participating in Rio Olympic Game by federation". Europe Online Magazine. Archived from the original on 2016-08-09. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
- Craven, Philip (7 August 2016). "The IPC decision on the membership status of the Russian Paralympic Committee". International Paralympic Committee.
- Nicholson, Todd (7 August 2016). "The IPC decision on the membership status of the Russian Paralympic Committee". International Paralympic Committee.
- "CAS dismisses the appeal filed by the Russian Paralympic Committee" (PDF). Court of Arbitration for Sport. 23 August 2016.
- "Swiss court holds firm on Russian paralympic athletes' Rio ban". Reuters. 31 August 2016.
- "German court rejects 10 Russian athletes' Paralympic bid". Associated Press. 5 September 2016.
- Bentsen, Anders Rove; Rognerud, Anne (1 September 2016). "Wada til NRK: Russland prøver å hacke oss hver dag" [WADA tells NRK: Russia trying to hack us every day]. NRK (in Norwegian).
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (19 October 2016). "Russia Sports Minister Promoted to Deputy Prime Minister". The New York Times.
- "Russia approves anti-doping law targeting coaches". 2016-11-03.
- "New design for doping sample bottles after Russian scandal". Associated Press. 13 December 2016. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016.
- "Isinbayeva to oversee Russian anti-doping agency". The Associated Press. CTV News. 7 December 2016.
- Ellingworth, James (13 December 2016). "Emails show how Russian officials covered up mass doping". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016.
- Ellingworth, James (7 February 2017). "Russia picks fight over doping after IAAF ban extended". Associated Press. Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017.
- "A letter of Christophe De Kepper, director-general and member of the executive board of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to IOC" (PDF). Site of THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE. THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Andersen, Rune (8 April 2017). "IAAF Taskforce: Interim report to IAAF Council, 12‐13 April 2017" (PDF). International Association of Athletics Federations.
- Harris, Rob (13 April 2017). "IAAF: Little progress by Russia to secure athletics return". Associated Press. Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017.
- "'A great sport, our athletes and what they do is compelling'". International Association of Athletics Federations. 13 April 2017.
- "The Latest: IOC VP: ruling was 'justice for clean athletes'". Associated Press. 24 July 2016.
- Morgan, Liam (6 September 2016). "Exclusive: International Biathlon Union vice-president claims credibility of IOC undermined after Russia awarded 2021 World Championships". Inside the Games.
- Reynolds, Tim (13 December 2016). "Bobsled, skeleton officials moving worlds out of Russia". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016.
- Reynolds, Tim (11 December 2016). "Latvia's skeleton team to boycott worlds in Sochi over Russian doping scandal". Associated Press. CTV News.
- "Sochi loses right to host bobsleigh & skeleton World Championships". BBC News. 13 December 2016.
- Butler, Nick (21 December 2016). "Pressure growing on IBU to strip events from Russia as Czech Republic and Britain lead boycott calls". Inside the Games.
- "Russia loses sporting events as federations act on doping storm". Agence France-Presse. Yahoo News. 22 December 2016.
- "ISU Statement McLaren Report follow-up relocation of ISU World Cup Speed Skating - Chelyabinsk RUS". International Skating Union. 22 December 2016.
- IOC investigates 28 Russian athletes over Sochi samples
- "IBU Press Release: Extraordinary IBU Executive Board Meeting - International Biathlon Union - IBU - International Biathlon Union - IBU".
- "IOC investigates 28 Russian athletes over Sochi samples".
- "With one year until 2018 Winter Games, Russia's status murky". 2017-02-09.
- "Russia might be barred from the 2018 Paralympic Games". 2017-02-01.
- "Neue Doping-Vorwürfe gegen Russland und Kenia". Die Welt (in German). 1 August 2015.
- "Doping: top secret – Russia's red herrings". Sportschau. 6 March 2016.
- Keteyian, Armen (8 May 2016). "Russian doping at Sochi Winter Olympics exposed". 60 Minutes. CBS News.
- Guillou, Clément (2 June 2016). "Lanceurs d'alerte olympique, plongée documentaire dans les coulisses du dopage" [Olympic whistleblowers, documentary explores behind the scenes of doping]. Le Monde (in French).
- Gibson, Owen (1 June 2016). "New doping report will influence decision on Russia's place at Olympics". The Guardian.
- Ingle, Sean (14 June 2016). "Athletes 'have lost faith' in IOC and Wada over Russia failures". The Guardian.
- "WADA Athlete Committee Statement on the McLaren Report". WADA Athlete Committee. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-07-23.
- "iNADO calls for Ban of the Russian Delegations from the Rio Olympics and Paralympics" (PDF). Institute of National Anti-Doping Organizations. 20 July 2016.
- Brennan, Christine (20 July 2016). "Anti-doping leaders call on IOC to ban Russia immediately from Rio Olympics". USA Today.
- Ingle, Sean (20 July 2016). "Dick Pound fears IOC reluctant to ban entire Russia team from Olympics". The Guardian.
- Arthur, Bruce (23 July 2016). "Russian doping scandal has IOC wandering into uncharted territory". Toronto Star.
- Hinds, Richard (23 July 2016). "Banning Russia from Rio won't mark success in the war on doping, it will just highlight previous failings". The Daily Telegraph (Australia).
- "Olympics: No blanket ban for Russia -- who's saying what". Agence France-Presse. Global Post. 24 July 2016.
- "Rio Olympics 2016: Wada criticises IOC for failing to ban Russian team". BBC News. 24 July 2016.
- "Canadian athletes critical of IOC decision". The Canadian Press. The Hamilton Spectator. 24 July 2016.
- Ingle, Sean (24 July 2016). "Greg Rutherford calls IOC decision over Russia team for Rio 'spineless'". The Guardian.
- "British Olympians slam 'spineless IOC' over Russia". Agence France-Presse. Yahoo Sports. 25 July 2016.
- Hayward, Paul (25 July 2016). "International Olympic Committee's dereliction of duty over Russia weakens bond between spectator and spectacle". The Daily Telegraph.
- Gibson, Owen (24 July 2016). "IOC chooses obfuscation and chaos on Russia competing at Olympics". The Guardian.
- Macur, Juliet (26 July 2016). "Russia Decision Muddies Legacy of I.O.C. President Thomas Bach". The New York Times.
- Armour, Nancy (24 July 2016). "IOC's decision on Russia a copout". USA Today.
- Cole, Cam (24 July 2016). "IOC abdicates its responsibility in Russian doping case on the wings of money and mythology". National Post.
- Hines, Nico (24 July 2016). "Spineless IOC Surrenders Olympic Integrity to Russia Forever". The Daily Beast.
- Gerstenberger, Olivia (24 July 2016). "Opinion: A non-decision from the IOC". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 2016-07-25.
- National Anti-Doping Organisations of Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, US (31 July 2016). "Russian doping scandal: 'When it mattered most, the IOC failed to lead'". The Guardian.
- Kelso, Paul (16 September 2016). "Investigator who exposed Russian doping hits out at IOC". Sky News.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (21 July 2016). "A Doping Scandal Appears Unlikely to Tarnish Russia's President". The New York Times.
- Bershidsky, Leonid (10 November 2015). "Doping Shows Russia Is Rotten, But Not Hopeless". Bloomberg View.
- Grohmann, Karolos; Stubbs, Jack (14 August 2016). "Russia athletics suffers final disgrace as last competitor barred". Reuters.
- Ferguson, Kate (18 June 2016). "Vladimir Putin insists 'Russia does not support doping'". The Scotsman.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (17 June 2016). "Olympic Ban Adds to Russia's Culture of Grievances". The New York Times.
- Nemtsova, Anna (17 June 2016). "Russia: America and the West 'Invented' Olympic Doping Scandal to 'Humiliate' Us". The Daily Beast.
- McGowan, Tom; Sinnott, John (21 July 2016). "Russia Olympic ban: Six questions answered". CNN.
- "Rio Olympics 2016: Russia fails to overturn athlete ban for next month's Games". BBC News. 21 July 2016.
- "Most Russians Unconvinced by WADA Doping Reports – Poll". The Moscow Times. 29 July 2016.
- "IAAF Taskforce: Interim report to IAAF Council, 17 June 2016" (PDF). IAAF. 17 June 2016.
- Schmidt, Friedrich; Hanfeld, Michael (11 June 2016). "Stell dir vor, das russische Staatsfernsehen kommt" [When Russian TV shows up]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German).
- Majendie, Matt (16 June 2016). "Dick Pound warns of chaos if IOC overrule IAAF over Russia's bid for Olympic Games". London Evening Standard.
- Rescheto, Juri (9 June 2016). "Opinion: Russia's parallel universe". Deutsche Welle.
- "Russia Blames Others for Its Doping Woes". The New York Times. 29 August 2016.
- Osborn, Andrew (22 July 2016). "Doping scandal rocks Russian sport but Putin's ratings look safe". Reuters.
- Luhn, Alec (24 July 2016). "Russia greets IOC decision on Rio Games with relief and jubilation". The Guardian.
- "US doping chief says IOC have left a 'confusing mess'". RTÉ. 24 July 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-07-25.
- Powell, Michael (4 August 2016). "I.O.C. Chief Thomas Bach Supports a Peculiar Form of Justice on Doping". The New York Times.
- "GBR Lead Boycott of WC 8 in Tyumen RUS". British Biathlon. 21 December 2016.
- "2013 Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) Report" (PDF). World Anti-Doping Agency. 26 June 2015. p. 63.
- "2014 Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) Report" (PDF). World Anti-Doping Agency. 4 May 2016. p. 55.
- "2015 Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) Report" (PDF). World Anti-Doping Agency. 3 April 2017. p. 58.
- Associated Press (February 24, 2002). "Muehlegg, Lazutina test positive, stripped of golds". ESPN.com.
- "Drugs test denies Lazutina gold". BBC News. February 24, 2002.
- "Lazutina loses Olympic medals". BBC News. June 29, 2003.
- "Shot-put champion will lose gold". CNN. August 22, 2004.
- "Four Athens competitors stripped of medals". Al Jazeera. December 5, 2012.
- "Russian weightlifter, Oleg Perepetchenov, stripped of Athens bronze medal". Reuters. February 12, 2013.
- Associated Press (February 16, 2006). "Russian Woman Stripped of Biathlon Medal". NBCSports.com.
- "IOC sanctions three athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008". International Olympic Committee. 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
- "IOC sanctions six athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008". International Olympic Committee. 2016-08-31. Retrieved 2016-08-31.
- "IOC sanctions four athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008 and London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2016-09-13.
- "9 Olympians, including 6 medallists, caught for Beijing doping". cbc.ca. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- "IOC sanctions nine athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008". International Olympic Committee. 2016-10-26. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "Russian Chicherova stripped of 2008 Olympics high jump medal". reuters.com. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "IOC sanctions 16 athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008". International Olympic Committee. 2016-11-17. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
- IOC sanctions two athletes for failing anti-doping test at Beijing 2008
- "The decisions of the Lausanne (Switzerland) Court of Arbitration for Sport regarding the Russian Athletes". 2016-03-16.
- "IOC sanctions 12 athletes for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 2016-11-21. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
- 50km walk men results – Athletics – London 2012 Olympics
- Sean, Ingle (November 29, 2016). "Jessica Ennis-Hill in line for 2011 gold as Chernova is stripped of world title". The Guardian.
- "Russia's Pishchalnikova given 10-year doping ban". Reuters. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- "IOC sanctions Evgeniia Kolodko for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". olympic.org. 20 August 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- 20km walk women results – Athletics – London 2012 Olympics
- "IOC sanctions two athletes for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
- "IOC sanctions three athletes for failing anti-doping tests at london 2012". International Olympic Committee. 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
- "CAS to strip Olympic medals from Russian boxer, Romanian weightlifter". espn.com. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.