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List of Nobel laureates

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Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, €0.87 million).
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.[2]

Contents

Prize

Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. In 2017, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 9,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize.[6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II.[7]

Laureates

Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations.[8] Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other.[9] UNHCR has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen twice, and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.[10] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911.[9]

List of laureates

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics
1901 Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy
1902 Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat
1903 Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer
1904 Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905 Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner
1906 J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault
1908 Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer
1909 Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau
1911 Wilhelm Wien Marie Skłodowska-Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried
1912 Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine
1914 Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány None None
1915 William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter None Romain Rolland None
1916 None None None Verner von Heidenstam None
1917 Charles Glover Barkla None None Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Max Planck Fritz Haber None None None
1919 Johannes Stark None Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois
1921 Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy None Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange
1922 Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats None
1924 Manne Siegbahn None Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont None
1925 James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy None George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann
1927 Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde
1928 Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset None
1929 Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg
1930 C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom
1931 None Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler
1932 Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy None
1933 Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac
None Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell
1934 None Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson
1935 James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann None Carl von Ossietzky
1936 Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O'Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940 None None None None None
1941 None None None None None
1942 None None None None None
1943 Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy
None None
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott
1947 Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot None[B]
1949 Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr
1950 C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche
1951 John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux
1952 Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer
1953 Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall
1954 Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness None
1956 John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson
1958 Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire
1959 Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker
1960 Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli
1961 Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld
1962 Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling
1963 Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs
None
1967 Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin
1969 Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen
1970 Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn  Norman Borlaug  Paul Samuelson 
1971 Dennis Gabor  Gerhard Herzberg  Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr.  Pablo Neruda  Willy Brandt  Simon Kuznets 
1972 John Bardeen; 
Leon Cooper; 
John Robert Schrieffer 
Christian B. Anfinsen; 
Stanford Moore; 
William Howard Stein  
Gerald Edelman; 
Rodney Robert Porter 
Heinrich Böll  None John Hicks; 
Kenneth Arrow 
1973 Leo Esaki; 
Ivar Giaever; 
Brian David Josephson 
Ernst Otto Fischer; 
Geoffrey Wilkinson 
Karl von Frisch; 
Konrad Lorenz; 
Nikolaas Tinbergen 
Patrick White  Henry Kissinger; 
Le Duc Tho[E] 
Wassily Leontief 
1974 Martin Ryle; 
Antony Hewish 
Paul Flory  Albert Claude; 
Christian de Duve; 
George Emil Palade 
Eyvind Johnson; 
Harry Martinson 
Seán MacBride; 
Eisaku Satō 
Gunnar Myrdal; 
Friedrich Hayek 
1975 Aage Bohr; 
Ben Roy Mottelson; 
James Rainwater 
John Cornforth; 
Vladimir Prelog 
David Baltimore; 
Renato Dulbecco; 
Howard Martin Temin 
Eugenio Montale  Andrei Sakharov  Leonid Kantorovich; 
Tjalling Koopmans 
1976 Burton Richter; 
Samuel C. C. Ting 
William Lipscomb  Baruch Samuel Blumberg; 
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek 
Saul Bellow  Betty Williams; 
Mairead Maguire 
Milton Friedman 
1977 Philip Warren Anderson; 
Nevill Francis Mott; 
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck 
Ilya Prigogine  Roger Guillemin; 
Andrew Schally; 
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 
Vicente Aleixandre  Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin; 
James Meade 
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa; 
Arno Allan Penzias; 
Robert Woodrow Wilson 
Peter D. Mitchell  Werner Arber; 
Daniel Nathans; 
Hamilton O. Smith 
Isaac Bashevis Singer  Anwar Sadat; 
Menachem Begin 
Herbert A. Simon 
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow; 
Abdus Salam; 
Steven Weinberg 
Herbert C. Brown; 
Georg Wittig 
Allan McLeod Cormack; 
Godfrey Hounsfield 
Odysseas Elytis  Mother Teresa  Theodore Schultz; 
Arthur Lewis 
1980 James Cronin; 
Val Logsdon Fitch 
Paul Berg; 
Walter Gilbert; 
Frederick Sanger 
Baruj Benacerraf; 
Jean Dausset; 
George Davis Snell 
Czesław Miłosz  Adolfo Pérez Esquivel  Lawrence Klein 
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen 
Arthur Leonard Schawlow 
Kai Siegbahn 
Kenichi Fukui 
Roald Hoffmann 
Roger Wolcott Sperry 
David H. Hubel 
Torsten Wiesel 
Elias Canetti  United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin 
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson  Aaron Klug  Sune Bergström 
Bengt I. Samuelsson 
John Vane 
Gabriel García Márquez  Alva Myrdal 
Alfonso García Robles 
George Stigler 
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 
William Alfred Fowler 
Henry Taube  Barbara McClintock  William Golding  Lech Wałęsa  Gérard Debreu 
1984 Carlo Rubbia 
Simon van der Meer 
Robert Bruce Merrifield  Niels Kaj Jerne 
Georges J. F. Köhler 
César Milstein 
Jaroslav Seifert  Desmond Tutu  Richard Stone 
1985 Klaus von Klitzing  Herbert A. Hauptman 
Jerome Karle 
Michael Stuart Brown 
Joseph L. Goldstein 
Claude Simon  International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani 
1986 Ernst Ruska 
Gerd Binnig 
Heinrich Rohrer 
Dudley R. Herschbach 
Yuan T. Lee 
John Polanyi 
Stanley Cohen 
Rita Levi-Montalcini 
Wole Soyinka  Elie Wiesel  James M. Buchanan 
1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz 
Karl Alexander Müller 
Donald J. Cram 
Jean-Marie Lehn 
Charles J. Pedersen 
Susumu Tonegawa  Joseph Brodsky  Óscar Arias  Robert Solow 
1988 Leon M. Lederman 
Melvin Schwartz 
Jack Steinberger 
Johann Deisenhofer 
Robert Huber 
Hartmut Michel 
James W. Black 
Gertrude B. Elion 
George H. Hitchings 
Naguib Mahfouz  United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces  Maurice Allais 
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. 
Hans Georg Dehmelt 
Wolfgang Paul 
Sidney Altman 
Thomas Cech 
J. Michael Bishop 
Harold E. Varmus 
Camilo José Cela  Tenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama)  Trygve Haavelmo 
1990 Jerome Isaac Friedman 
Henry Way Kendall 
Richard E. Taylor 
Elias James Corey  Joseph Murray 
E. Donnall Thomas 
Octavio Paz  Mikhail Gorbachev  Harry Markowitz 
Merton Miller 
William F. Sharpe 
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes  Richard R. Ernst  Erwin Neher 
Bert Sakmann 
Nadine Gordimer  Aung San Suu Kyi  Ronald Coase 
1992 Georges Charpak  Rudolph A. Marcus  Edmond H. Fischer 
Edwin G. Krebs 
Derek Walcott  Rigoberta Menchú  Gary Becker 
1993 Russell Alan Hulse 
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. 
Kary Mullis 
Michael Smith 
Richard J. Roberts 
Phillip Allen Sharp 
Toni Morrison  Nelson Mandela 
F. W. de Klerk 
Robert Fogel 
Douglass North 
1994 Bertram Brockhouse 
Clifford Shull 
George Andrew Olah  Alfred G. Gilman 
Martin Rodbell 
Kenzaburō Ōe  Yasser Arafat 
Shimon Peres 
Yitzhak Rabin 
John Harsanyi 
John Forbes Nash, Jr. 
Reinhard Selten 
1995 Martin Lewis Perl 
Frederick Reines 
Paul J. Crutzen 
Mario J. Molina 
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis 
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard 
Eric F. Wieschaus 
Seamus Heaney  Joseph Rotblat 
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr. 
1996 David Lee 
Douglas Osheroff 
Robert Coleman Richardson 
Robert F. Curl Jr. 
Harry Kroto 
Richard Smalley 
Peter C. Doherty 
Rolf M. Zinkernagel 
Wisława Szymborska  Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo 
José Ramos-Horta 
James Mirrlees 
William Vickrey 
1997 Steven Chu  
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji  
William Daniel Phillips  
Paul D. Boyer  
John E. Walker  
Jens Christian Skou  
Stanley B. Prusiner   Dario Fo   International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams  
Robert C. Merton  
Myron Scholes    
1998 Robert B. Laughlin  
Horst Ludwig Störmer  
Daniel C. Tsui  
Walter Kohn  
John Pople  
Robert F. Furchgott  
Louis Ignarro  
Ferid Murad  
José Saramago   John Hume  
David Trimble  
Amartya Sen  
1999 Gerard 't Hooft  
Martinus J. G. Veltman  
Ahmed Zewail     Günter Blobel     Günter Grass   Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell  
2000 Zhores Alferov  
Herbert Kroemer    
Jack Kilby  
Alan J. Heeger  
Alan MacDiarmid    
Hideki Shirakawa  
Arvid Carlsson  
Paul Greengard  
Eric Kandel  
Gao Xingjian   Kim Dae-jung   James Heckman  
Daniel McFadden  
2001 Eric Allin Cornell  
Wolfgang Ketterle  
Carl Wieman  
William Standish Knowles  
Ryōji Noyori  
Karl Barry Sharpless  
Leland H. Hartwell  
Tim Hunt  
Paul Nurse  
V. S. Naipaul   United Nations  
Kofi Annan  
George Akerlof  
Michael Spence  
Joseph Stiglitz  
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr.  
Masatoshi Koshiba  
Riccardo Giacconi  
John Fenn  
Koichi Tanaka  
Kurt Wüthrich  
Sydney Brenner  
H. Robert Horvitz  
John Sulston  
Imre Kertész   Jimmy Carter   Daniel Kahneman  
Vernon L. Smith  
2003 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov  
Vitaly Ginzburg  
Anthony James Leggett  
Peter Agre  
Roderick MacKinnon  
Paul Lauterbur  
Peter Mansfield  
J. M. Coetzee   Shirin Ebadi   Robert F. Engle  
Clive Granger  
2004 David Gross  
Hugh David Politzer  
Frank Wilczek  
Aaron Ciechanover  
Avram Hershko  
Irwin Rose  
Richard Axel  
Linda B. Buck  
Elfriede Jelinek   Wangari Maathai   Finn E. Kydland  
Edward C. Prescott  
2005 Roy J. Glauber  
John L. Hall  
Theodor W. Hänsch  
Yves Chauvin  
Robert H. Grubbs  
Richard R. Schrock  
Barry Marshall  
Robin Warren  
Harold Pinter   International Atomic Energy Agency
Mohamed ElBaradei  
Robert Aumann  
Thomas Schelling  
2006 John C. Mather  
George Smoot  
Roger D. Kornberg   Andrew Fire  
Craig Mello  
Orhan Pamuk   Muhammad Yunus  
Grameen Bank  
Edmund Phelps  
2007 Albert Fert  
Peter Grünberg  
Gerhard Ertl   Mario Capecchi  
Martin Evans  
Oliver Smithies  
Doris Lessing   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  
Al Gore  
Leonid Hurwicz  
Eric Maskin  
Roger Myerson  
2008 Yoichiro Nambu  
Makoto Kobayashi  
Toshihide Maskawa  
Osamu Shimomura  
Martin Chalfie  
Roger Y. Tsien  
Harald zur Hausen  
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi  
Luc Montagnier  
J. M. G. Le Clézio   Martti Ahtisaari   Paul Krugman  
2009 Charles K. Kao  
Willard S. Boyle  
George E. Smith  
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan  
Thomas A. Steitz  
Ada Yonath  
Elizabeth Blackburn  
Carol W. Greider  
Jack W. Szostak  
Herta Müller   Barack Obama   Elinor Ostrom  
Oliver E. Williamson  
2010 Andre Geim  
Konstantin Novoselov  
Richard F. Heck  
Ei-ichi Negishi  
Akira Suzuki  
Robert G. Edwards   Mario Vargas Llosa   Liu Xiaobo[F]   Peter A. Diamond  
Dale T. Mortensen  
Christopher A. Pissarides  
2011 Saul Perlmutter  
Adam G. Riess  
Brian Schmidt  
Dan Shechtman   Bruce Beutler  
Jules A. Hoffmann  
Ralph M. Steinman  
Tomas Tranströmer   Ellen Johnson Sirleaf  
Leymah Gbowee  
Tawakel Karman  
Thomas J. Sargent  
Christopher A. Sims  
2012 Serge Haroche  
David J. Wineland  
Brian K. Kobilka  
Robert J. Lefkowitz  
John B. Gurdon  
Shinya Yamanaka  
Mo Yan   European Union   Alvin E. Roth  
Lloyd S. Shapley  
2013 François Englert  
Peter W. Higgs  
Martin Karplus  
Michael Levitt  
Arieh Warshel  
James E. Rothman  
Randy W. Schekman  
Thomas C. Südhof  
Alice Munro   Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Eugene F. Fama  
Lars Peter Hansen  
Robert J. Shiller  
2014 Isamu Akasaki  
Hiroshi Amano  
Shuji Nakamura  
Eric Betzig  
Stefan Hell  
William Moerner  
John O'Keefe  
May-Britt Moser  
Edvard Moser  
Patrick Modiano   Kailash Satyarthi  
Malala Yousafzai  
Jean Tirole  
2015 Takaaki Kajita  
Arthur B. McDonald  
Tomas Lindahl  
Paul L. Modrich  
Aziz Sancar  
William C. Campbell  
Satoshi Ōmura  
Tu Youyou  
Svetlana Alexievich   Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet   Angus Deaton  
2016[11] David J. Thouless  
Duncan Haldane  
John M. Kosterlitz  
Jean-Pierre Sauvage  
Fraser Stoddart  
Ben Feringa  
Yoshinori Ohsumi   Bob Dylan   Juan Manuel Santos   Oliver Hart  
Bengt R. Holmström  
2017 Rainer Weiss  
Barry Barish  
Kip Thorne  
Jacques Dubochet  
Joachim Frank  
Richard Henderson  
Jeffrey C. Hall  
Michael Rosbash  
Michael W. Young  
Kazuo Ishiguro   International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Richard Thaler  
2018 Arthur Ashkin  
Gérard Mourou  
Donna Strickland  
Frances H. Arnold  
George P. Smith  
Greg Winter  
James P. Allison  
Tasuku Honjo  
None (postponed) Denis Mukwege  
Nadia Murad  
William Nordhaus  
Paul Romer  
Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics

Notes

  • A In 1938 and 1939, the government of Germany did not allow three German Nobel nominees to accept their Nobel Prizes. The three were Richard Kuhn, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1938; Adolf Butenandt, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1939; and Gerhard Domagk, Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 1939. They were later awarded the Nobel Prize diploma and medal, but not the money.[9]
  • B In 1948, the Nobel Prize in Peace was not awarded. The Nobel Foundation's website suggests that it would have been awarded to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, however, due to his assassination earlier that year, it was left unassigned in his honor.[12]
  • C In 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak, under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union, was forced to decline the Nobel Prize in Literature.[9]
  • D In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre refused to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past.[9]
  • E In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize. His reason was that he felt he did not deserve it because although he helped negotiate the Paris Peace Accords (a cease-fire in the Vietnam War), there had been no actual peace agreement.[7][9]
  • F In 2010, Liu Xiaobo was unable to receive the Nobel Peace Prize as he was sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment by the Chinese authorities.[13]

See also

References

General
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Physics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Medicine". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Literature". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Peace Prize Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Laureates in Economics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
Specific
  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  2. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-06-15. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  6. ^ "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
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