Open main menu

List of Nobel laureates in Literature

Horace Engdahl, the former permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, announcing that Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually by the Swedish Academy to authors for outstanding contributions in the field of literature. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Swedish Academy.[2] The first Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded in 1901 to Sully Prudhomme of France.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4] In 1901, Prudhomme received 150,782 SEK, which is equivalent to 8,823,637.78 SEK in January 2018. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

As of 2017, the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to 114 individuals.[6] When he received the award in 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak was forced to publicly reject the award under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre made known that he did not wish to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature,[7] as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past.[8] However the Nobel committee does not acknowledge refusals, and includes Pasternak and Sartre in its list of Nobel laureates.[9]

Fourteen women have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, more than any other Nobel Prize with the exception of the Nobel Peace Prize.[10][11] There have been four instances in which the award was given to two people (1904, 1917, 1966, 1974). There have been eight years in which the Nobel Prize in Literature was not awarded (1914, 1918, 1935, 1940–1943, 2018[12]).[6] The country with the most recipients of the Nobel Prize in Literature is France with 16, followed by the United States with 12 and the United Kingdom with 11.



Year Picture Laureate Country Language(s) Citation Genre(s)
1901   Sully Prudhomme   France French "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"[13] poetry, essay
1902   Theodor Mommsen   Germany German "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome"[14] history, law
1903   Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson   Norway Norwegian "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"[15] poetry, novel, drama
1904   Frédéric Mistral   France Provençal "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"[16] poetry, philology
  José Echegaray   Spain Spanish "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"[16] drama
1905   Henryk Sienkiewicz   Poland Polish "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"[17] novel
1906   Giosuè Carducci   Italy Italian "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"[18] poetry
1907   Rudyard Kipling   United Kingdom English "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration that characterize the creations of this world-famous author"[19] novel, short story, poetry
1908   Rudolf Christoph Eucken   Germany German "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"[20] philosophy
1909   Selma Lagerlöf   Sweden Swedish "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"[21] novel, short story
1910   Paul von Heyse   Germany German "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[22] poetry, drama, novel, short story
1911   Maurice Maeterlinck   Belgium French "in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"[23] drama, poetry, essay
1912   Gerhart Hauptmann   Germany German "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"[24] drama, novel
1913   Rabindranath Tagore   India Bengali and English "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"[25] poetry, novel, drama, short story, music, essay, philosophy, literary criticism, translation
1914 Not awarded
1915   Romain Rolland   France French "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"[26] novel
1916   Verner von Heidenstam   Sweden Swedish "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"[27] poetry, novel
1917   Karl Adolph Gjellerup   Denmark Danish "for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"[28] poetry
  Henrik Pontoppidan   Denmark Danish "for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"[28] novel
1918 Not awarded
1919   Carl Spitteler    Switzerland German "in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"[29] poetry
1920   Knut Hamsun   Norway Norwegian "for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil"[30] novel
1921   Anatole France   France French "in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"[31] novel, poetry
1922   Jacinto Benavente   Spain Spanish "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"[32] drama
1923   William Butler Yeats   Ireland English "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"[33] poetry
1924   Władysław Reymont   Poland Polish "for his great national epic, The Peasants"[34] novel
1925   George Bernard Shaw   Ireland[35] English "for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"[36] drama, literary criticism
1926   Grazia Deledda   Italy Italian "for her idealistically inspired writings, which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"[37] poetry, novel
1927   Henri Bergson   France French "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[38] philosophy
1928   Sigrid Undset   Norway
(Born in Denmark)
Norwegian "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"[39] novel
1929   Thomas Mann   Germany German "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"[40] novel, short story, essay
1930   Sinclair Lewis   United States English "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"[41] novel, short story, drama
1931   Erik Axel Karlfeldt   Sweden Swedish "The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"[42] poetry
1932   John Galsworthy   United Kingdom English "for his distinguished art of narration, which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"[43] novel
1933   Ivan Bunin   France
(Born in Russian Empire)
Russian "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"[44] short story, poetry, novel
1934   Luigi Pirandello   Italy Italian "for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"[45] drama, novel, short story
1935 Not awarded
1936   Eugene O'Neill   United States English "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"[46] drama
1937   Roger Martin du Gard   France French "for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle Les Thibault"[47] novel
1938   Pearl S. Buck   United States English "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"[48] novel, biography
1939   Frans Eemil Sillanpää   Finland Finnish "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"[49] novel
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943 Not awarded
1944   Johannes Vilhelm Jensen   Denmark Danish "for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"[50] novel, short story
1945   Gabriela Mistral   Chile Spanish "for her lyric poetry, which inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"[51] poetry
1946   Hermann Hesse    Switzerland
(Born in Germany)
German "for his inspired writings, which while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"[52] novel, poetry
1947   André Gide   France French "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"[53] novel, essay
1948   T. S. Eliot   United Kingdom
(Born in the United States)
English "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"[54] poetry
1949   William Faulkner   United States English "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"[55] novel, short story
1950   Bertrand Russell   United Kingdom English "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"[56] philosophy
1951   Pär Lagerkvist   Sweden Swedish "for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"[57] poetry, novel, short story, drama
1952   François Mauriac   France French "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"[58] novel, short story
1953   Winston Churchill   United Kingdom English "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"[59] history, essay, memoirs
1954   Ernest Hemingway   United States English "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"[60] novel, short story, screenplay
1955   Halldór Laxness   Iceland Icelandic "for his vivid epic power, which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"[61] novel, short story, drama, poetry
1956   Juan Ramón Jiménez   Spain Spanish "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"[62] poetry
1957   Albert Camus   France
(Born in French Algeria)
French "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"[63] novel, short story, drama, philosophy, essay
1958   Boris Pasternak   Soviet Union Russian "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[64] novel, poetry, translation
1959   Salvatore Quasimodo   Italy Italian "for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"[65] poetry
1960   Saint-John Perse   France
(Born in Guadeloupe)
French "for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry, which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"[66] poetry
1961   Ivo Andrić   Yugoslavia
(Born in Austria-Hungary)
Serbo-Croatian "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"[67] novel, short story
1962   John Steinbeck   United States English "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"[68] novel, short story, screenplay
1963   Giorgos Seferis   Greece
(Born in the Ottoman Empire)
Greek "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"[69] poetry, essay, memoirs
1964   Jean-Paul Sartre   France French "for his work, which rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"[70] novel, short story, philosophy, drama, literary criticism, screenplay
1965   Mikhail Sholokhov   Soviet Union Russian "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"[71] novel
1966   Shmuel Yosef Agnon   Israel
(Born in Austria-Hungary)
Hebrew "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[72] novel, short story
  Nelly Sachs   Sweden
(Born in Germany)
German "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[72] poetry, drama
1967   Miguel Ángel Asturias   Guatemala Spanish "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"[73] novel, poetry
1968   Yasunari Kawabata   Japan Japanese "for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"[74] novel, short story
1969   Samuel Beckett   Ireland English and French "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"[75] novel, drama, poetry
1970   Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn   Soviet Union Russian "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"[76] novel
1971   Pablo Neruda   Chile Spanish "for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"[77] poetry
1972   Heinrich Böll   West Germany German "for his writing, which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"[78] novel, short story
1973   Patrick White   Australia
(Born in the United Kingdom)
English "for an epic and psychological narrative art, which has introduced a new continent into literature"[79] novel, short story, drama
1974   Eyvind Johnson   Sweden Swedish "for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"[80] novel
  Harry Martinson   Sweden Swedish "for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"[80] poetry, novel, drama
1975   Eugenio Montale   Italy Italian "for his distinctive poetry, which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"[81] poetry
1976   Saul Bellow   United States
(Born in Canada)
English "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[82] novel, short story
1977   Vicente Aleixandre   Spain Spanish "for a creative poetic writing, which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"[83] poetry
1978   Isaac Bashevis Singer   United States
Yiddish "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[84] novel, short story, memoirs
1979   Odysseas Elytis   Greece Greek "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"[85] poetry, essay
1980   Czesław Miłosz   Poland Polish "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[86] poetry, essay
1981   Elias Canetti   United Kingdom
(Born in Bulgaria)
German "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[87] novel, drama, memoirs, essay
1982   Gabriel García Márquez   Colombia Spanish "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"[88] novel, short story, screenplay
1983   William Golding   United Kingdom English "for his novels, which with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"[89] novel, poetry, drama
1984   Jaroslav Seifert   Czechoslovakia
(Born in Austria-Hungary)
Czech "for his poetry, which endowed with freshness, and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"[90] poetry
1985   Claude Simon   France
(Born in French Madagascar)
French "who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"[91] novel
1986   Wole Soyinka   Nigeria English "who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"[92] drama, novel, poetry
1987   Joseph Brodsky   United States
(Born in the Soviet Union)
Russian and English "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[93] poetry, essay
1988   Naguib Mahfouz   Egypt Arabic "who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"[94] novel
1989   Camilo José Cela   Spain Spanish "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"[95] novel, short story
1990   Octavio Paz   Mexico Spanish "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"[96] poetry, essay
1991   Nadine Gordimer   South Africa English "who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"[97] novel, short story, essay
1992   Derek Walcott   Saint Lucia English "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"[98] poetry, drama
1993   Toni Morrison   United States English "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"[99] novel
1994   Kenzaburō Ōe   Japan Japanese "who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"[100] novel, short story
1995   Seamus Heaney   Ireland
(Born in Northern Ireland)
English "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"[101] poetry
1996   Wisława Szymborska   Poland Polish "for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"[102] poetry
1997   Dario Fo   Italy Italian "who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"[103] drama
1998   José Saramago   Portugal Portuguese "who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"[104] novel, drama, poetry
1999   Günter Grass   Germany German "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"[105] novel, drama, poetry
2000   Gao Xingjian   France (since 1998)
  China (1940–1998)
Chinese "for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"[106] novel, drama, literary criticism
2001   V. S. Naipaul   United Kingdom
(Born in Trinidad & Tobago)
English "for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"[107] novel, essay
2002   Imre Kertész   Hungary Hungarian "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[108] novel
2003   J. M. Coetzee   Australia
  South Africa
English "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"[109] novel, essay, translation
2004   Elfriede Jelinek   Austria German "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[110] novel, drama
2005   Harold Pinter   United Kingdom English "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[111] drama, screenplay
2006   Orhan Pamuk   Turkey Turkish "who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"[112] novel, screenplay, essay
2007   Doris Lessing   United Kingdom
(Born in Iran)
English "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"[113] novel, drama, poetry, short story, memoirs
2008   J. M. G. Le Clézio   France
French "author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"[114] novel, short story, essay, translation
2009   Herta Müller   Germany
(Born in Romania)
German "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"[115] novel, poetry
2010   Mario Vargas Llosa   Peru
Spanish "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"[116] novel, short story, essay, drama, memoirs
2011   Tomas Tranströmer   Sweden Swedish "because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"[117] poetry, translation
2012   Mo Yan   China Chinese "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"[118] novel, short story
2013   Alice Munro   Canada English "master of the contemporary short story"[119] short story
2014   Patrick Modiano   France French "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"[120] novel
2015   Svetlana Alexievich   Belarus
(Born in the Soviet Union)
Russian "for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time" [121] history, essay
2016   Bob Dylan   United States English "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"[122] poetry, songwriting
2017   Kazuo Ishiguro   United Kingdom (born in Japan) English "who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world"[123] novel
2018 Postponed until 2019[124]

Nobel laureates by countryEdit

The 114 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2017 have come from the following countries:

Country Number
France 16
United States 11
United Kingdom 11
Germany 8
Sweden 8
Italy 6
Spain 6
Poland 5
Ireland 4
Russia/USSR 4
Denmark 3
Norway 3
Chile 2
China 2
Greece 2
Japan 2
South Africa 2
Switzerland 2
Austria 1
Australia 1
Belarus 1
Belgium 1
Bulgaria 1
Canada 1
Colombia 1
Czechoslovakia 1
Egypt 1
Finland 1
Guatemala 1
Hungary 1
Iceland 1
India 1
Israel 1
Mauritius 1
Mexico 1
Nigeria 1
Peru 1
Portugal 1
Saint Lucia 1
Turkey 1
Yugoslavia 1

One Nobel laureate is classified as stateless (Ivan Bunin, 1933).

Nobel laureates by languageEdit

The 114 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2017 have written in the following languages:

Language Number
English 29 (32)
French 14
German 13
Spanish 11
Swedish 7
Italian 6
Russian 6
Polish 4
Danish 3
Norwegian 3
Chinese 2
Greek 2
Japanese 2
Arabic 1
Bengali 1
Czech 1
Finnish 1
Hebrew 1
Hungarian 1
Icelandic 1
Provençal (Occitan) 1
Portuguese 1
Serbo-Croatian 1
Turkish 1
Yiddish 1

Rabindranath Tagore (Nobel Prize in Literature 1913) wrote in Bengali and English, Samuel Beckett (Nobel Prize in Literature 1969) wrote in French and English and Joseph Brodsky (Nobel Prize in Literature 1987) wrote poetry in Russian and prose in English. These three Nobel laureates have been sorted under Bengali, French and Russian, respectively.[125]

Nobel laureates by sexEdit

The 114 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2017 were from the following sexes :

Decade Males Females
1900–1909 9 1
1910–1919 9 0
1920–1929 8 2
1930–1939 8 1
1940–1949 5 1
1950–1959 10 0
1960–1969 10 1
1970–1979 11 0
1980–1989 10 0
1990–1999 7 3
2000–2009 7 3
2010–2017 6 2
Total 100 14



^ A. The information in the country column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.


  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  3. ^ "Winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature | Nobel Prize in Literature". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-07.
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  6. ^ a b "All Nobel Laureates in Literature". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  7. ^ Flood, Alison (2015-01-05). "Jean-Paul Sartre rejected Nobel prize in a letter to jury that arrived too late". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  8. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  9. ^ "Bob Dylan removes mention of Nobel prize from website". The Guardian. 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2016-11-02.
  10. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  11. ^ "Nobel Prize winners: How many women have won awards?". Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  12. ^ "2018 Nobel Prize In Literature Is A Casualty Of Sex-Abuse Scandal". NPR. NPR. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  13. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1901". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  14. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  15. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  16. ^ a b "Nobel Prize in Literature 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  17. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  18. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  19. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1907". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  20. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1908". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  21. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  22. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1910". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  23. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1911". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  24. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1912". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  25. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1913". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  26. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1915". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  27. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1916". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  28. ^ a b "Nobel Prize in Literature 1917". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  29. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  30. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1920". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  31. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1921". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  32. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1922". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  33. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  34. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  35. ^ "George Bernard Shaw | Irish dramatist and critic". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  36. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1925". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  37. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  38. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  39. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  40. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  41. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  42. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1931". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  43. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  44. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  45. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1934". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  46. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  47. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1937". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  48. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  49. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1939". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  50. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1944". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  51. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1945". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  52. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1946". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  53. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1947". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  54. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1948". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  55. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  56. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1950". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  57. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  58. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  59. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  60. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1954". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  61. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  62. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  63. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  64. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  65. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1959". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  66. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  67. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1961". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  68. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1962". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  69. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  70. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  71. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1965". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  72. ^ a b "Nobel Prize in Literature 1966". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  73. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  74. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1968". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  75. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1969". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  76. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1970". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  77. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  78. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  79. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1973". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  80. ^ a b "Nobel Prize in Literature 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  81. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1975". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  82. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  83. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1977". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  84. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1978". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  85. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1979". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  86. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1980". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  87. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1981". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  88. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1982". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  89. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1983". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  90. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  91. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1985". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  92. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1986". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  93. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1987". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  94. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1988". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  95. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1989". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  96. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  97. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1991". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  98. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1992". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  99. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  100. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1994". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  101. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1995". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  102. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  103. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  104. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  105. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  106. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  107. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2001". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  108. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2002". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  109. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  110. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  111. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2005". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  112. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  113. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  114. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  115. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  116. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  117. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2011". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  118. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2012". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  119. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2013". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  120. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2014". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  121. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2015". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  122. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2016" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-09-20. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  123. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017 – Press Release". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  124. ^ "Nobel Prize for Literature postponed amid Swedish Academy turmoil". BBC. BBC. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  125. ^ Number of Nobel Laureates in Literature Sorted in Languages