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List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates

The Norwegian Nobel Institute assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in selecting recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and in organising the annual award in Oslo.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Parliament of Norway.[2]

Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize (that has varied throughout the years).[3] It is one of the five prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[4]

Contents

OverviewEdit

The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm.[5] Unlike the other prizes, the Peace Prize is occasionally awarded to an organisation (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, a three-time recipient) rather than an individual.

The Nobel Peace Prize was first awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant — who shared a Prize of 150,782 Swedish kronor (equal to 7,731,004 kronor in 2008) — and, most recently, to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad in 2018.

  • Linus Pauling, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate in 1962, is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes; he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954.[6]
  • At 17 years of age, Malala Yousafzai, the 2014 recipient, is the youngest to be awarded the Peace Prize.

ControversyEdit

The prize is considered the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes; with several of the selections having been criticised,[7][8] and, on 19 occasions (as of 2018), no prize was awarded.

  • Despite having been nominated five times, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi never won the Prize. Following his assassination in 1948, the committee considered awarding it to him posthumously but decided against it — and, instead, withheld the Prize that year with the explanation that "there was no suitable living candidate."[9]
  • In 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, who died after his nomination but several months before the announcement, became the only laureate to be recognised posthumously; following this, the statutes were changed to render a future posthumous prize nearly impossible.[10]
  • In 1973, Le Duc Tho declined the Prize, because "he was not in a position to accept the Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason."[6]

LaureatesEdit

As of 2018, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 106 individuals and 24 organizations. Seventeen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, more than any other Nobel Prize.[11] Only two recipients have won multiple Prizes: the International Committee of the Red Cross has won three times (1917, 1944 and 1963) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981).[6] There have been 19 years since its creation in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.

Lê Đức Thọ is the only person to refuse to accept a Nobel Peace Prize.[12] He was jointly awarded the 1973 award with Henry Kissinger but declined the prize on grounds that such "bourgeois sentimentalities" were not for him[93] and that the Paris Peace Accords were not being adhered to in full.

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1901   Henry Dunant    Switzerland For his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross[10][13]
  Frédéric Passy   France "[For] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress"[10][13]
1902   Élie Ducommun    Switzerland "[For his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[10][14]
  Charles Albert Gobat "[For his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][14]
1903   William Randal Cremer   United Kingdom "[For his role as] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][15]
1904   Institute of International Law   Belgium "[F]or its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law"[10][16]
1905   Bertha von Suttner   Austria-Hungary For writing Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[10][17]
1906   Theodore Roosevelt   United States "[For] his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[10][18]
1907   Ernesto Teodoro Moneta   Italy "[For his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[10][19]
  Louis Renault   France "[For his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"[10][19]
1908   Klas Pontus Arnoldson   Sweden "[For his work as] founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League"[10][20]
  Fredrik Bajer   Denmark "[For being] the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau"[10][20]
1909   Auguste Beernaert   Belgium "[For being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][21]
  Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant   France "[For] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[10][21]
1910   Permanent International Peace Bureau    Switzerland "[For acting] as a link between the peace societies of the various countries"[22][23]
1911   Tobias Asser   Netherlands "[For being a] member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law"[10][24]
  Alfred Fried   Austria-Hungary "[For his work as] founder of the German Peace Society"[10][24]
1912   Elihu Root[A]   United States "[F]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[10][25]
1913   Henri La Fontaine   Belgium "[For his work as] head of the International Peace Bureau"[10][26]
1914 Not awarded due to World War I.
1915
1916
1917   International Committee of the Red Cross    Switzerland "[For undertaking] the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides [of World War I], including their right to establish contacts with their families"[10][27]
1918 Not awarded due to World War I.
1919   Woodrow Wilson   United States "[F]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[10][28]
1920   Léon Bourgeois   France "[For his participation] in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907" and for his work towards "what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'"[10][29]
1921   Hjalmar Branting   Sweden "[F]or his work in the League of Nations"[10][30]
  Christian Lange   Norway "[For his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][30]
1922   Fridtjof Nansen "[For] his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine" and "his work for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace"[31][32]
1923 Not awarded
1924
1925   Sir Austen Chamberlain[A]   United Kingdom For work on the Locarno Treaties[10][33]
  Charles G. Dawes[A]   United States "[F]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[10][33]
1926   Aristide Briand   France For work on the Locarno Treaties[10][34]
  Gustav Stresemann   Germany
1927   Ferdinand Buisson   France "[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[10][35]
  Ludwig Quidde   Germany
1928 Not awarded
1929   Frank B. Kellogg[A]   United States "[F]or the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy"[10][36]
1930   Nathan Söderblom   Sweden "[F]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[10][37]
1931   Jane Addams   United States "[F]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[10][38]
  Nicholas Murray Butler "[For his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[10][38]
1932 Not awarded
1933   Sir Norman Angell[A]   United Kingdom For authoring The Great Illusion and for being a "supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist [and] educator for peace in general"[39]
1934   Arthur Henderson "[F]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[10][40][41]
1935   Carl von Ossietzky[B]   Germany "[For his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"[10][42]
1936   Carlos Saavedra Lamas   Argentina "[F]or his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia"[10][43]
1937   The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood   United Kingdom For his work with the League of Nations[10][44]
1938   Nansen International Office for Refugees   League of Nations For its work in aiding refugees[45]
1939 Not awarded due to World War II.
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944   International Committee of the Red Cross    Switzerland "[F]or the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity"[46]
1945   Cordell Hull   United States "[For] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[47]
1946   Emily Greene Balch "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[48]
  John Raleigh Mott "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[48]
1947   The Quakers (represented by Friends Service Council and American Friends Service Committee)[49][50] "compassion for others and the desire to help them"[49]
1948 Not awarded because "there was no suitable living candidate." (A tribute to the recently assassinated Gandhi in India.)[9]
1949   The Lord Boyd-Orr   United Kingdom "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agriculture Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[51]
1950   Ralph Bunche   United States "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[52]
1951   Léon Jouhaux   France "President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations"[53]
1952   Albert Schweitzer "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[54]
1953   George C. Marshall   United States "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan'"[55]
1954   Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees   United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[56]
1955 Not awarded
1956
1957   Lester Bowles Pearson   Canada "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[57] "for his role in helping to end the Suez conflict and trying to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[10]
1958   Dominique Pire   Belgium "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[58]
1959   Philip Noel-Baker   United Kingdom "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[59]
1960   Albert Lutuli   South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
"President of the African National Congress,"[60] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[10]
1961   Dag Hammarskjöld[C]   Sweden "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[61] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[10]
1962   Linus Pauling   United States "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing"[62]
1963   International Committee of the Red Cross    Switzerland For their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence.[63]
  League of Red Cross Societies
1964   Martin Luther King, Jr.   United States Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence." King spent his time working in various areas of the civil rights movement; from equal education to economic disenfranchisement of minorities. King also organized the March on Washington, where he gave his famous “I Have a Dream Speech”.[64]
1965   United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)   United Nations "An international aid organization." [65]
1966 Not awarded
1967
1968   René Cassin   France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[66]
1969   International Labour Organization   United Nations [67]
1970   Norman E. Borlaug   United States "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[68] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[10]
1971   Willy Brandt   West Germany "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[69]
1972 Not awarded
1973   Henry Kissinger   United States
(Born in   Germany)
"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces"[10][70]
  Lê Đức Thọ[D]   Vietnam (North)
1974   Seán MacBride   Ireland
(Born in   France)
"President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[71] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[10]
  Eisaku Satō   Japan "Prime Minister of Japan,"[71] "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation"[10]
1975   Andrei Sakharov[E]   Soviet Union "[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations"[72]
1976   Betty Williams   United Kingdom "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[73]
  Mairead Corrigan
1977 Amnesty International "[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience"[10][74]
1978   Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat   Egypt "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[75]
  Menachem Begin   Israel
  Poland
(Born in   Russia)
1979   Mother Teresa   India
(Born in Skopje, now   North Macedonia)
"Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[76]
1980   Adolfo Pérez Esquivel   Argentina "Human rights leader;"[77] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[10]
1981   Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees   United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[78]
1982   Alva Myrdal   Sweden "[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[79][80]
  Alfonso García Robles   Mexico
1983   Lech Wałęsa   Poland "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[81]
1984   Desmond Tutu   South Africa "... as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa. ... Through the award of this year's Peace Prize, the Committee wishes to direct attention to the non-violent struggle for liberation to which Desmond Tutu belongs, a struggle in which black and white South Africans unite to bring their country out of conflict and crisis."[82]
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War   United States For "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."[83]
1986   Elie Wiesel   United States
(Born in   Romania)
"Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[84]
1987   Óscar Arias   Costa Rica "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[85]
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces   United Nations "[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations"[86][87]
1989   Tenzin Gyatso,
14th Dalai Lama
  India
(Born in   Tibet)[88]
"In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."[89][90]
1990   Mikhail Gorbachev   Soviet Union General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and President of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"[91]
1991   Aung San Suu Kyi[F]   Burma "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"[92]
1992   Rigoberta Menchú   Guatemala "for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"[93]
1993   Nelson Mandela   South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[94]
  Frederik Willem de Klerk
1994   Yasser Arafat   Palestine
(Born in   Egypt)
"to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[95]
  Yitzhak Rabin   Israel
  Shimon Peres   Israel
(Born in   Poland)
1995   Joseph Rotblat   Poland "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[96]
  Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs   Canada
1996   Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo   East Timor "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[97]
  José Ramos-Horta
1997   International Campaign to Ban Landmines    Switzerland "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"[98]
  Jody Williams   United States
1998   John Hume   Ireland "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[99]
  David Trimble   United Kingdom
1999   Médecins Sans Frontières    Switzerland "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"[100]
2000   Kim Dae-jung   South Korea "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[101]
2001   United Nations   United Nations "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[102]
  Kofi Annan   Ghana
2002   Jimmy Carter   United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[103]
2003   Shirin Ebadi   Iran "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."[104]
2004   Wangari Muta Maathai   Kenya "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[105]
2005   International Atomic Energy Agency   United Nations "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"[106]
  Mohamed ElBaradei   Egypt
2006   Muhammad Yunus   Bangladesh "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"[107]
Grameen Bank
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change   United Nations "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[108]
  Al Gore   United States
2008   Martti Ahtisaari   Finland "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[109]
2009   Barack Obama   United States "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[110]
2010   Liu Xiaobo   China "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"[111]
2011   Ellen Johnson Sirleaf   Liberia "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[112]
  Leymah Gbowee
  Tawakkul Karman   Yemen
2012   European Union   European Union "for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."[113]
2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons   Netherlands[114] "for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons."[115]
2014   Kailash Satyarthi   India "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"[116]
  Malala Yousafzai   Pakistan
2015   Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet   Tunisia "for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011"[117]
2016   Juan Manuel Santos   Colombia "for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people"[118]
2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons    Switzerland "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons"[119].
2018   Denis Mukwege   Democratic Republic of the Congo "for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict"[120]
  Nadia Murad   Iraq

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

A Elihu Root, Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes, Frank B. Kellogg, and Norman Angell were all awarded their respective Prizes one year late because the Committee decided that none of the nominations in the year in which they are listed as being awarded the Prize met the criteria in Nobel's will; per its rules the Committee delayed the awarding of the Prizes until the next year, although they were awarded as the previous year's Prize.[25][33][36][39]
B Carl von Ossietzky's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of Germany.[121]
C Dag Hammarskjöld's Prize was awarded posthumously.
D Lê Đức Thọ declined to accept the Prize.[70]
E Andrei Sakharov's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of the Soviet Union.[122]
F Aung San Suu Kyi's Prize was awarded in absentia because she was being held prisoner by the government of Burma. Following her release from house arrest and election to the Pyithu Hluttaw, Suu Kyi accepted her award in person on 16 June 2012.[123]
G Liu Xiaobo's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was imprisoned in China.[124]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

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External linksEdit