Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (Russian: Жоре́с Ива́нович Алфёров, [ʐɐˈrɛs ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ɐɫˈfʲɵrəf]; Belarusian: Жарэс Іва́навіч Алфёраў; 15 March 1930 – 1 March 2019) was a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic of Belarusian ethnicity who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He was the inventor of the heterotransistor and shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. He also became a politician in his later life, serving in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the State Duma, as a member of the communist party since 1995.
Alferov in 2012
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov
15 March 1930
|Died||1 March 2019 (aged 88)|
|Nationality||Soviet (until 1991) / Russian (since 1991)|
|Alma mater||Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University "LETI" (old name V. I. Ulyanov Electrotechnical Institute "LETI")|
|Spouse(s)||Tamara Darskaya (m. 1967–2019; his death)|
|Awards||Global Energy Prize (2005) |
Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology (2001)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2000)
Demidov Prize (1999)
Ioffe Prize (Russian Academy of Sciences, 1996)
USSR State Prize (1984)
Lenin Prize (1972)
Stuart Ballantine Medal (1971)
Order of Lenin (1986)
|Institutions||Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute|
Early life and educationEdit
Alferov was born in Vitebsk, Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Union, to a Belarusian father, Ivan Karpovich Alferov, a factory manager, and a Jewish mother, Anna Vladimirovna Rosenblum. He was named after French socialist Jean Jaurès while his older brother was named Marx after Karl Marx. In 1947 he completed high school 42 in Minsk and started Belarusian Polytechnic Academy. In 1952, he graduated from V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Starting in 1953 he worked in the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. From the Institute, he earned several scientific degrees: a Candidate of Sciences in Technology in 1961 and a Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics in 1970. He was director of the Institute from 1987 to 2003. He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1972, and a full member in 1979. From 1989, he was Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center. Starting in 1995 he was a member of the State Duma on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. In 2000 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics together with Herbert Kroemer, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics".
Alferov invented the heterotransistor. This coped with much higher frequencies than its predecessors, and apparently revolutionised the mobile phone and satellite communications. Alferov and Kroemer independently applied this technology to firing laser lights. This, in turn, revolutionised semiconductor design in a host of areas, including LEDs, barcode readers and CDs.
Hermann Grimmeiss of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards Nobel prizes, said: "Without Alferov, it would not be possible to transfer all the information from satellites down to the Earth or to have so many telephone lines between cities."
After 1962 Alferov worked in the area of semiconductor heterostructures. His contributions to physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures, especially investigations of injection properties, development of lasers, solar cells, LEDs, and epitaxy processes, have led to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.
He had an almost messianic conception of heterostructures, writing: "Many scientists have contributed to this remarkable progress, which not only determines in large measure the future prospects of solid state physics but in a certain sense affects the future of human society as well."
Alferov was elected to the Russian Parliament, the State Duma, in 1995 as a deputy for the political party Our Home is Russia, generally considered to be supportive of the policies of President Boris Yeltsin. In 1999 he was elected again, this time on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He was re-elected in 2003 and again in 2007, when he was placed second on the party's federal electoral list behind Gennady Zyuganov and ahead of Nikolai Kharitonov, even though he was not a member of the party.
He was one of the signers of the Open letter to the President Vladimir V. Putin from the Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences against clericalisation of Russia. Alferov was an atheist and expressed objections to religious education.
Illness and deathEdit
- Russian and Soviet awards
- Order of Merit for the Fatherland:
- 1st class (14 March 2005) – for outstanding contribution to the development of national science and active participation in legislative activities;
- 2nd class (2000);
- 3rd class (4 June 1999) – for outstanding contribution to the development of national science and training of highly qualified personnel in connection with the 275th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
- 4th class (15 March 2010) – for services to the state contribution to the development of national science and many years of fruitful activity
- Order of Lenin (1986)
- Order of the October Revolution (1980)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1975)
- Order of the Badge of Honour (1959)
- State Prize of the Russian Federation (2001) in Science and Technology (5 August 2002) for his work, "Fundamental studies of the formation and properties of heterostructures with quantum dots and the creation of lasers based on them"
- Lenin Prize (1972) – for basic research in semiconductors and heterojunction development of new devices based on them
- USSR State Prize (1984) – for developing isoperiodic heterostructures based on quaternary solid solutions of A3B5 semiconductor compounds
- Foreign awards
- Order of Francisc Skorina (Belarus, 17 May 2001) – for his great personal contribution to the development of physical science, the organization of the Belarusian-Russian scientific and technical cooperation, strengthening the friendship between the peoples of Belarus and Russia
- Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 5th class (Ukraine, 15 May 2003) – for personal contribution to the development of cooperation between Ukraine and the Russian Federation in the socio-economic and humanitarian spheres
- Officer of the Legion of Honour (France)
- Other awards
- Nobel Prize in Physics (Sweden, 2000; with Herbert Kroemer and Jack Kilby) – for the development of semiconductor heterostructures for high-speed optoelectronics
- Nick Holonyak Award (Optical Society of U.S., 2000)
- EPS Europhysics Prize (European Physical Society, 1978) – for new works in the field of heterojunctions
- AP Karpinsky Prize (Germany, 1989) – for his contributions to physics and technology of heterostructures
- AF Ioffe award (RAN, 1996) – for work, "Photoelectric converters of solar radiation on the basis of heterostructures"
- Demidov Prize (Scientific Demidov Foundation, Russia, 1999)
- Kyoto Prize (Inamori Foundation, Japan, 2001) – for success in creating semiconductor lasers operating in continuous mode at room temperature – a pioneer step in optoelectronics
- Vernadsky Award (NAS, 2001)
- "Russian National Olympus". The title "living legend" (Russia, 2001)
- International "Global Energy Prize" (Russia, 2005)
- H. Welker Gold Medal (1987) – for pioneering work on the theory and technology of devices based on III-V compounds of groups
- Stuart Ballantine Medal (Franklin Institute, USA, 1971) – for the theoretical and experimental studies of double-heterostructure laser, which were created by laser light sources of small size, operating in continuous mode at room temperature
- Popov Gold Medal (Academy of Sciences, 1999)
- SPIE Gold Medal (2002)
- Award Symposium on GaAs (1987) – for pioneering work in semiconductor heterostructures based on III-V compounds and group development of diode lasers and photodiodes
- Awarded "Golden Plate" (Academy of Achievement, USA, 2002)
- XLIX Mendeleev Reader – 19 February 1993
- Honorary Doctorate from Tampere University of Technology (2007)
- Honorary Professor of the medal and MIPT (2008)
- Honorary Member of the Moscow Society of Naturalists (2009)
- Honorary Doctor of the Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (State Educational Institution of the Russian-Armenian (Slavic) University, Armenia, 2011)
- Алферов, Жорес. Lenta (in Russian). 24 December 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Zhores Alferov – Facts
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Staff writers (10 October 2000). "Russian and Americans share hi-tech Nobel". BBC News. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Lib.semi.ac.cn Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (PDF)
- Communists, Patriots Name Their Leaders Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kommersant, 7 September 2007.
- ""Великий по всем меркам": умер Жорес Алферов". Газета.Ru. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov". RT.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012. In public life the scientist was a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future.
- "Dr. Zhores I. Alferov". CRDF Global. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- Умер нобелевский лауреат Жорес Алферов (in Russian). RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Алферов Жорес Иванович. Атомная энергия 2.0 (in Russian). Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Moscow Society of Naturalists official site (in Russian)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zhores Alfyorov.|
- ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Zhores Alferov website at the Communist Party of the Russian Federation
- Biography, on the website of Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute
- Autobiography, on the website of Nobel Foundation web group in Stockholm
- Open letter to the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir V. Putin