Sir William Randal Cremer (18 March 1828 – 22 July 1908) usually known by his middle name "Randal", was an English Liberal Member of Parliament, a pacifist, and a leading advocate for international arbitration. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1903 for his work with the international arbitration movement.
|Member of Parliament for Haggerston|
24 October 1900 – 22 July 1908
|Preceded by||John Lowles|
|Succeeded by||Rupert Guinness|
18 December 1885 – 13 July 1895
|Succeeded by||John Lowles|
|Born||18 March 1828|
Fareham, Hampshire, England
|Died||22 July 1908|
Cremer was born to a working-class family in the southern English town of Fareham. His father was a coachman, who abandoned the family soon after Randal Cremer was born. His mother raised him along with his two sisters, ensuring he received an education at a local Methodist school. He augmented his knowledge by attending free lectures, was apprenticed as a builder, and became a skilled carpenter.
Moving to London 1852, Cremer became active as a union organiser, swiftly becoming a recognized labour leader. Cremer was elected as the Secretary of the International Workingmen's Association in 1865, but resigned two years later in 1867, when the organization decided to make women eligible for membership. Being strongly opposed to women's suffrage, this might have contributed to make him feel the organization was becoming too radical . While heavily involved in campaigning for progressive causes, and respected by Marx, Cremer did not agree with a worker led revolution.
Role in the international arbitration movementEdit
From as early as his first unsuccessful run for Parliament in 1868, Cremer had advocated the expansion of international arbitration as peaceful alternative to war for the resolution of disputes.
Using his platform as an MP, Cremer cultivated allies on both continental Europe and across the Atlantic, including Frédéric Passy, William Jennings Bryan and Andrew Carnegie. Using his network of contacts and his talent for organisation, Cremer did much to create and expand institutions for international arbitration, which during his lifetime were successful in peacefully resolving numerous international disputes. This work includes co-founding the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the International Arbitration League; gaining acceptance for the 1897 Olney–Pauncefote Treaty between the United States and Britain that would have required arbitration of major disputes as the Essequibo territory (the treaty was rejected by the US Senate and never went into effect); and preparing the ground for the Hague peace conferences of 1899 and 1907.
In recognition of his work in the arbitration movement, Cremer won the Nobel Peace Prize, the first to do so solo, in 1903. Of the £8,000 award he donated £7,000 as an endowment for the International Arbitration League.
Randal Cremer Primary School, in Haggerston, is named in his honour.
Cremer died on 22 July 1908, leaving an estate of £2,241 (£1,803 net).
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 1903 Randal Cremer". nobelprize.org.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1912). . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). Vol. 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Views of Anti-Suffrage MP William Cremer, The Times, April 1906
- Mark Mazower (2012). "Chpt 3: The empire of Law". Governing the world. Allen Lane. ISBN 9780-7-1399683-8.
- "Winners". The Nobel Peace Prize. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- "Sir W. Cremer's Will". The Cardiff Times. David Duncan and William Ward. 24 October 1908. hdl:10107/3434413.
- Among the world's peacemakers: an epitome of the Interparliamentary Union edited by Hayne Davis, 1908
- "Randal Cremer Primary School". Hackney Borough Council. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
- Randal Cremer on Nobelprize.org including the Nobel Lecture, January 15, 1905 The Progress and Advantages of International Arbitration
- About Sir Randal Cremer on www.nobel-winners.com
- The Hugh & Helene Schonfield World Service Trust
- Link to article about Cremer by Simon Hall-Raleigh in Journal of Liberal History, Issue 9, December 1995
- Evans, H.: Sir Randal Cremer: his life and work. T. Fisher Unwin, 1909.