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Inter-Parliamentary Union

The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; French: Union Interparlementaire [UIP]) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom). It was the first permanent forum for political multilateral negotiations. Initially, the organization was for individual parliamentarians, but has since transformed into an international organization of the parliaments of sovereign states. The national parliaments of 178 countries (the last three member countries are Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Vanuatu; Memberships were given during its 137th conference)[1] are members of the IPU, and 12 regional parliamentary assemblies are associate members.[2] The IPU has permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly.

Inter-Parliamentary Union
New IPU-e.jpg
Founded1889; 130 years ago (1889)
FounderFrédéric Passy,
William Randal Cremer
Legal statusInternational organization
HeadquartersGeneva, Switzerland
Gabriela Cuevas Barron
Martin Chungong
Websitewww.ipu.org

HistoryEdit

Eight leading personalities of the IPU have received Nobel Peace Prizes:

The organisation's initial objective was the arbitration of conflicts. The IPU played an important part in setting up the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. Over time, its mission has evolved towards the promotion of democracy and inter-parliamentary dialogue. The IPU has worked for establishment of institutions at the inter-governmental level, including the United Nations, an organization with which it cooperates and with which it has permanent observer status.

 
Map of IPU member states

Numerous bodies have expressed interest in the possibility of transforming the IPU into a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, among them the Committee for a Democratic UN, the German Bundestag and the Socialist International. The Liberal International also considers this as an option.

The headquarters of the union have been moved several times since its inception. Locations:

  • 1892–1911: Bern (Switzerland)
  • 1911–1914: Brussels (Belgium)
  • 1914–1920: Oslo (Norway)
  • 1921–present: Geneva (Switzerland)

Members and organizationEdit

MembersEdit

  • Regional parliamentary assemblies may be admitted by the Governing Council as Associate Members
  • Every Parliament constituted in conformity with the laws of a sovereign State whose population it represents and on whose territory it functions may request affiliation to the Inter-Parliamentary Union. The decision to admit or readmit a Parliament shall be taken by the Governing Council.

It is the duty of the Members of the IPU to submit the resolutions of the IPU within their respective Parliament, in the most appropriate form; to communicate them to the Government; to stimulate their implementation and to inform the IPU Secretariat, as often and fully as possible, particularly in its annual reports, as to the steps taken and the results obtained.

Associate Members

The participating parliamentary assemblies other than national parliaments are the following:[2]

Name Related organization
Andean Parliament CAN
Central American Parliament SICA
East African Legislative Assembly EAC
European Parliament EU
Inter-parliamentary Assembly of Member Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States CIS
Inter-Parliamentary Committee of the West African Economic and Monetary Union UEMOA
Latin American Parliament none [note 1]
Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation BSEC
Parliament of the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS
Parliament of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa CEMAC
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe CoE
Transitional Arab Parliament AL

OrgansEdit

 
Headquarters of the IPU in Geneva (2010)

The organs of the Inter-Parliamentary Union are:

  • Assembly, meets twice a year. The Assembly is composed of parliamentarians designated as delegates by the Members. The Assembly is assisted in its work by Standing Committees, whose number and terms of reference are determined by the Governing Council; Standing Committees shall normally prepare reports and draft resolutions for the Assembly. No one delegate may record more than ten votes.
  • Governing Council. The Governing Council normally holds two sessions a year. The Governing Council is composed of three representatives from each Member. The term of office of a member of the Governing Council lasts from one Assembly to the next and all the members of the Governing Council must be sitting members of Parliament. The Governing Council elects the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union for a period of three years. It also elects the members of the Executive Committee and appoints the Secretary General of the Union.
  • Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is composed of the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 15 members belonging to different Parliaments (elected by the Governing Council; not less than 12 are elected from among the members of the Governing Council) and the President of the Coordinating Committee of the Meeting of Women Parliamentarians. The fifteen elected seats are assigned to the geopolitical groups. Only parliamentarians from States where women have both the right to vote and the right to stand for election are eligible to the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is the administrative organ of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Secretariat. The Secretariat comprises the totality of the staff of the organisation under the direction of the Secretary General.

The Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments is a consultative body of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Elected to postsEdit

  • The President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union is Gabriela Cuevas Barron (Mexico), elected to this post for a three-year mandate in October 2017 at the 201st session of the Governing Council of the IPU in Geneva.[3]
  • As of 2014, the Secretary General of IPU is Mr. Martin Chungong (Cameroon).[4] He is the first African to hold the post in the IPU's 125-year history. He took over from Mr. Anders B. Johnsson (Sweden), who had been in the post since 1998 until his retirement in June 2014.[5]

ConferencesEdit

 
Art Nouveau plaque-medallion for the 15th Inter-Parliamentary Conference 1908 in Berlin

The IPU Assembly (formerly known as the Inter-Parliamentary Conference) is the principal statutory body that expresses the views of the Inter-Parliamentary Union on political issues.[6]

# Host City Host Country Year
141st Belgrade   Serbia 2019
140th Doha   Qatar 2019
139th Geneva    Switzerland 2018
138th Geneva    Switzerland 2018
137th St. Petersburg   Russian Federation 2017
136th Dhaka   Bangladesh 2017
135th Geneva    Switzerland 2016
134th Lusaka   Zambia 2016
133rd Geneva    Switzerland 2015
132nd Hanoi   Vietnam 2015
131st Geneva    Switzerland [7] 2014
130th Geneva    Switzerland 2014
129th Geneva    Switzerland 2013
128th Quito   Ecuador 2013
127th Quebec City   Canada 2012
126th Kampala   Uganda 2012
125th Bern    Switzerland 2011
124th Panama city   Panama 2011
123rd Geneva    Switzerland 2010
122nd Bangkok   Thailand 2010
121st Geneva    Switzerland 2009
120th Addis Ababa   Ethiopia 2009
119th Geneva    Switzerland 2008
118th Cape Town   South Africa 2008
117th Geneva    Switzerland 2007
116th Nusa Dua, Bali   Indonesia 2007
115th Geneva    Switzerland 2006
114th Nairobi   Kenya 2006
113th Geneva    Switzerland 2005
112th Manila   Philippines 2005
111th Geneva    Switzerland 2004
110th Mexico   Mexico 2004
109th Geneva    Switzerland 2003
108th Santiago   Chile 2003
107th Marrakesh   Morocco 2002
106th Ouagadougou   Burkina Faso 2001
105th Havana   Cuba 2001
104th Jakarta   Indonesia 2000
103rd Amman   Jordan 2000
102nd Berlin   Germany 1999
101st Brussels   Belgium 1999
100th Moscow   Russia 1998
99th Windhoek   Namibia 1998
98th Cairo   Egypt 1997
97th Seoul   South Korea 1997
96th Beijing   China 1996
95th Istanbul   Turkey 1996
94th Bucharest   Romania 1995
93rd Madrid   Spain 1995
92nd Copenhagen   Denmark 1994
91st Paris   France 1994
90th Canberra   Australia 1993
89th New Delhi   India 1993
88th Stockholm   Sweden 1992
87th Yaoundé   Cameroon 1992
86th Santiago   Chile 1991
85th Pyongyang   North Korea 1991
84th Punta del Este   Uruguay 1990
83rd Nicosia   Cyprus 1990
82nd London   United Kingdom 1989
81st Budapest   Hungary 1989
80th Sofia   Bulgaria 1988
79th Guatemala City   Guatemala 1988
78th Bangkok   Thailand 1987
77th Managua   Nicaragua 1987
76th Buenos Aires   Argentina 1986
75th Mexico City   Mexico 1986
74th Ottawa   Canada 1985
73rd Lomé   Togo 1985
72nd Geneva    Switzerland 1984
71st Geneva    Switzerland 1984
70th Seoul   South Korea 1983
69th Rome   Italy 1982
68th Havana   Cuba 1981
67th Berlin   East Germany 1980
66th Caracas   Venezuela 1979
65th Bonn   Germany 1978
64th Sofia   Bulgaria 1977
63rd Madrid   Spain 1976
62nd London   United Kingdom 1975
61st Tokyo   Japan 1974
60th Rome   Italy 1972
59th Paris   France 1971
58th Hague   Netherlands 1970
57th New Delhi   India 1969
56th Lima   Peru 1968
55th Tehran   Iran 1966
54th Ottawa   Canada 1965
53rd Copenhagen   Denmark 1964
52nd Belgrade   Yugoslavia 1963
51st Brasilia   Brazil 1962
50th Brussels   Belgium 1961
49th Tokyo   Japan 1960
48th Warsaw   Poland 1959
47th Rio de Janeiro   Brazil 1958
46th London   United Kingdom 1957
45th Bangkok   Thailand 1956
44th Helsinki   Finland 1955
43rd Vienna   Austria 1954
42nd Washington, D.C.   United States 1953
41st Bern    Switzerland 1952
40th Istanbul   Turkey 1951
39th Dublin   Ireland 1950
38th Stockholm   Sweden 1949
37th Rome   Italy 1948
36th Cairo   Egypt 1947
35th Oslo   Norway 1939
34th Hague   Netherlands 1938
33rd Paris   France 1937
32nd Budapest   Hungary 1936
31st Brussels   Belgium 1935
30th Istanbul   Turkey 1934
29th Madrid   Spain 1933
28th Geneva    Switzerland 1932
27th Bucharest   Romania 1931
26th London   United Kingdom 1930
25th Berlin   Germany 1928
24th Paris   France 1927
23rd Washington, D.C.   United States 1925
Ottawa   Canada
22nd Bern    Switzerland 1924
21st Copenhagen   Denmark 1923
20th Vienna   Austria 1922
19th Stockholm   Sweden 1921
18th Hague   Netherlands 1913
17th Geneva    Switzerland 1912
16th Brussels   Belgium 1910
15th Berlin   Germany 1908
14th London   United Kingdom 1906
13th Brussels   Belgium 1905
12th St. Louis   United States 1904
11th Vienna   Austria-Hungary 1903
10th Paris   France 1900
9th Christiania   Denmark 1899
8th Brussels   Belgium 1897
7th Budapest   Austria-Hungary 1896
6th Brussels   Belgium 1895
5th The Hague   Netherlands 1894
4th Bern    Switzerland 1892
3rd Rome   Italy 1891
2nd London   United Kingdom 1890
1st Paris   France 1889

PresidentsEdit

President Years Country
Gabriela Cuevas Barron 2017–present   Mexico
Saber Hossain Chowdhury 2014–2017   Bangladesh
Abdelwahad Radi 2011–2014   Morocco
Theo-Ben Gurirab 2008–2011   Namibia
Pier Ferdinando Casini 2005–2008   Italy
Sergio Paes Verdugo 2002–2005   Chile
Najma Heptulla 1999–2002   India
Miguel Angel Martinez 1997–1999   Spain
Ahmed Fathi Sorour 1994–1997   Egypt
Michael Marshall 1991–1994   United Kingdom
Dauda Sow 1988–1991   Senegal
Hans Stercken 1985–1988   West Germany
John Page 1985   United Kingdom
Izz El Din El Sayed 1983–1985   Sudan
Emile Cuvelier 1983   Belgium
Johannes Virolainen 1982–1983   Finland
Rafael Caldera 1979–1982   Venezuela
Thomas Williams 1976–1979   United Kingdom
Gurdial Singh Dhillon 1973–1976   India
André Chandernagor 1968–1973   France
Abderrahman Abdennebi 1967-1968   Tunisia
Ranieri Mazzilli 1962–1967   Brazil
Giuseppe Codacci-Pisanelli 1957–1962   Italy
William Wedgwood Benn 1947–1957   United Kingdom
Henri Carton de Wiart 1934–1947   Belgium
Fernand Bouisson 1928–1934   France
Theodor Adelsward 1922–1928   Sweden
Philip Stanhope 1912–1922   United Kingdom
August Beernaert 1909–1912   Belgium

Amendments to the StatutesEdit

Any proposal to amend the Statutes shall be submitted in writing to the Secretariat of the Union at least three months before the meeting of the Assembly. The Secretariat will immediately communicate all such proposals to the Members of the Union. The consideration of such proposed amendments shall be automatically placed on the agenda of the Assembly.

Any sub-amendments shall be submitted in writing to the Secretariat of the Union at least six weeks before the meeting of the Assembly. The Secretariat will immediately communicate all such sub-amendments to the Members of the Union.

After hearing the opinion of the Governing Council, expressed through a simple majority vote, the Assembly shall decide on such proposals by a two-thirds majority vote.

The IPU and the United NationsEdit

The IPU marked the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, in 1995, by holding a special session in the General Assembly Hall before the start of the session,[8] where they planned for closer cooperation with the United Nations. The General Assembly Resolution passed during that session requested the Secretary-General to put this into action.[9] An agreement was signed between the IPU and the Secretary-General on 24 July 1996 and subsequently ratified by a General Assembly Resolution, where the United Nations recognizes IPU as the world organization of parliaments.[10][11] Pursuant to this resolution, the Secretary-General submitted a report[12] which was noted with appreciation by the General Assembly, who requested further strengthening of cooperation and another report.[13] This report detailed the measures that had been taken, including opening a liaison office in New York, and cooperation on issues such land-mines and the promotion of representative democracy.[14] Following an entire morning of debate[15] the General Assembly passed a resolution which simply stated that it "looks forward to continued close cooperation".[16]

The following year (1999) the Secretary-General reported on an increased number of areas of cooperation,[17] the issue was debated for an entire afternoon[18] (interrupted by a minute of silence held for tribute to Vazgen Sargsyan, the Prime Minister of Armenia who had just at that time been killed by gunmen),[19] and passed a resolution requesting the IPU be allowed to address the Millennium General Assembly directly.[20]

Following another report,[21] and another half-day debate,[22] the General Assembly welcomed the IPU declaration entitled "The Parliamentary vision for international cooperation at the dawn of the third millennium" and called for the Secretary-General to explore new and further ways in which the relationship could be strengthened.[23]

On 19 November 2002 the IPU was granted observer status to the General Assembly.[24]

In the Resolution 59/19, Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the UN General Assembly takes note of the recommendations in regard to engaging parliamentarians more systematically in the work of the United Nations.[25]

The final declaration of the Second World Conference of Speakers of Parliament, hosted at United Nations headquarters, took place in September 2005, was entitled Bridging the democracy gap in international relations: A stronger role for parliament.[26]

In the Resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly, 61/6, Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, on 27 November 2006, it calls for the further development of the annual parliamentary hearing at the United Nations and other specialized parliamentary meetings in the context of major United Nations meetings as joint United Nations-Inter-Parliamentary Union events.[27]

Every year during the fall session of the General Assembly the IPU organises a Parliamentary Hearing.[28] A resolution on cooperation between the United Nations and the IPU allowed for circulation of official IPU documents in the General Assembly.

UN and the IPU cooperate closely in various fields, in particular peace and security, economic and social development, international law, human rights, and democracy and gender issues, but IPU has not obtained the status of UN General Assembly subsidiary organ.

Fourth World Conference of Speakers of ParliamentEdit

The fourth world conference on UN 70th anniversary marked by Ban Ki-Moon as "UN70" was organised in September 2015 where Speakers of all IPU(Inter-Parliamentary Union) member parliaments and of non-member parliaments were invited from across the world. The theme was on peace, democracy, and development.[29]

United Nations reports, resolutions, and agreementsEdit

  • Resolution of the United Nations: Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 27 November 2006.[27]
  • Report of the United Nations Secretary-General: Cooperation between the United Nations and regional and other organizations, 16 August 2006.[30]
  • Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly: Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 8 November 2004.[25]
  • Report of the United Nations Secretary-General: Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union (see Part 5 of the Annex), 1 September 2004.[31]
  • Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 21 November 2002.[32]
  • Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: Observer status for the Inter-Parliamentary Union in the General Assembly, 19 November 2002.[33]
  • Report of the United Nations Secretary-General: Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 3 September 2002.[34]
  • Cooperation Agreement between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union of 1996.[35]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Multiple regional organizations in Latin America such as the Rio Group, Latin American Economic System and Latin American Integration Association have similar membership.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Матвиенко избрана председателем ассамблеи Межпарламентского союза". ТАСС (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-10-17.
  2. ^ a b "Members". Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  3. ^ "Election of the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union" (PDF).
  4. ^ Secretary General at IPU official website. Accessed 25 November 2014
  5. ^ Pelz, Daniel (2014-06-30). "Chungong: African success stories should be emulated". Deutsche Welle - International Relations. Retrieved 2014-07-01.
  6. ^ Statutory Assemblies at IPU official website. Accessed 24 February 2014
  7. ^ "Cameroon: Ipu Urges Members to Stem Indefensible Terrorism and to Protect Human Rights". allAfrica.com - PR Newswire. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
  8. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 50 Document 561. A/50/561 page 2. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  9. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 50 Resolution 15. A/RES/50/15 22 November 1995. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  10. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 51 Document 402. A/51/402 25 September 1995. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  11. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 51 Resolution 7. A/RES/51/7 7 November 1996. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  12. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 52 Document 456. A/52/456 13 October 1997. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  13. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 52 Resolution 7. A/RES/52/7 6 November 1997. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  14. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 53 Document 458. A/53/458 5 October 1998. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  15. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 53 Verbatim Report 46. A/53/PV.46 28 October 1998. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  16. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 53 Resolution 13. A/RES/53/13 Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  17. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 54 Document 379. A/54/379 21 September 1999. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  18. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 54 Verbatim Report 41. A/54/PV.41 27 October 1999. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  19. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 54 Verbotim Report 41. A/54/PV.41 page 20. The President 27 October 1999 at 15:00. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  20. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 54 Resolution 12. A/RES/54/12 18 November 1999. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  21. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Document 409. A/55/409 18 October 2000. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  22. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Verbatim Report 55. A/55/PV.55 8 November 2000. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  23. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Resolution 19. A/RES/55/19 Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  24. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 57 Resolution 32. A/RES/57/32 Retrieved 2007-09-10.
  25. ^ a b Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, 17 December 2004
  26. ^ Bridging the democracy gap in international relations: A stronger role for parliaments UNO Second World Conference of Speakers of Parliaments, New York, 7 to 9 September 2005
  27. ^ a b Resolution 61/6: Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 27 November 2006, at IPU official website
  28. ^ Cooperation with the UN: hearings at IPU official website
  29. ^ "Press Releases". www.hellenicparliament.gr. Retrieved 2015-10-01.
  30. ^ Etpu
  31. ^ Microsoft Word – 0447505e.doc
  32. ^ Microsoft Word – UND_GEN_N0254074_DOCU_N
  33. ^ Resolution 57/32. Observer status for the Inter-Parliamentary Union in the General Assembly 19 November 2002
  34. ^ Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union: Report of the Secretary-General—Summary at IPU official website, 3 September 2002
  35. ^ Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union: Report of the Secretary-General Full item, 25 September 1996, at UNO official website. Accessed 24 February 2014

External linksEdit