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List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896. These prizes are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[3] In 1901, van 't Hoff received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[4]

At least 25 laureates have received the Nobel Prize for contributions in the field of organic chemistry, more than any other field of chemistry.[5] Two Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry, Germans Richard Kuhn (1938) and Adolf Butenandt (1939), were not allowed by their government to accept the prize. They would later receive a medal and diploma, but not the money. Frederick Sanger is one out of two laureates to be awarded the Nobel prize twice in the same subject, in 1958 and 1980. John Bardeen is the other and was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956 and 1972. Two others have won Nobel Prizes twice, one in chemistry and one in another subject: Maria Skłodowska-Curie (physics in 1903, chemistry in 1911) and Linus Pauling (chemistry in 1954, peace in 1962).[6] As of 2018, the prize has been awarded to 180 individuals, including five women: Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie (1935), Dorothy Hodgkin (1964), Ada Yonath (2009), and Frances Arnold (2018).[7][8]

There have been eight years for which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was not awarded (1916, 1917, 1919, 1924, 1933, 1940-42). There were also nine years for which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was delayed for one year. The Prize was not awarded in 1914, as the Nobel Committee for Chemistry decided that none of that year's nominations met the necessary criteria, but was awarded to Theodore William Richards in 1915 and counted as the 1914 prize.[9] This precedent was followed for the 1918 prize awarded to Fritz Haber in 1919,[10], the 1920 prize awarded to Walther Nernst in 1921[11], the 1921 prize awarded to Frederick Soddy in 1922,[12], the 1925 prize awarded to Richard Zsigmondy in 1926,[13] the 1927 prize awarded to Heinrich Otto Wieland in 1928,[14] the 1938 prize awarded to Richard Kuhn in 1939,[15] the 1943 prize awarded to George de Hevesy in 1944,[16] and the 1944 prize awarded to Otto Hahn in 1945.[17]

LaureatesEdit

Year Image Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C] Ref
1901   Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff   Netherlands "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions" [18]
1902   Hermann Emil Fischer   Germany "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses" [19]
1903   Svante August Arrhenius   Sweden "[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation" [20]
1904   Sir William Ramsay   United Kingdom "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system" [21]
1905   Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer   Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds" [22]
1906   Henri Moissan   France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him" [23]
1907   Eduard Buchner   Germany "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation" [24]
1908   Ernest Rutherford   United Kingdom
  New Zealand
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances" [25]
1909   Wilhelm Ostwald   Germany "[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction" [26]
1910   Otto Wallach   Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds" [27]
1911   Maria Skłodowska-Curie   Poland
  France
"[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element" [28]
1912   Victor Grignard   France "for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent" [29]
  Paul Sabatier   France "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals" [29]
1913   Alfred Werner    Switzerland "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry" [30]
1914   Theodore William Richards   United States "[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements" [9]
1915   Richard Martin Willstätter   Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll" [31]
1916 Not awarded
1917
1918   Fritz Haber   Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements" [10]
1919 Not awarded
1920   Walther Hermann Nernst   Germany "[for] his work in thermochemistry" [11]
1921   Frederick Soddy   United Kingdom "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes" [12]
1922   Francis William Aston   United Kingdom "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule" [32]
1923   Fritz Pregl   Austria
  Kingdom of Yugoslavia
"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances" [33]
1924 Not awarded
1925   Richard Adolf Zsigmondy   Germany
  Hungary
"for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used" [13]
1926   The (Theodor) Svedberg   Sweden "for his work on disperse systems" [34]
1927   Heinrich Otto Wieland   Germany "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances" [14]
1928   Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus   Germany "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins" [35]
1929   Arthur Harden   United Kingdom "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes" [36]
  Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin   Sweden
1930   Hans Fischer   Germany "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin" [37]
1931   Carl Bosch   Germany "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods" [38]
  Friedrich Bergius   Germany
1932   Irving Langmuir   United States "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry" [39]
1933 Not awarded
1934   Harold Clayton Urey   United States "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen" [40]
1935   Frédéric Joliot   France "[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements" [41]
  Irène Joliot-Curie   France
1936   Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye   Netherlands "[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases" [42]
1937   Walter Norman Haworth   United Kingdom "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C" [43]
  Paul Karrer    Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938   Richard Kuhn   Germany "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins" [15]
1939   Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt   Germany "for his work on sex hormones" [44]
  Leopold Ruzicka   Kingdom of Yugoslavia
   Switzerland
"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes" [44]
1940 Not awarded
1941
1942
1943   George de Hevesy   Germany "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes" [16]
1944   Otto Hahn   Germany "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei" [17]
1945   Artturi Ilmari Virtanen   Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method" [45]
1946   James Batcheller Sumner   United States "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized" [46]
  John Howard Northrop   United States "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form" [46]
  Wendell Meredith Stanley   United States
1947   Sir Robert Robinson   United Kingdom "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids" [47]
1948   Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius   Sweden "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins" [48]
1949   William Francis Giauque   United States "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures" [49]
1950   Otto Paul Hermann Diels   West Germany "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis" [50]
  Kurt Alder   West Germany
1951   Edwin Mattison McMillan   United States "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements" [51]
  Glenn Theodore Seaborg   United States
1952   Archer John Porter Martin   United Kingdom "for their invention of partition chromatography" [52]
  Richard Laurence Millington Synge   United Kingdom
1953   Hermann Staudinger   West Germany "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry" [53]
1954   Linus Pauling   United States "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances" [54]
1955   Vincent du Vigneaud   United States "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone" [55]
1956   Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood   United Kingdom "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions" [56]
  Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov   Soviet Union
1957   Lord (Alexander R.) Todd   United Kingdom "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes" [57]
1958   Frederick Sanger   United Kingdom "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin" [58]
1959   Jaroslav Heyrovský   Czechoslovakia "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis" [59]
1960 Willard Frank Libby   United States "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science" [60]
1961   Melvin Calvin   United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants" [61]
1962   Max Ferdinand Perutz   United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins" [62]
  John Cowdery Kendrew   United Kingdom
1963   Karl Ziegler   West Germany "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers" [63]
  Giulio Natta   Italy
1964   Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin   United Kingdom "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances" [64]
1965   Robert Burns Woodward   United States "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis" [65]
1966   Robert S. Mulliken   United States "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method" [66]
1967   Manfred Eigen   West Germany "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy" [67]
  Ronald George Wreyford Norrish   United Kingdom
  George Porter   United Kingdom
1968   Lars Onsager   United States
  Norway
"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes" [68]
1969 Derek H. R. Barton   United Kingdom "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry" [69]
  Odd Hassel   Norway
1970   Luis F. Leloir   Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates" [70]
1971   Gerhard Herzberg   Canada
  West Germany
"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals" [71]
1972   Christian B. Anfinsen   United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation" [72]
Stanford Moore   United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule" [72]
William H. Stein   United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer   West Germany "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds" [73]
  Geoffrey Wilkinson   United Kingdom
1974   Paul J. Flory   United States "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules" [74]
1975   John Warcup Cornforth   Australia
  United Kingdom
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions" [75]
  Vladimir Prelog   Yugoslavia
   Switzerland
"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions" [75]
1976   William N. Lipscomb   United States "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding" [76]
1977   Ilya Prigogine   Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures" [77]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell   United Kingdom "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory" [78]
1979 Herbert C. Brown   United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis" [79]
Georg Wittig   West Germany
1980   Paul Berg   United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" [80]
  Walter Gilbert   United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids" [80]
  Frederick Sanger   United Kingdom
1981   Kenichi Fukui   Japan "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions" [81]
  Roald Hoffmann   United States
  Poland
1982   Aaron Klug   United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes" [82]
1983   Henry Taube   United States "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes" [83]
1984   Robert Bruce Merrifield   United States "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix" [84]
1985   Herbert A. Hauptman   United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures" [85]
  Jerome Karle   United States
1986   Dudley R. Herschbach   United States "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes" [86]
  Yuan T. Lee   United States
  Taiwan
John C. Polanyi   Canada
  Hungary
1987 Donald J. Cram   United States "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity" [87]
  Jean-Marie Lehn   France
Charles J. Pedersen   United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer   West Germany "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre" [88]
  Robert Huber   West Germany
  Hartmut Michel   West Germany
1989   Sidney Altman   Canada
  United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA" [89]
  Thomas Cech   United States
1990   Elias James Corey   United States "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis" [90]
1991   Richard R. Ernst    Switzerland "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy" [91]
1992   Rudolph A. Marcus   United States
  Canada
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems" [92]
1993   Kary B. Mullis   United States "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method" [93]
Michael Smith   Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies" [93]
1994   George A. Olah   United States
  Hungary
"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" [94]
1995   Paul J. Crutzen   Netherlands "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone" [95]
  Mario J. Molina   Mexico
  F. Sherwood Rowland   United States
1996   Robert F. Curl Jr.   United States "for their discovery of fullerenes" [96]
  Sir Harold W. Kroto   United Kingdom
  Richard E. Smalley   United States
1997   Paul D. Boyer   United States "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)" [97]
  John E. Walker   United Kingdom
  Jens C. Skou   Denmark "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase" [97]
1998   Walter Kohn   United States "for his development of the density-functional theory" [98]
  John A. Pople   United Kingdom "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry" [98]
1999   Ahmed Zewail   United States
  Egypt
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy" [99]
2000   Alan J. Heeger   United States "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers" [100]
  Alan G. MacDiarmid   United States
  New Zealand
  Hideki Shirakawa   Japan
2001 William S. Knowles   United States "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions" [101]
  Ryōji Noyori   Japan
K. Barry Sharpless   United States "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions" [101]
2002   John B. Fenn   United States "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules" [102]
  Koichi Tanaka   Japan
  Kurt Wüthrich    Switzerland "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution" [102]
2003   Peter Agre   United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels" [103]
  Roderick MacKinnon   United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels" [103]
2004   Aaron Ciechanover   Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation" [104]
  Avram Hershko   Israel
  Irwin Rose   United States
2005 Yves Chauvin   France "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis" [105]
  Robert H. Grubbs   United States
  Richard R. Schrock   United States
2006   Roger D. Kornberg   United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription" [106]
2007   Gerhard Ertl   Germany "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces" [107]
2008   Osamu Shimomura   Japan[108] "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP" [109]
  Martin Chalfie   United States
  Roger Y. Tsien   United States
2009   Venkatraman Ramakrishnan   United States
  India
  United Kingdom
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome" [110]
  Thomas A. Steitz   United States
  Ada E. Yonath   Israel
2010   Richard F. Heck   United States "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis" [111]
  Ei-ichi Negishi   Japan
  Akira Suzuki   Japan
2011   Dan Shechtman   Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals" [112]
2012   Robert Lefkowitz   United States "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors" [113]
  Brian Kobilka   United States
2013   Martin Karplus   United States
  Austria
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems" [114]
  Michael Levitt   United States
  United Kingdom
  Israel[115]
  Arieh Warshel   United States
  Israel
2014   Eric Betzig   United States "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy" [116]
  Stefan W. Hell   Germany
  Romania[117]
  William E. Moerner   United States
2015   Tomas Lindahl   Sweden
  United Kingdom
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair" [118]
  Paul L. Modrich   United States
  Aziz Sancar   United States
  Turkey
2016   Jean-Pierre Sauvage   France "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines" [119]
  Fraser Stoddart   United Kingdom
  United States
  Ben Feringa   Netherlands
2017   Jacques Dubochet    Switzerland "for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution" [120]
  Joachim Frank   Germany
  United States[121]
  Richard Henderson   United Kingdom
2018   Frances Arnold   United States "for the directed evolution of enzymes" [122]
  George Smith   United States "for the phage display of peptides and antibodies"
  Sir Gregory Winter   United Kingdom
2019   John B. Goodenough   United States "for the development of lithium ion batteries" [123]
M. Stanley Whittingham   United Kingdom
  United States
  Akira Yoshino   Japan

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of chemistry for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

CitationsEdit

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