Leopold Ružička [rǔʒitʃka]; 13 September 1887 – 26 September 1976) was a Croatian scientist and joint winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes" "including the first chemical synthesis of male sex hormones." He worked most of his life in Switzerland, and received eight doctor honoris causa in science, medicine, and law; seven prizes and medals; and twenty-four honorary memberships in chemical, biochemical, and other scientific societies.(Croatian pronunciation:
Lavoslav Stjepan Ružička
13 September 1887
|Died||26 September 1976 (aged 89)|
|Alma mater||Technische Hochschule Karlsruhe|
|Known for||Research on Terpenes|
|Awards||Marcel Benoist Prize (1938)|
Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1939)
Faraday Lectureship Prize (1958)
|Institutions||ETH Zurich, Utrecht University|
|Thesis||Über Phenylmethylketen (1911)|
|Doctoral advisor||Hermann Staudinger|
|Doctoral students||George Büchi|
Arie Jan Haagen-Smit
Moses Wolf Goldberg
Klaus H. Hofmann
Ružička was born in Vukovar, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Austro-Hungarian Empire (today in Croatia). His family of craftsmen and farmers was mostly of Croat origin, with a Czech great grandparent, Ružička, and a great grandmother and a great grandfather from Austria. He lost his father, Stjepan, at the age of four, and his mother, Amalija Sever, took him and his younger brother Stjepan, to live in Osijek.
Ružička attended the classics-program secondary school in Osijek. He changed his original idea of becoming a priest and switched to studying technical disciplines. Chemistry was his choice, probably because he hoped to get a position at the newly opened sugar refinery built in Osijek.
Owing to the excessive hardship of everyday and political life, he left and chose the High Technical School in Karlsruhe in Germany. He was a good student in areas he liked and that he thought would be necessary and beneficial in future, which was organic chemistry. That is why his physical chemistry professor, Fritz Haber (Nobel laureate in 1918), opposed his summa cum laude degree. However, in the course of his studies, Ružička set up excellent cooperation with Hermann Staudinger (a Nobel laureate in 1953). Studying within Staudinger's department, he obtained his doctoral degree in 1910, then moving to Zurich as Staudinger's assistant.
Career in researchEdit
Ružička's first works originated in the field of chemistry of natural compounds. He remained in this field of research all his life. He investigated the ingredients of the Dalmatian insect powder Pyrethrum (from the herb Tanacetum cinerariifolium), a highly esteemed insecticide found in pyrethrins, which were the focus of his work with Staudinger. Ruzicka later said of this time: "Toward the end of five and a half years of mainly synthetic work on the pyrethrins I had come to the firm conclusion that we were barking up the wrong tree." In this way, he came into contact with the chemistry of Terpineol, a fragrant oil of vegetable origin, interesting to the perfume industry. He and Staudinger split company when he started cooperation with the Chuit & Naef Company (later known as Firmenich) in Geneva.
In 1916–1917, he received the support of the oldest perfume manufacturer in the world Haarman & Reimer, of Holzminden, Germany. He became a Swiss citizen in 1917, and published his Habilitation in 1918. Fornasir and he isolated linalool in 1919.
With expertise in the terpene field, he became senior lecturer in 1918, and in 1923, honorary professor at the ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) as well the University in Zurich. Here, with a group of his doctoral students, he proved the structure of the compounds muscone and civetone, macrocyclic ketone scents derived from the musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) and the civet cat (Viverra civetta). These were the first natural products shown to have rings with more than six atoms, and at the time that Ružička inferred that civetone as having a 17-member ring. Synthetic techniques at the time were only known for rings of up to eight members. Muscone had been isolated in 1904 but was not identified as 3-methylcyclopentadecanone until Ružička suspected a macrocycle, having characterised civetone. He also developed a method for synthesising macrocycles, now known as the Ruzicka large ring synthesis, which he demonstrated by preparing civetone in 1927.
In 1921, the Geneva perfume manufacturers Chuit & Naef asked him to collaborate. Working here, Ružička achieved financial independence, but not as big as he had planned, so he left Zurich to start working for the Basel-based CIBA. In 1927, he took over the organic chemistry chair at Utrecht University in Netherlands. In Netherlands he remained for three years, and then returned to Switzerland, which was superior in its chemical industry. A synergistic upheaval in both the administration and chemistry departments coincided to make his good fortune.
In 1934, Ruzicka synthesized the male hormone androsterone and also proved "its constitutional and configurational relation to the sterols." This was followed in 1935 by the partial synthesis of the much more active male hormone testosterone. Both discoveries led to the pre-eminence of the Swiss industry in the steroid hormone field. At Zurich, at ETH he became professor of organic chemistry and started the most brilliant period of his professional career. He widened the area of his research, adding to it the chemistry of higher terpenes and steroids. After the successful synthesis in 1935 of sex hormones (androsterone and testosterone), his laboratory became the world center of organic chemistry. He was awarded in 1936 an honorary degree from Harvard University.
In 1939 he won the Nobel prize for chemistry with Adolf Butenandt. Over the period 1934-1939 he had published 70 papers in the field of medicinally important steroid sex hormones, and filed several dozen patents besides.
In 1940, following the award, he was invited by the Croatian Chemical Association, where he delivered a lecture to an over packed hall of dignitaries. The topic of the lecture was From the Dalmatian Insect Powder to Sex Hormones. In 1940 he became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1942 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society, and in 1944 he became an international member of the US National Academy of Sciences. During the World War II, some of his excellent collaborators were lost, but Ružička restructured his laboratory with new, younger and promising people; among them was young scientist and future Nobel Laureate Vladimir Prelog. With new people and ideas new research areas were opened.
Following 1950, Ružička returned to chemistry, which had entered a new era of research. Now he turned to the field of biochemistry, the problems of evolution and genesis of life, particularly to the biogenesis of terpenes. In 1953, he published his hypothesis, the Biogenetic Isoprene Rule (that the carbon skeleton of terpenes is composed variously of regularly or irregularly linked isoprene units), which was the peak of his scientific career. In 1952, Oskar Jeger and he supervised a team which isolated lanosterol and established the link between terpenes and steroids. Ružička retired in 1957, turning over the running of the laboratory to Prelog.
Later life, legacy, honours and awardsEdit
Ruzicka was the recipient of eight honorary doctorates and the 1938 Marcel Benoist Prize. He was listed as author on 583 scientific papers. In 1965, he became an honorary member of the Polish Chemical Society, and he was an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. After the war he acquired a taste for Dutch masterpieces, which he later lodged in the Kunsthaus Zürich as the Ruzicka collection. He militated against nuclear weapons.
Ružička dedicated significant efforts to the problems of education. He insisted on a better organization of academic education and scientific work in the new Yugoslavia, and established the Swiss-Yugoslav Society. Ružička became an honorary academician at the then Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb.
Ruzicka's archives are kept at ETH Zurich.
Ružička married twice: to Anna Hausmann in 1912, and 1951 to Gertrud Acklin. From 1929, he lived at Freudenbergstrasse 101 until the last years of his life. He died in Mammern, Switzerland, a village on Lake Constance at the age of 89.
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Now available from "Leopold Ružička Biography". nobelprize.org. Nobel Foundation. 1939. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939".
- Hillier, Stephen G.; Lathe, Richard (2019). "Terpenes, hormones and life: Isoprene rule revisited". Journal of Endocrinology. 242 (2): R9–R22. doi:10.1530/JOE-19-0084. PMID 31051473.
- Albert Eschenmoser: "Leopold Ruzicka - From the Isoprene Rule to the Question of Life's Origin" CHIMIA 44 (1990)
- "Leopold Ruzicka (1887–1976)". 26 October 2018.
- Sell, Charles S. (1999). "Ingredients for the Modern Perfumery Industry". In Pybus, David H.; Sell, Charles S. (eds.). The Chemistry of Fragrances (1st ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing. pp. 51–124. ISBN 9780854045280.
- Ružička, Leopold (1926). "Zur Kenntnis des Kohlenstoffringes I. Über die Konstitution des Zibetons". Helv. Chim. Acta (in German). 9 (1): 230–248. doi:10.1002/hlca.19260090129.
- Agrawal, O. P. (2009). "Alicyclic Compounds (Sections 7.11 to 7.13)". Organic Chemistry – Reactions and Reagents (46th ed.). Krishna Prakashan Media. pp. 237–246. ISBN 9788187224655.
- Pybus, David H. (2006). "The History of Aroma Chemistry and Perfume". In Sell, Charles S. (ed.). The Chemistry of Fragrances: From Perfumer to Consumer (2nd ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing. pp. 3–23. ISBN 9780854048243.
- Ružička, Leopold (1926). "Zur Kenntnis des Kohlenstoffringes VII. Über die Konstitution des Muscons". Helv. Chim. Acta (in German). 9 (1): 715–729. doi:10.1002/hlca.19260090197.
- Ružička, L.; Stoll, M.; Schinz, H. (1926). "Zur Kenntnis des Kohlenstoffringes II. Synthese der carbocyclischen Ketone vom Zehner- bis zum Achtzehnerring". Helv. Chim. Acta. 9 (1): 249–264. doi:10.1002/hlca.19260090130.
- Ružička, L.; Schinz, H.; Seidel, C. F. (1927). "Zur Kenntnis des Kohlenstoffringes IX. Über den Abbau von Zibeton, Zibetol und Zibetan". Helv. Chim. Acta (in German). 10 (1): 695–706. doi:10.1002/hlca.19270100188.
- Shyndriayeva, Galina (2015). "Perfume at the Forefront of Macrocyclic Compound Research: From Switzerland to Du Pont" (PDF). International Workshop on the History of Chemistry. Tokyo.
- "Dr. Leopold Ruzicka Dies M Switzerland at Age 89; Won Nobel in Chemistry". New York Times. 27 September 1976.
- Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan (2019). "ENDOCRINE HISTORY: The history of discovery, synthesis and development of testosterone for clinical use". European Journal of Endocrinology. 180 (6): R201–R212. doi:10.1530/EJE-19-0071. PMID 30959485.
- "Leopold Ruzicka".
- Ruzicka, L.; Lardon, F. (1946). "Zur Kenntnis der Triterpene. (105. Mitteilung) Über das Ambreïn, einen Bestandteil des grauen Ambra". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 29 (4): 912–921. doi:10.1002/hlca.19460290414.
- Ružička, Leopold (1953). "The isoprene rule and the biogenesis of terpenic compounds". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 9 (10): 357–367. doi:10.1007/BF02167631. PMID 13116962. S2CID 44195550.
- Voser, W., M. U. Mijovik, H. Heusser, O. Jeger u. L. Ruzicka: Über die Konstitution des Lanostadienols (Lanosterins) und seine Zugehörigkeit zu den Steroiden. Helv. chim. Acta 35, 2414 (1952).
- Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A.; Steensma, D. P. (2007). "Leopold Ruzicka--1939 Nobel Prize in chemistry". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (1): 1p preceding table of contents. PMID 17285778.
- "President of honour and honorary members of PTChem". Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "Leopold Ruzicka (1887–1976)".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leopold Ružička.|
- Speich, Daniel. "Leopold Ruzicka und das Verhältnis von Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft in der Chemie" (in German). ETH Zürich. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- Leopold Ružička on Nobelprize.org including the Nobel Lecture on December 12, 1945 Multimembered Rings, Higher Terpene Compounds and Male Sex Hormones