Toshihide Maskawa (or Masukawa) (益川 敏英, Masukawa Toshihide, born February 7, 1940 in Nagoya, Japan) is a Japanese theoretical physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one quarter of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature."
Maskawa in 2008
|Alma mater||Nagoya University|
|Known for||Work on CP violation|
|Awards||Sakurai Prize (1985)|
Japan Academy Prize (1985)
Asahi Prize (1994)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2008)
|Fields||High energy physics (theory)|
Kyoto Sangyo University
|Doctoral advisor||Shoichi Sakata|
Early life and educationEdit
After World War II ended, the Maskawa family operated as a sugar wholesaler. A native of Aichi Prefecture, Toshihide Maskawa graduated from Nagoya University in 1962 and received a Ph.D. degree in particle physics from the same university in 1967. His doctoral advisor was the physicist Shoichi Sakata.
From early life Maskawa liked trivia, also studied mathematics, chemistry, linguistics and various books. In high school, he loved novels, especially detective and mystery stories and novels by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa.
At Kyoto University in the early 1970s, he collaborated with Makoto Kobayashi on explaining broken symmetry (the CP violation) within the Standard Model of particle physics. Maskawa and Kobayashi's theory required that there be at least three generations of quarks, a prediction that was confirmed experimentally four years later by the discovery of the bottom quark.
Maskawa and Kobayashi's 1973 article, "CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction", is the fourth most cited high energy physics paper of all time as of 2010. The Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, which defines the mixing parameters between quarks was the result of this work. Kobayashi and Maskawa were jointly awarded half of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, with the other half going to Yoichiro Nambu.
Maskawa was director of the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics from 1997 to 2003. He is now special professor and director general of Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe at Nagoya University, director of Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture at Kyoto Sangyo University[permanent dead link] and professor emeritus at Kyoto University.
On 8 December 2008, after Maskawa told the audience "Sorry, I cannot speak English", he delivered his Nobel lecture on “What Did CP Violation Tell Us?” in Japanese language, at Stockholm University. The audience followed the subtitles on the screen behind him.
- July 1967 – Research Associate of the Faculty of Science, Nagoya University
- May 1970 – Research Associate of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University
- April 1976 – Associate Professor of the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo
- April 1980 – Professor of the Research Institute for Fundamental Physics (present Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics), Kyoto University
- November 1990 – Professor of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University
- 1995 – Councilor, Kyoto University
- October 2004 – Director of the Research Institute, Kyoto Sangyo University
- October 2007 – Distinguished Invited University Professor of Nagoya University
- April – Director Emeritus of KMI at Nagoya University
- April 2019 – Professor Emeritus of Kyoto Sangyo University
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
- "Toshihide Maskawa - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org.
- "Nagoya University World Class Researchers". Nagoya University.
- "Toshihide Maskawa". Kyoto University.
- M. Kobayashi, T. Maskawa (1973). "CP-Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction". Progress of Theoretical Physics. 49 (2): 652–657. Bibcode:1973PThPh..49..652K. doi:10.1143/PTP.49.652.
- "Top Cited Articles of All Time (2010 edition)". SLAC. 2009. Retrieved 2014-06-21.
- "History of YITP". Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics.
- Toshihide Maskawa - Nobel Lecture: What Does CP Violation Tell Us?
- Updated: Over Scientists' Objections, Japan Adopts State Secrets Law | Science | AAAS
- 「九条科学者の会」呼びかけ人メッセージ (2005.3.13)
- "益川敏英博士「日本の平和憲法は改悪の危機」". 朝鮮日報／朝鮮日報日本語版 (2013/07/14 01:31)。
- Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya University
- Toshihide Maskawa on Nobelprize.org
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