List of Nobel laureates in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4]

Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947

StatisticsEdit

The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to 221 individuals until 2022.[5] The first prize in physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK. John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice—in 1956 and 1972. Marie Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911.

William Lawrence Bragg was the youngest Nobel laureate in physics; he won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25. He was also the youngest laureate for any Nobel prize until 2014 (when Malala Yousafzai won the Nobel Peace Prize at age 17).[6] The oldest Nobel Prize laureate in physics was Arthur Ashkin who was 96 years old when he was awarded the prize in 2018.[7]

Only four women have won the prize: Curie, Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), Donna Strickland (2018), and Andrea Ghez (2020).[8]

There have been six years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded (1916, 1931, 1934, 1940–1942). There were also nine years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was delayed for one year:

Ioannidis et al. reported that half of the Nobel Prize for science awarded between 1995 and 2017 are clustered in few disciplines. Particle physics (14%), atomic physics (10.9%), and 3 non-physics disciplines are dominating the prize in recent decades. And then semiconductor physics and magnetics are the next most honoured physics disciplines.[18]

LaureatesEdit

Year Image Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C] Ref
1901   Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923)   German Empire "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" [19]
1902   Hendrik Lorentz (1853–1928)   Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena" [20]
  Pieter Zeeman (1865–1943)
1903   Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852–1908)   France "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity" [21]
  Pierre Curie (1859–1906) "for their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel" [21]
  Marie Skłodowska-Curie (1867–1934)   Poland
  France
1904   Lord Rayleigh (1842–1919)   United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies" [22]
1905   Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (1862–1947)   Austria-Hungary
  German Empire
"for his work on cathode rays" [23]
1906   Joseph John Thomson (1856–1940)   United Kingdom "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases" [24]
1907   Albert Abraham Michelson (1852–1931)   German Empire
  United States
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid" [25]
1908   Gabriel Lippmann (1845–1921)   France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference" [26]
1909   Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937)   Kingdom of Italy "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy" [27]
  Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850–1918)   German Empire
1910   Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837–1923)   Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids" [28]
1911   Wilhelm Wien (1864–1928)   German Empire "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat" [29]
1912   Nils Gustaf Dalén (1869–1937)   Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys" [30]
1913   Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes (1853–1926)   Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium" [31]
1914   Max von Laue (1879–1960)   German Empire "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals", an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy. [9]
1915   William Henry Bragg (1862–1942)   United Kingdom "'For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays', an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography" [32]
  William Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971)   Australia
  United Kingdom
1916 Not awarded due to World War I
1917   Charles Glover Barkla (1877–1944)   United Kingdom "'For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements', another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy" [10]
1918   Max Planck (1858–1947)   German Empire "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta" [11]
1919   Johannes Stark (1874–1957)   Weimar Republic "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" [33]
1920   Charles Édouard Guillaume (1861–1938)   Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys" [34]
1921   Albert Einstein (1879–1955)   Weimar Republic
  Switzerland
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect" [12]
1922   Niels Bohr (1885–1962)   Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" [35]
1923   Robert Andrews Millikan (1868–1953)   United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect" [36]
1924   Manne Siegbahn (1886–1978)   Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy" [13]
1925   James Franck (1882–1964)   Weimar Republic "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" [14]
  Gustav Hertz (1887–1975)
1926   Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870–1942)   France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium" [37]
1927   Arthur Holly Compton (1892–1962)   United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him" [38]
  Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869–1959)   United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour" [38]
1928   Owen Willans Richardson (1879–1959)   United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him" [15]
1929   Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie (1892–1987)   France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" [39]
1930   Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888–1970)   India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him" [40]
1931 Not awarded
1932   Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976)   Weimar Republic "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen" [16]
1933   Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961)   Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" [41]
  Paul Dirac (1902–1984)   United Kingdom
1934 Not awarded
1935   James Chadwick (1891–1974)   United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron" [42]
1936   Victor Francis Hess (1883–1964)   Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation" [43]
  Carl David Anderson (1905–1991)   United States "for his discovery of the positron" [43]
1937   Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881–1958)   United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" [44]
  George Paget Thomson (1892–1975)   United Kingdom
1938   Enrico Fermi (1901–1954)   Kingdom of Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons" [45]
1939   Ernest Lawrence (1901–1958)   United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements" [46]
1940 Not awarded due to World War II
1941 Not awarded due to World War II
1942 Not awarded due to World War II
1943   Otto Stern (1888–1969)   United States
  Weimar Republic
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton" [17][47]
1944   Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898–1988)   United States
  Poland
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" [48]
1945   Wolfgang Pauli (1900–1958)   Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle" [49]
1946   Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961)   United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics" [50]
1947   Edward Victor Appleton (1892–1965)   United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer" [51]
1948   Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett (1897–1974)   United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation" [52]
1949   Hideki Yukawa (1907–1981)   Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces" [53]
1950   Cecil Frank Powell (1903–1969)   United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method" [54]
1951   John Douglas Cockcroft (1897–1967)   United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles" [55]
  Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903–1995)   Ireland
1952   Felix Bloch (1905–1983)   Switzerland
  United States
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith" [56]
  Edward Mills Purcell (1912–1997)   United States
1953   Frits Zernike (1888–1966)   Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope" [57]
1954   Max Born (1882–1970)   West Germany "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" [58]
  Walther Bothe (1891–1957)   West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith" [58]
1955   Willis Eugene Lamb (1913–2008)   United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" [59]
  Polykarp Kusch (1911–1993) "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron" [59]
1956   John Bardeen (1908–1991)   United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect" [60]
  Walter Houser Brattain (1902–1987)
  William Bradford Shockley (1910–1989)
1957   Tsung-Dao Lee (b. 1926)   Republic of China "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" [61]
  Chen-Ning Yang (b. 1922)
1958   Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (1904–1990)   Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" [62]
  Ilya Frank (1908–1990)
  Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (1895–1971)
1959   Emilio Gino Segrè (1905–1989)   Italy
  United States
"for their discovery of the antiproton" [63]
  Owen Chamberlain (1920–2006)   United States
1960   Donald Arthur Glaser (1926–2013)   United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber" [64]
1961   Robert Hofstadter (1915–1990)   United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" [65]
  Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (1929–2011)   West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name" [65]
1962   Lev Davidovich Landau (1908–1968)   Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" [66]
1963   Eugene Paul Wigner (1902–1995)   Hungary
  United States
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles" [67]
  Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906–1972)   German Empire
  United States
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure" [67]
  J. Hans D. Jensen (1907–1973)   West Germany
1964   Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov (1922–2001)   Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle" [68]
  Alexander Prokhorov (1916–2002)
  Charles Hard Townes (1915–2015)   United States
1965   Richard Phillips Feynman (1918–1988)   United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" [69]
  Julian Schwinger (1918–1994)
  Shin'ichirō Tomonaga (1906–1979)   Japan
1966   Alfred Kastler (1902–1984)   France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms" [70]
1967   Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906–2005)   United States
  West Germany
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" [71]
1968   Luis Walter Alvarez (1911–1988)   United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" [72]
1969   Murray Gell-Mann (1929–2019)   United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions" [73]
1970   Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (1908–1995)   Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics" [74]
  Louis Néel (1904–2000)   France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics" [74]
1971   Dennis Gabor (1900–1979)   Hungary
  United Kingdom
"for his invention and development of the holographic method" [75]
1972   John Bardeen (1908–1991)   United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory" [76]
  Leon Neil Cooper (b. 1930)
  John Robert Schrieffer (1931–2019)
1973   Leo Esaki (b. 1925)   Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" [77]
  Ivar Giaever (b. 1929)   United States
  Norway
Brian David Josephson (b. 1940)   United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect" [77]
1974   Martin Ryle (1918–1984)   United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars" [78]
  Antony Hewish (1924–2021)
1975   Aage Bohr (1922–2009)   Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection" [79]
  Ben Roy Mottelson (1926–2022)
  Leo James Rainwater (1917–1986)   United States
1976   Samuel Chao Chung Ting (b. 1936)   Republic of China
  United States
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind" [80]
  Burton Richter (1931–2018)   United States
1977   Philip Warren Anderson (1923–2020)   United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems" [81]
  Nevill Francis Mott (1905–1996)   United Kingdom
  John Hasbrouck Van Vleck (1899–1980)   United States
1978   Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894–1984)   Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics" [82]
  Arno Allan Penzias (b. 1933)   United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation" [82]
  Robert Woodrow Wilson (b. 1936)
1979   Sheldon Glashow (b. 1932)   United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current" [83]
  Abdus Salam (1926–1996)   Pakistan
  Steven Weinberg (1933–2021)   United States
1980   James Watson Cronin (1931–2016)   United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons" [84]
  Val Logsdon Fitch (1923–2015)
1981   Nicolaas Bloembergen (1920–2017)   Netherlands
  United States
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" [85]
  Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921–1999)   United States
  Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn (1918–2007)   Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy" [85]
1982   Kenneth G. Wilson (1936–2013)   United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions" [86]
1983   Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910–1995)   India
  United States
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars" [87]
  William Alfred Fowler (1911–1995)   United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe" [87]
1984   Carlo Rubbia (b. 1934)   Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" [88]
  Simon van der Meer (1925–2011)   Netherlands
1985   Klaus von Klitzing (b. 1943)   West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" [89]
1986   Ernst Ruska (1906–1988)   West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope" [90]
  Gerd Binnig (b. 1947)   West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" [90]
  Heinrich Rohrer (1933–2013)   Switzerland
1987   Johannes Georg Bednorz (b. 1950)   West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials" [91]
  Karl Alexander Müller (b. 1927)   Switzerland
1988   Leon Max Lederman (1922–2018)   United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" [92]
  Melvin Schwartz (1932–2006)
  Jack Steinberger (1921–2020)
1989   Norman Foster Ramsey (1915–2011)   United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks" [93]
  Hans Georg Dehmelt (1922–2017)   United States
  West Germany
"for the development of the ion trap technique" [93]
  Wolfgang Paul (1913–1993)   West Germany
1990   Jerome I. Friedman (b. 1930)   United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics" [94]
  Henry Way Kendall (1926–1999)
  Richard E. Taylor (1929–2018)   Canada
1991   Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (1932–2007)   France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers" [95]
1992   Georges Charpak (1924–2010)   France
  Poland
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" [96]
1993   Russell Alan Hulse (b. 1950)   United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation" [97]
  Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. (b. 1941)
1994   Bertram Brockhouse (1918–2003)   Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [98]
  Clifford Glenwood Shull (1915–2001)   United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [98]
1995   Martin Lewis Perl (1927–2014)   United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [99]
  Frederick Reines (1918–1998) "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [99]
1996   David Morris Lee (b. 1931)   United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3" [100]
  Douglas D. Osheroff (b. 1945)
  Robert Coleman Richardson (1937–2013)
1997   Steven Chu (b. 1948)   United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light." [101]
  Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (b. 1933)   France
  William Daniel Phillips (b. 1948)   United States
1998   Robert B. Laughlin (b. 1950)   United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" [102]
  Horst Ludwig Störmer (b. 1949)   Germany
  Daniel Chee Tsui (b. 1939)   Republic of China
  United States
1999   Gerard 't Hooft (b. 1946)   Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics" [103]
  Martinus J. G. Veltman (1931–2021)
2000   Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (1930–2019)   Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics" [104]
  Herbert Kroemer (b. 1928)   Germany
  Jack St. Clair Kilby (1923–2005)   United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit" [104]
2001   Eric Allin Cornell (b. 1961)   United States "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates" [105]
  Carl Edwin Wieman (b. 1951)
  Wolfgang Ketterle (b. 1957)   Germany
2002   Raymond Davis Jr. (1914–2006)   United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" [106]
  Masatoshi Koshiba (1926–2020)   Japan
  Riccardo Giacconi (1931–2018)   Italy
  United States
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources" [106]
2003   Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov (1928–2017)   Russia
  United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" [107]
  Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg (1916–2009)   Russia
  Anthony James Leggett (b. 1938)   United Kingdom
  United States
2004   David J. Gross (b. 1941)   United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction" [108]
  Hugh David Politzer (b. 1949)
  Frank Wilczek (b. 1951)
2005   Roy J. Glauber (1925–2018)   United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" [109]
  John L. Hall (b. 1934) "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" [109]
  Theodor W. Hänsch (b. 1941)   Germany
2006   John C. Mather (b. 1946)   United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation" [110]
  George F. Smoot (b. 1945)
2007   Albert Fert (b. 1938)   France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance" [111]
  Peter Grünberg (1939–2018)   Germany
2008   Makoto Kobayashi (b. 1944)   Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" [112]
  Toshihide Maskawa (1940–2021)
  Yoichiro Nambu (1921–2015)   Japan
  United States
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" [112]
2009   Charles K. Kao (1933–2018)   Hong Kong
  United Kingdom
  United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" [113]
  Willard S. Boyle (1924–2011)   Canada
  United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor" [113]
  George E. Smith (b. 1930)   United States
2010   Andre Geim (b. 1958)   Russia
  United Kingdom
  Netherlands
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene" [114]
  Konstantin Novoselov (b. 1974)   Russia
  United Kingdom
2011   Saul Perlmutter (b. 1959)   United States "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae" [115]
  Brian P. Schmidt (b. 1967)   Australia
  United States
  Adam G. Riess (b. 1969)   United States
2012   Serge Haroche (b. 1944)   France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems." [116]
  David J. Wineland (b. 1944)   United States
2013   François Englert (b. 1932)   Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider" [117]
  Peter Higgs (b. 1929)   United Kingdom
2014   Isamu Akasaki (1929–2021)   Japan "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" [118]
  Hiroshi Amano (b. 1960)
  Shuji Nakamura (b. 1954)   Japan
  United States
2015   Takaaki Kajita (b. 1959)   Japan "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass" [119]
  Arthur B. McDonald (b. 1943)   Canada
2016   David J. Thouless (1934–2019)   United Kingdom "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter" [120]
  F. Duncan M. Haldane (b. 1951)   United Kingdom
  Slovenia
  John M. Kosterlitz (b. 1943)   United Kingdom
  United States[121]
2017   Rainer Weiss (b. 1932)   Germany
  United States
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves" [122]
  Kip Thorne (b. 1940)   United States
  Barry Barish (b. 1936)
2018   Arthur Ashkin (1922–2020)   United States "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems" [123]
  Gérard Mourou (b. 1944)   France "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"
  Donna Strickland (b. 1959)   Canada
2019   James Peebles (b. 1935)   Canada
  United States
"for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology" [124]
  Michel Mayor (b. 1942)   Switzerland "for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star"
  Didier Queloz (b. 1966)
2020   Roger Penrose (b. 1931)   United Kingdom "for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity" [125]
  Reinhard Genzel (b. 1952)   Germany "for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy"
  Andrea Ghez (b. 1965)   United States
2021   Syukuro Manabe (b. 1931)   Japan
  United States[126]
"for the physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming" [127]
  Klaus Hasselmann (b. 1931)   Germany
  Giorgio Parisi (b. 1948)   Italy "for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales"
2022   Alain Aspect (b. 1947)   France "for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science" [128]
  John Clauser (b. 1942)   United States
  Anton Zeilinger (b. 1945)   Austria

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org. ^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship. ^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physics for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
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SourcesEdit

External linksEdit