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List of Nobel laureates in Physics

Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4]

Contents

StatisticsEdit

The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice—in 1956 and 1972. Maria Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911. William Lawrence Bragg was, until October 2014, the youngest ever Nobel laureate; he won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25. He remains the youngest recipient of the Physics Prize.[5] Three women have won the prize: Curie, Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), and Donna Strickland (2018).[6] As of 2018, the prize has been awarded to 209 individuals.[7]

There have been six years in which the Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded (1916, 1931, 1934, 1940–1942). There were also eight years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was delayed for one year.The Prize was not awarded in 1917, as the Nobel Committee for Physics decided that none of that year's nominations met the necessary criteria, but was awarded to Charles Glover Barkla in 1918 and counted as the 1917 prize.[8] This precedent was followed for the 1918 prize awarded to Max Planck in 1919,[9] the 1921 prize awarded to Albert Einstein in 1922, [10], the 1924 prize awarded to Manne Siegbahn in 1925,[11] the 1925 prize awarded to James Franck and Gustav Hertz in 1926,[12] the 1928 prize awarded to Owen Richardson in 1929,[13] the 1932 prize awarded to Werner Heisenberg in 1933,[14] and the 1943 prize awarded to Otto Stern in 1944.[15]

LaureatesEdit

Year Image Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C] Ref
1901   Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen   Germany "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" [16]
1902   Hendrik Lorentz   Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena" [17]
  Pieter Zeeman   Netherlands
1903   Antoine Henri Becquerel   France "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity" [18]
  Pierre Curie   France "for their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel" [18]
  Maria Skłodowska-Curie   Poland
1904   Lord Rayleigh   United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies" [19]
1905   Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard   Austria-Hungary
  Germany
"for his work on cathode rays" [20]
1906   Joseph John Thomson   United Kingdom "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases" [21]
1907   Albert Abraham Michelson   United States
  Poland
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid" [22]
1908   Gabriel Lippmann   France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference" [23]
1909   Guglielmo Marconi   Italy "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy" [24]
  Karl Ferdinand Braun   Germany
1910   Johannes Diderik van der Waals   Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids" [25]
1911   Wilhelm Wien   Germany "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat" [26]
1912   Nils Gustaf Dalén   Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys" [27]
1913   Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes   Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium" [28]
1914   Max von Laue   Germany "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals", an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy. [29]
1915   William Henry Bragg   United Kingdom "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays", an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography [30]
  William Lawrence Bragg   Australia
  United Kingdom
1916 Not awarded World War I
1917   Charles Glover Barkla   United Kingdom "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements", another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy [8]
1918   Max Planck   Germany "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta" [9]
1919   Johannes Stark   Germany "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" [31]
1920   Charles Édouard Guillaume    Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys" [32]
1921   Albert Einstein   Germany
   Switzerland
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect" [10]
1922   Niels Bohr   Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" [33]
1923   Robert Andrews Millikan   United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect" [34]
1924   Manne Siegbahn   Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy" [11]
1925   James Franck   Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" [12]
  Gustav Hertz   Germany
1926   Jean Baptiste Perrin   France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium" [35]
1927   Arthur Holly Compton   United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him" [36]
  Charles Thomson Rees Wilson   United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour" [36]
1928   Owen Willans Richardson   United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him" [13]
1929   Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie   France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" [37]
1930   Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman   India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him" [38]
1931 Not awarded
1932   Werner Heisenberg   Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen" [14]
1933   Erwin Schrödinger   Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" [39]
  Paul Dirac   United Kingdom
1934 Not awarded
1935   James Chadwick   United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron" [40]
1936   Victor Francis Hess   Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation" [41]
  Carl David Anderson   United States "for his discovery of the positron" [41]
1937   Clinton Joseph Davisson   United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" [42]
  George Paget Thomson   United Kingdom
1938   Enrico Fermi   Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons" [43]
1939   Ernest Lawrence   United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements" [44]
1940 Not awarded World War II
1941 Not awarded World War II
1942 Not awarded World War II
1943   Otto Stern   United States
  Germany
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton" [15]
1944   Isidor Isaac Rabi   United States
  Poland
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" [45]
1945   Wolfgang Pauli   Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle" [46]
1946   Percy Williams Bridgman   United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics" [47]
1947   Edward Victor Appleton   United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer" [48]
1948   Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett   United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation" [49]
1949   Hideki Yukawa   Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces" [50]
1950   Cecil Frank Powell   United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method" [51]
1951   John Douglas Cockcroft   United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles" [52]
  Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton   United Kingdom (  Ireland)
1952   Felix Bloch    Switzerland
  United States
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith" [53]
  Edward Mills Purcell   United States
1953   Frits Zernike   Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope" [54]
1954   Max Born   West Germany "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" [55]
  Walther Bothe   West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith" [55]
1955   Willis Eugene Lamb   United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" [56]
  Polykarp Kusch   United States
  Germany
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron" [56]
1956   John Bardeen   United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect" [57]
  Walter Houser Brattain   United States
  William Bradford Shockley   United States
1957   Tsung-Dao Lee   Republic of China "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" [58]
  Chen-Ning Yang   Republic of China
1958   Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov   Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" [59]
  Ilya Frank   Soviet Union
  Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm   Soviet Union
1959   Emilio Gino Segrè   Italy
  United States
"for their discovery of the antiproton" [60]
  Owen Chamberlain   United States
1960   Donald Arthur Glaser   United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber" [61]
1961   Robert Hofstadter   United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" [62]
  Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer   West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name" [62]
1962   Lev Davidovich Landau   Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" [63]
1963   Eugene Paul Wigner   Hungary
  United States
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles" [64]
  Maria Goeppert-Mayer   United States "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure" [64]
  J. Hans D. Jensen   West Germany
1964   Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov   Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle" [65]
  Alexander Prokhorov   Soviet Union
  Charles Hard Townes   United States
1965   Richard Phillips Feynman   United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" [66]
  Julian Schwinger   United States
  Shin'ichirō Tomonaga   Japan
1966   Alfred Kastler   France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms" [67]
1967   Hans Albrecht Bethe   United States
  Germany
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" [68]
1968   Luis Walter Alvarez   United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" [69]
1969   Murray Gell-Mann   United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions" [70]
1970   Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén   Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics" [71]
  Louis Néel   France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics" [71]
1971   Dennis Gabor   Hungary
  United Kingdom
"for his invention and development of the holographic method" [72]
1972   John Bardeen   United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory" [73]
  Leon Neil Cooper   United States
  John Robert Schrieffer   United States
1973   Leo Esaki   Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" [74]
  Ivar Giaever   United States
  Norway
Brian David Josephson   United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect" [74]
1974 Martin Ryle   United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars" [75]
Antony Hewish   United Kingdom
1975   Aage Bohr   Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection" [76]
  Ben Roy Mottelson   Denmark
  Leo James Rainwater   United States
1976   Burton Richter   United States "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind" [77]
  Samuel Chao Chung Ting   United States
1977   Philip Warren Anderson   United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems" [78]
  Nevill Francis Mott   United Kingdom
  John Hasbrouck Van Vleck   United States
1978   Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa   Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics" [79]
  Arno Allan Penzias   United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation" [79]
  Robert Woodrow Wilson   United States
1979   Sheldon Lee Glashow   United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current" [80]
  Abdus Salam   Pakistan
  Steven Weinberg   United States
1980   James Watson Cronin   United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons" [81]
  Val Logsdon Fitch   United States
1981   Nicolaas Bloembergen   Netherlands
  United States
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" [82]
  Arthur Leonard Schawlow   United States
  Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn   Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy" [82]
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson   United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions" [83]
1983   Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar   India
  United States
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars" [84]
  William Alfred Fowler   United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe" [84]
1984   Carlo Rubbia   Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" [85]
  Simon van der Meer   Netherlands
1985   Klaus von Klitzing   West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" [86]
1986 Ernst Ruska   West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope" [87]
  Gerd Binnig   West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" [87]
  Heinrich Rohrer    Switzerland
1987   Johannes Georg Bednorz   West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials" [88]
  Karl Alexander Müller    Switzerland
1988   Leon Max Lederman   United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" [89]
Melvin Schwartz   United States
  Jack Steinberger   United States
1989   Norman Foster Ramsey   United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks" [90]
Hans Georg Dehmelt   United States
  Germany
"for the development of the ion trap technique" [90]
Wolfgang Paul   West Germany
1990   Jerome I. Friedman   United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics" [91]
  Henry Way Kendall   United States
  Richard E. Taylor   Canada
1991   Pierre-Gilles de Gennes   France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers" [92]
1992   Georges Charpak   France
  Poland
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" [93]
1993   Russell Alan Hulse   United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation" [94]
  Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.   United States
1994   Bertram Brockhouse   Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [95]
  Clifford Glenwood Shull   United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [95]
1995   Martin Lewis Perl   United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [96]
  Frederick Reines   United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [96]
1996   David Morris Lee   United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3" [97]
  Douglas D. Osheroff   United States
  Robert Coleman Richardson   United States
1997   Steven Chu   United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light." [98]
  Claude Cohen-Tannoudji   France
  William Daniel Phillips   United States
1998   Robert B. Laughlin   United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" [99]
  Horst Ludwig Störmer   Germany
  Daniel Chee Tsui   Republic of China
  United States
1999   Gerard 't Hooft   Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics" [100]
  Martinus J. G. Veltman   Netherlands
2000   Zhores Ivanovich Alferov   Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics" [101]
  Herbert Kroemer   Germany
Jack St. Clair Kilby   United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit" [101]
2001   Eric Allin Cornell   United States "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates" [102]
  Carl Edwin Wieman   United States
  Wolfgang Ketterle   Germany
2002   Raymond Davis Jr.   United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" [103]
  Masatoshi Koshiba   Japan
  Riccardo Giacconi   Italy
  United States
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources" [103]
2003   Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov   Russia
  United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" [104]
  Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg   Russia
  Anthony James Leggett   United Kingdom
  United States
2004   David J. Gross   United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction" [105]
Hugh David Politzer   United States
  Frank Wilczek   United States
2005   Roy J. Glauber   United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" [106]
  John L. Hall   United States "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" [106]
  Theodor W. Hänsch   Germany
2006   John C. Mather   United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation" [107]
  George F. Smoot   United States
2007   Albert Fert   France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance" [108]
  Peter Grünberg   Germany
2008   Makoto Kobayashi   Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" [109]
  Toshihide Maskawa   Japan
  Yoichiro Nambu   Japan
  United States
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" [109]
2009   Charles K. Kao   Hong Kong
  United Kingdom
  United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" [110]
  Willard S. Boyle   Canada
  United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor" [110]
  George E. Smith   United States
2010   Andre Geim   Russia
  United Kingdom
  Netherlands
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene" [111]
  Konstantin Novoselov   Russia
  United Kingdom
2011   Saul Perlmutter   United States "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae" [112]
  Brian P. Schmidt   Australia
  United States
  Adam G. Riess   United States
2012   Serge Haroche   France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems." [113]
  David J. Wineland   United States
2013   François Englert   Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider" [114]
  Peter Higgs   United Kingdom
2014   Isamu Akasaki   Japan "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" [115]
  Hiroshi Amano   Japan
  Shuji Nakamura   Japan
  United States
2015   Takaaki Kajita   Japan "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass" [116]
  Arthur B. McDonald   Canada
2016   David J. Thouless   United Kingdom "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter" [117]
  F. Duncan M. Haldane   United Kingdom
  John M. Kosterlitz   United Kingdom
2017   Rainer Weiss   Germany
  United States
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves" [118]
  Kip Thorne   United States
  Barry Barish   United States
2018   Arthur Ashkin   United States "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems" [119]
  Gérard Mourou   France "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"
  Donna Strickland   Canada

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physics for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
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  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  5. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  6. ^ "Nobel prize awarded women". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  7. ^ "All Nobel Prizes in Physics". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  8. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  9. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  10. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  11. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  12. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  13. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  14. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  15. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
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  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  36. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  37. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  38. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  39. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  40. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  41. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  42. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
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  44. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  45. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
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  47. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  48. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
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  50. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
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  53. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
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