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Sir Frederick Grant Banting KBE MC FRS FRSC[1] (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.[2]


Frederick Grant Banting

Fredrick banting.jpg
Banting in 1931
Born(1891-11-14)November 14, 1891
DiedFebruary 21, 1941(1941-02-21) (aged 49)
NationalityCanadian
Alma materUniversity of Toronto
Known forCo-discoverer of insulin
Spouse(s)
Marion Robertson
(m. 1924; div. 1932)

Henrietta Ball
(m. 1937; his death 1941)
Children1
Awards
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversity of Western Ontario
Signature
Frederick Banting Signature.svg

Military career
Allegiance Canada
Service/branchRoyal Canadian Army Medical Corps
Years of service1916–1918
RankCaptain
Battles/warsWorld War I
AwardsMilitary Cross

In 1923 Banting and John James Rickard Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine.[3][4][5] Banting shared the honours and award money with his colleague, Dr. Charles Best. As of November 2018, Banting, who received the Nobel Prize at age 32, remains the youngest Nobel laureate in the area of Physiology/Medicine.[6] In 1923 the Government of Canada granted Banting a lifetime annuity to continue his work.[7] In 1934 he was knighted by King George V.[8]

Contents

Early yearsEdit

 
View of the Banting farm. Site preserved under the Ontario Heritage Act, with a plaque from the Federal Government recognizing Banting.

Frederick Banting was born on November 14, 1891, in a farm house near Alliston, Ontario.[9] The youngest of five children of William Thompson Banting and Margaret Grant,[10] he attended public high school in Alliston. In 1910, he started at Victoria College, part of the University of Toronto, in the General Arts program. After failing his first year, he petitioned to join the medical program in 1912 and was accepted. He began medical school in September 1912.[11]:28–29

In 1914, he attempted to enter the army on August 16, and then again in October, but was refused due to poor eyesight.[11]:33–34 Banting successfully joined the army in 1915 and spent the summer training before returning to school. His class was fast-tracked to get more doctors into the war and so he graduated in December 1916 and reported for military duty the next day.[11]:36–37 He was wounded at the Battle of Cambrai in 1918. Despite his injuries, he helped other wounded men for sixteen hours, until another doctor told him to stop. He was awarded the Military Cross in 1919, for heroism.[12] In 1918, he was awarded the licence to practice medicine, surgery, and midwifery by the Royal College of Physicians of London.[13]

Banting returned to Canada after the war and went to Toronto to complete his surgical training.[11]:44 He studied orthopedic medicine and, in 1919–1920, was Resident Surgeon at The Hospital for Sick Children. Banting was unable to gain a place on the hospital staff and so he decided to move to London, Ontario to set up a medical practice. From July 1920 to May 1921, he continued his general practice, while teaching orthopedics and anthropology part-time at the University of Western Ontario in London because his medical practice had not been particularly successful.[11]:48 From 1921 to 1922 he lectured in pharmacology at the University of Toronto. He received his M.D. degree in 1922,[14] and was also awarded a gold medal.[12]

Medical ResearchEdit

Isolation of insulinEdit

 
Charles H. Best and Banting, c. 1924.

An article he read about the pancreas piqued Banting's interest in diabetes. Banting had to give a talk on the pancreas to one of his classes at the University of Western Ontario on November 1, 1920, and he was therefore reading reports that other scientists had written.[11]:51–52 Research by Naunyn, Minkowski, Opie, Sharpey-Schafer, and others suggested that diabetes resulted from a lack of a protein hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Schafer had named this putative hormone "insulin". The hormone was thought to control the metabolism of sugar; its lack led to an increase of sugar in the blood which was then excreted in urine. Attempts to extract insulin from ground-up pancreas cells were unsuccessful, likely because of the destruction of the insulin by the proteolysis enzyme of the pancreas. The challenge was to find a way to extract insulin from the pancreas prior to its being destroyed.[12]

Moses Barron published an article in 1920 which described experimental closure of the pancreatic duct by ligature; this further influenced Banting's thinking. The procedure caused deterioration of the cells of the pancreas that secrete trypsin which breaks down insulin, but it left the islets of Langerhans intact. Banting realized that this procedure would destroy the trypsin-secreting cells but not the insulin. Once the trypsin-secreting cells had died, insulin could be extracted from the islets of Langerhans. Banting discussed this approach with J. J. R. Macleod, Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto. Macleod provided experimental facilities and the assistance of one of his students, Charles Best. Banting and Best, with the assistance of biochemist James Collip, began the production of insulin by this means.[12]

As the experiments proceeded, the required quantities could no longer be obtained by performing surgery on living dogs. In November 1921, Banting hit upon the idea of obtaining insulin from the fetal pancreas. He removed the pancreases from fetal calves at a William Davies slaughterhouse and found the extracts to be just as potent as those extracted from the dog pancreases. By December 1921, he had also succeeded in extracting insulin from the adult pancreas.[15] Pork and beef would remain the primary commercial sources of insulin until they were replaced by genetically-engineered bacteria in the late 20th century. In spring of 1922, Banting established a private practice in Toronto and began to treat diabetic patients. His first American patient was Elizabeth Hughes Gossett, daughter of U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes.[16]

Banting and Macleod were jointly awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Banting split his half of the Prize money with Best, and Macleod split the other half of the Prize money with James Collip.[16]

After insulinEdit

Banting was appointed Senior Demonstrator in Medicine at the University of Toronto in 1922. The following year he was elected to the new Banting and Best Chair of Medical Research, endowed by the Legislature of the Province of Ontario. He also served as Honorary Consulting Physician to the Toronto General, the Hospital for Sick Children, and the Toronto Western Hospital. At the Banting and Best Institute, he focused his research on silicosis, cancer, and the mechanisms of drowning.

In 1938, Banting's interest in aviation medicine resulted in his participation with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in research concerning the physiological problems encountered by pilots operating high-altitude combat aircraft. Banting headed the RCAF's Number 1 Clinical Investigation Unit (CIU), which was housed in a secret facility on the grounds of the former Eglinton Hunt Club in Toronto.[17]

During the Second World War he investigated the problems of aviators, such as "blackout" (syncope).[12] He also helped Wilbur Franks with the invention of the G-suit to stop pilots from blacking out when they were subjected to g-forces while turning or diving.[11]:255 Another of Banting's projects during the Second World War involved using and treating mustard gas burns. Banting even tested the gas and antidotes on himself to see if they were effective.[11]:256

Public StatementsEdit

Statements on Hudson's Bay CompanyEdit

 
Jackson and Banting on the S. S. Beothic, 1927

During his 1927 Arctic trip with A. Y. Jackson, Banting realised that crew or passengers onboard the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) paddle wheeler SS Distributor were responsible for spreading the influenza virus down the Slave River and Mackenzie River, a virus that had over the summer and autumn spread territory-wide, devastating the aboriginal population of the north.[18] Returning from the trip, Banting gave an interview in Montreal with a Toronto Star reporter under the agreement that his statements on HBC would remain off the record.[19] The conversation was nonetheless published in the Toronto Star and rapidly reached a wide audience across Europe and Australia.[19][20] Banting was angry at the leak, having promised the Department of the Interior not to make any statements to the press prior to clearing them.[20]

The article noted that Banting had given the journalist C. R. Greenaway repeated instances of how the fox fur trade always favoured the company: "For over $100,000 of fox skins, he estimated that the Eskimos had not received $5,000 worth of goods."[20] He traced this treatment to health, consistent with reports made in previous years by RCMP officers, suggesting that "the result was a diet of "flour, biscuits, tea and tobacco," with the skins that once were used for clothing traded merely for "cheap whiteman's goods.""[20]

The fur trade commissioner for the Hudson's Bay Company called Banting's remarks "false and slanderous", and a month later, the governor and general manager of HBC met Banting at The Omni King Edward Hotel to demand a retraction.[20][19] Banting stated that the reporter had betrayed his confidence, but did not retract his statement and reaffirmed that HBC was responsible for the death of indigenous residents by supplying the wrong kind of food and introducing diseases into the Arctic.[19] As A. Y. Jackson notes in his memoir, since neither the governor nor the general manager had been to the Arctic, the meeting ended with them asking Banting's advice on what HBC ought to do: "He gave them some good advice and later he received a card at Christmas with the Governor's best wishes."[19]

Banting also maintained this position in his report to the Department of the Interior[20]:

He noted that “infant mortality was high because of the undernourishment of the mother before birth”; that “white man’s food leads to decay of native teeth”; that “tuberculosis has commenced. Saw several cases at Godhavn, Etah, Port Burwell, Arctic Bay”; that “an epidemic resembling influenza killed a considerable proportion of population at Port Burwell”; and that “the gravest danger faces the Eskimo in his transfer from a race-long hunter to a dependent trapper. White flour, sea-biscuits, tea and tobacco do not provide sufficient fuel to warm and nourish him.” Furthermore, he discouraged the establishment of an Arctic hospital. The “proposed hospital at Pangnirtung would be a waste of money, as it could be reached by only a few natives.” Banting's report contrasted starkly with the bland descriptions provided by the ship's physician, F. H. Stringer.

Personal lifeEdit

 
Banting and Marion Robertson on their wedding day

Banting married twice. His first marriage was to Marion Robertson in 1924; they had one child, William (born 1929-, died 1998). They divorced in 1932 and Banting married Henrietta Ball in 1937.[12]

In February 1941, Banting died of wounds and exposure following the crash of a Lockheed L-14 Super Electra/Hudson in which he was a passenger, in Musgrave Harbour, Newfoundland. After departing from Gander, Newfoundland, both of the plane's engines failed.[21] The navigator and co-pilot died instantly, but Banting and the pilot, Captain Joseph Mackey, survived the initial impact. According to Mackey, the sole survivor, Banting died from his injuries the next day.[22] Banting was en route to England to conduct operational tests on the Franks flying suit developed by his colleague Wilbur Franks.[23]

Banting and his wife are buried at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto.[24]

PaintingEdit

Banting developed an interest in painting beginning around 1921 while he was in London, Ontario. Some of his first pieces were done on the back of the cardboard in which his shirts were packed by the dry-cleaners.[11]:51 He became friends with The Group of Seven artists A. Y. Jackson and Lawren Harris, sharing their love of the rugged Canadian landscape.[19][25] Writing on Banting, Jackson recalls that "He did not want to make a business of art and would tell [would-be purchasers] to go buy a Lismer or something else and then he would exchange it for one of his."[19]

In 1927 he made a sketching trip with Jackson to the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. Later that year they traveled to RCMP outposts in the Arctic on the Canadian Government supply ship Beothic. The sketches, done both in oils on birch panels and in pen and ink, were named after the places he visited: Craig Harbour, Ellesmere Island; Pond Inlet, Baylot Island; Eskimo tents at Etach; others were untitled. Jackson and Banting also made painting expeditions to Great Slave Lake, Walsh Lake (Northwest Territories), Georgian Bay, French River and the Sudbury District.[26]

At the time of his death in 1941, Banting was one of Canada's best-known amateur painters.[25] Dennis Reid, the former director of Collections and Research at the Art Gallery of Ontario, views Banting's works as very much "part of the Jackson story."[27]

LegacyEdit

In 1994 Banting was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. In 2004, he was nominated as one of the top 10 "Greatest Canadians" by viewers of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. When the final votes were counted, Banting finished fourth behind Tommy Douglas, Terry Fox and Pierre Trudeau.

NamesakesEdit

 
Oil painting of Banting in 1925 by Tibor Polya, now in the possession of the National Portrait Gallery of Canada

Banting's namesake, the Banting Research Foundation, was created in 1925 and provides funding to support health and biomedical research in Canada.[28]

Banting's name is immortalised in the yearly Banting Lectures, given by an expert in diabetes, and by the creation of the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research of the University of Toronto; Sir Frederick G Banting Research Centre located on Sir Frederick Banting Driveway in the Tunney's Pasture complex, Ottawa, ON;[29] Banting Memorial High School in Alliston, ON; Sir Frederick Banting Secondary School in London, ON; Sir Frederick Banting Alternative Program Site in Ottawa, ON; Frederick Banting Elementary School in Montréal-Nord QC and École Banting Middle School in Coquitlam, BC.

The "Major Sir Frederick Banting, MC, RCAMC Award for Military Health Research", sponsored by the True Patriot Love Foundation, is awarded annually by the Surgeon General to the researcher whose work presented at the annual Military and Veterans Health Research Forum is deemed to contribute most to military health. It was first awarded in 2011 in the presence of several Banting descendants.[30][31]

The "Canadian Forces Major Sir Frederick Banting Term Chair in Military Trauma Research" at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre was established in 2012. The first Chair holder is Colonel Homer Tien, Medical Director of Sunnybrook's Tory Regional Trauma Centre and Senior Specialist and Trauma Adviser to the Surgeon General.[32][33]

The Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship Program is administered by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. The fellowship provided up to two years of funding at $70,000 per year to researchers in health, natural sciences, engineering, social sciences and humanities. [34][35]

PropertiesEdit

Banting House, his former home located in London, Ontario, was declared a National Historic Site of Canada in 1997.[36][37] The Banting Interpretation Centre in Musgrave Harbour, Newfoundland and Labrador is a museum named after him which focuses on the circumstances surrounding the 1941 plane crash which claimed his life. The crater Banting on the Moon is also named after him for his contributions to medicine.

During the voting for "Greatest Canadians" in late 2003, controversy rose over the future use of the Banting family farm in New Tecumseth which had been left to the Ontario Historical Society by Banting's late nephew, Edward, in 1998. The dispute centred on the future use of the 40 ha (100 acre) property and its buildings. In a year-long negotiation, assisted by a provincially appointed facilitator, the Town of New Tecumseth offered $1 million to the Ontario Historical Society (OHS). The town intended to turn the property over to the Sir Frederick Banting Legacy Foundation for preservation of the property and buildings, and the Legacy Foundation planned to erect a Camp for Diabetic Youths. The day after the November 22, 2006, deadline for the OHS to sign the agreement, the OHS announced that it had sold the property for housing development to Solmar Development for more than $2 million.[38]

The Town of New Tecumseth announced it would designate the property under the Ontario Heritage Act. This would prevent its commercial development and obligate the owner to maintain it properly. OHS objected. The Ontario Conservation Review Board heard arguments for and against designation in September 2007 and recommended designation of the entire property in October. The Town officially passed the designation by-law on November 12, 2007.[39]

Banting's artwork has gained attention in the art community; A painting of his called "St. Tîte des Cap" sold for Can$30,000 including buyer's premium at a Canadian art auction in Toronto.[40]

Portrayals in filmEdit

He and his insulin discovery have also been depicted in various media formats, including comic books, the biography by Michael Bliss, and on television. The National Film Board of Canada produced a short film in 1958, The Quest.[41] The 1988 television movie Glory Enough for All depicted the search for insulin by Banting and Best, with R. H. Thomson starring as Banting. Banting is also portrayed by Jason Priestley boarding his fatal flight in the 2006 historical drama Above and Beyond.

Awards and honoursEdit

Prior to the award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1923[5][4]—which he shared with Macleod—he received the Reeve Prize of the University of Toronto (1922).[42] In 1923, the Canadian Parliament granted him a Life Annuity of $7,500.[7] In 1928 Banting gave the Cameron Lecture in Edinburgh. He was a member of numerous medical academies and societies in Canada and abroad, including the British and American Physiological Societies, and the American Pharmacological Society. In 1934 he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE)[8] and became an active Vice-President of the Diabetic Association (now Diabetes UK). In May 1935 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.[1][43][44] In 2004, Banting was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Flame of HopeEdit

A "Flame of Hope" was lit by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother[45] in 1989 as a tribute to Dr. Frederick Grant Banting and all the people that have lost their lives to diabetes. The flame will remain lit until there is a cure for diabetes.[46] When a cure is found, the flame will be extinguished by the researchers who discover the cure. The flame is located at Sir Frederick Banting Square in London, Ontario, Canada beside the Banting House National Historic Site of Canada.[45][47]

Time capsuleEdit

A time capsule was buried in the Sir Frederick Banting Square in 1991 to honour the 100th anniversary of Sir Frederick Banting's birth. It was buried by the International Diabetes Federation Youth Representatives and Governor General of Canada Ray Hnatyshyn. It will be exhumed if a cure for diabetes is found.[48]

Honorary degreesEdit

Sir Frederick Banting received honorary degrees from several Universities:

Honorific eponymsEdit

Events
Schools

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Best, C. H. (November 1, 1942). "Frederick Grant Banting 1891–1941". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 4 (11): 20–26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1942.0003.
  2. ^ "Frederick Grant Banting (1891–1941) Codiscoverer of Insulin". Journal of the American Medical Association. 198 (6): 660–61. 1966. doi:10.1001/jama.1966.03110190142041.
  3. ^ "Frederick G. Banting - Facts". NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  4. ^ a b Royal Karolinska Institute (October 25, 1923). "Citation to F. G. Banting and J. J. R. Macleod accompanying the Nobel Prize". University of Toronto Libraries.
  5. ^ a b Royal Karolinska Institute (1923). "Nobel Prize medal inscribed to F. G. Banting". University of Toronto Libraries.
  6. ^ "Nobel Laureates by Age". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Toronto Daily Star (June 28, 1923). "Canada rewards Banting's service. Young physician will receive $7,500 yearly from federal treasury". University of Toronto Libraries.
  8. ^ a b Order of the British Empire (June 4, 1934). "Certificate granting F. G. Banting the title of K. B. E." University of Toronto Libraries.
  9. ^ Levine, Israel E. (1959). The Discoverer of Insulin: Dr. Frederick G. Banting. Copp Clark Publishing Company.
  10. ^ "Frederick Grant Banting". Library and Archives Canada. February 24, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bliss, Michael (1992) [1984]. Banting: A Biography. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-7387-7.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Frederick G. Banting – Biography". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
  13. ^ Royal College of Physicians of London (July 25, 1918). "Certificate granting F.G. Banting license to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery". University of Toronto Libraries.
  14. ^ University of Toronto (June 9, 1922). "Certificate from the University of Toronto granting F. G. Banting the degree of M.D." University of Toronto Libraries.
  15. ^ Rosenfeld, Louis (December 1, 2002). "Insulin: Discovery and Controversy". Clinical Chemistry. 48 (12): 2270–2288. ISSN 0009-9147.
  16. ^ a b Bliss, Michael (1982). The Discovery of Insulin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226058979.
  17. ^ Canadian Space Agency. Canada's Aerospace Medicine Pioneers – World War II Jump-Starts Aviation Medicine in Canada. Retrieved January 3, 2012. Archived October 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre, Yellowknife. "1925-1949, Historical Timeline of the Northwest Territories". Historical Timeline of the Northwest Territories. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Jackson, Alexander Young (May 15, 1965). "Men and books: Memories of a fellow artist, Frederick Grant Banting". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 92: 1077–1084 – via University of Toronto Libraries.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Tester, Frank James; McNicoll, Paule (November 2008). "A Voice of Presence: Inuit Contributions toward the Public Provision of Health Care in Canada, 1900-1930". Social History / Histoire Sociale. 41 (82): 535–561. doi:10.1353/his.0.0034.
  21. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident 20-FEB-1941 Lockheed Hudson Mark III T9449". Aviation-safety.net. September 19, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  22. ^ Stevens, James (July 6, 2006). The Maw: Searching for the Hudson Bombers. Trafford. pp. 41–43. ISBN 978-1412063845.
  23. ^ National Defence Canada, Canadian Forces Health Services. History and Heritage. Chapter IV: Heroes and Honours. Retrieved January 3, 2012. Archived May 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Mount Pleasant Cemetery Website
  25. ^ a b Wilton, Peter (November 16, 1999). "Frederick Banting and the Group of Seven". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 161 (10): 1232. PMC 1230768.
  26. ^ MacDonald, Colin S. "Banting, F. G. (Frederick Grant), Sir". A Dictionary of Canadian Artists. 1. National Gallery of Canada. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013.
  27. ^ Fraser, Lynn (October 5, 2010). "The determined painter: Sir Frederick Banting". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 182 (14): E702–E704. doi:10.1503/cmaj.101232. PMC 2950206 – via ProQuest.
  28. ^ "History". Banting Research Foundation. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  29. ^ "Sir Frederick G. Banting Research Centre". Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. January 1994. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  30. ^ http://www.cimvhr.ca/forum/pdf/Banting.pdf. Retrieved November 29, 2012.[dead link]
  31. ^ http://www.forces.gc.ca/health-sante/wn-qn/bulletin/2012/ba-pb-eng.asp. Retrieved November 29, 2012. Archived May 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/mobil/news-nouvelles-eng.asp?id=4297. Retrieved November 29, 2012. Archived May 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Military research chair awarded" (Press release). Sunnybrook Foundation. July 4, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
  34. ^ "Banting Postdoctoral Fellowships". Government of Canada. February 22, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  35. ^ "Banting Postdoctoral Fellowships Program". Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. June 28, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  36. ^ "Banting House National Historic Site of Canada". Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. March 15, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  37. ^ "Banting House National Historic Site of Canada". HistoricPlaces.ca. Parks Canada. November 23, 1997. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  38. ^ Fletcher, K (June 5, 2007). "Sir Frederick Banting homestead sold to developer, family outraged". Journal of the Canadian Medical Association (PDF). 176 (12): 1691–92. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070613. PMC 1877854. PMID 17548378.
  39. ^ Banting, Peter M., Dr. (November 23, 2007). "The Banting Homestead is now protected!". The Global Gazette. GlobalGenealogy.com. Archived from the original on December 25, 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
  40. ^ "Auction Result". Ritchies. November 20, 2006. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007.
  41. ^ Gary Evans, In the National Interest: A Chronicle of the National Film Board of Canada from 1949 to 1989. University of Toronto Press, 1991. ISBN 9780802068330. p. 55.
  42. ^ "Winners named for Reeve prize: F.G. Banting and C.H. Best are Granted Award". University of Toronto Libraries. October 1922.
  43. ^ "List of Fellows of the Royal Society 1660 – 2007" (PDF). Royal Society. July 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  44. ^ "Banting, Sir Frederick Grant". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  45. ^ a b "Sir Frederick G. Banting Square". Canadian Diabetes Association. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  46. ^ "Frederick Banting". Diabetes.co.uk. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  47. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Aitken, Bob; Eaton, Diane; Holland, Dick; Montgomery, John; Riddock, Sonia (2000). Canada: A Nation Unfolding (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Ryerson School.
  48. ^ "History of Diabetes". Canadian Diabetes Association. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  49. ^ "Honorary Degrees Awarded, 1881–present" (PDF). University of Western Ontario. p. 30. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  50. ^ a b c d e f "Banting, Frederick Grant, Sir, Papers" (PDF). Library.utoronto.ca. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  51. ^ "Nobel Prize.Org". Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  52. ^ "McGill University Honorary Degree Recipients" (PDF). McGill University. Retrieved July 29, 2015.[permanent dead link]

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit