London is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada, along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city had a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census. London is at the confluence of the Thames River, approximately 200 km (120 mi) from both Toronto and Detroit; and about 230 km (140 mi) from Buffalo, New York. The city of London is a separated municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County, though it remains the county seat.
|City of London|
"The Forest City"
Labore et Perseverantia (Latin)
"Through Labour and Perseverance"
Location of London in relation to Middlesex County and the Province of Ontario
|Settled||1826 (as village)|
|Incorporated||1855 (as city)|
|Named for||London, United Kingdom|
|• City Mayor||Ed Holder|
|• Governing Body||London City Council|
|• Land||420.57 km2 (162.38 sq mi)|
|• Urban||232.48 km2 (89.76 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,662.40 km2 (1,027.96 sq mi)|
|Elevation||251 m (823 ft)|
|• City (single-tier)||383,822 (15th)|
|• Density||913.1/km2 (2,365/sq mi)|
|• Metro||532,984 (11th)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Forward sortation area|
|Area codes||519, 226, and 548|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for London (Ontario).|
London and the Thames were named in 1793 by John Graves Simcoe, who proposed the site for the capital city of Upper Canada. The first European settlement was between 1801 and 1804 by Peter Hagerman. The village was founded in 1826 and incorporated in 1855. Since then, London has grown to be the largest southwestern Ontario municipality and Canada's 11th largest metropolitan area, having annexed many of the smaller communities that surrounded it.
London is a regional centre of healthcare and education, being home to the University of Western Ontario (which brands itself "Western University"), Fanshawe College, and several hospitals (including a University Hospital). The city hosts a number of musical and artistic exhibits and festivals, which contribute to its tourism industry, but its economic activity is centred on education, medical research, insurance, and information technology. London's university and hospitals are among its top ten employers. London lies at the junction of Highway 401 and 402, connecting it to Toronto, Windsor and Sarnia. It also has an international airport and train and bus stations.
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Sports
- 8 Government and law
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Education
- 11 Sister city
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Prior to European settlement, the present site of London was occupied by several Neutral, Odawa, and Ojibwe villages, which were driven out by the Iroquois by circa 1654 in the Beaver Wars. Archaeological investigations in the region show that indigenous people have resided in the area for at least 10,000 years.
The current location of London was selected as the site of the future capital of Upper Canada in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, who also named the village which was founded in 1826. It did not become the capital Simcoe envisioned. Rather, it was an administrative seat for the area west of the actual capital, York (now Toronto). Locally, it was part of the Talbot Settlement, named for Colonel Thomas Talbot, the chief coloniser of the area, who oversaw the land surveying and built the first government buildings for the administration of the western Ontario peninsular region. Together with the rest of southwestern Ontario, the village benefited from Talbot's provisions, not only for building and maintaining roads but also for assignment of access priorities to main routes to productive land. At the time, Crown and clergy reserves were receiving preference in the rest of Ontario.
In 1832, the new settlement suffered an outbreak of cholera. London proved a centre of strong Tory support during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, notwithstanding a brief rebellion led by Charles Duncombe. Consequently, the British government located its Ontario peninsular garrison there in 1838, increasing its population with soldiers and their dependents, and the business support populations they required. London was incorporated as a town in 1840.
On 13 April 1845, fire destroyed much of London, which was at the time largely constructed of wooden buildings. One of the first casualties was the town's only fire engine. The fire burned nearly 30 acres of land, destroying 150 buildings, before burning itself out later the same day. One-fifth of London was destroyed and this was the province's first million-dollar fire.
Sir John Carling, Tory MP for London, gave three events to explain the development of London in a 1901 speech: the location of the court and administration in London in 1826, the arrival of the military garrison in 1838, and the arrival of the railway in 1853.
The population in 1846 was 3,500. Brick buildings included a jail and court house, and large barracks. London had a fire company, a theatre, a large Gothic church, nine other churches or chapels, and two market buildings. In 1845, a fire destroyed 150 buildings but most had been rebuilt by 1846. Connection with other communities was by road using mainly stages that ran daily. Also, a weekly newspaper was published and mail was received daily by the post office.
On 1 January 1855, London was incorporated as a "city" (10,000 or more residents). In the 1860s, a sulphur spring was discovered at the forks of the Thames River while industrialists were drilling for oil. The springs became a popular destination for wealthy Ontarians, until the turn of the 20th century when a textile factory was built at the site, replacing the spa.
Records from 1869 indicate a population of about 18,000 served by three newspapers, churches of all major denominations and offices of all the major banks. Industry included several tanneries, oil refineries and foundries, four flour mills, the Labatt Brewing Company and the Carling brewery in addition to other manufacturing. Both the Great Western and Grand Trunk railways had stops here. Several insurance companies also had offices in the city.
The Crystal Palace Barracks, built in 1861, an octagonal brick building with eight doors and forty-eight windows, was used for events such the Provincial Agricultural Fair of Canada West held in London that year. It was visited by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Governor-General John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar and Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald.
Long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, there were proposals for military colleges in Canada. Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent three-month-long military courses from 1865 at the School of Military Instruction in London. Established by Militia General Order in 1865, the school enabled Officers of Militia or Candidates for Commission or promotion in the Militia to learn Military duties, drill and discipline, to command a Company at Battalion Drill, to Drill a Company at Company Drill, the internal economy of a Company and the duties of a Company's Officer. The school was not retained at Confederation, in 1867.
In 1875, London's first iron bridge, the Blackfriars Street Bridge, was constructed. It replaced a succession of flood-failed wooden structures that had provided the city's only northern road crossing of the river. A rare example of a bowstring truss bridge, the Blackfriars remains open to pedestrian and bicycle traffic, though it is currently closed indefinitely to vehicular traffic due to various structural problems. The Blackfriars, amidst the river-distance between the Carling Brewery and the historic Tecumseh Park (including a major mill), linked London with its western suburb of Petersville, named for Squire Peters of Grosvenor Lodge. That community joined with the southern subdivision of Kensington in 1874, formally incorporating as the municipality of Petersville. Although it changed its name in 1880 to the more inclusive "London West", it remained a separate municipality until ratepayers voted for amalgamation with London in 1897, largely due to repeated flooding. The most serious flood was in July 1883, which resulted in serious loss of life and property devaluation. This area retains much original and attractively maintained 19th-century tradespeople's and workers' housing, including Georgian cottages as well as larger houses, and a distinct sense of place.
London's eastern suburb, London East, was (and remains) an industrial centre, which also incorporated in 1874. Attaining the status of town in 1881, it continued as a separate municipality until concerns over expensive waterworks and other fiscal problems led to amalgamation in 1885. The southern suburb of London, including Wortley Village, was collectively known as "London South". Never incorporated, the South was annexed to the city in 1890, although Wortley Village still retains a distinct sense of place. By contrast, the settlement at Broughdale on the city's north end had a clear identity, adjoined the university, and was not annexed until 1961.
Ivor F. Goodson and Ian R. Dowbiggin have explored the battle over vocational education in London, Ontario, in the 1900-1930 era. The London Technical and Commercial High School came under heavy attack from the city's social and business elite, which saw the school as a threat to the budget of the city's only academic high school, London Collegiate Institute.
London's role as a military centre continued into the 20th century during the two World Wars, serving as the administrative centre for the Western Ontario district. In 1905, the London Armoury was built and housed the First Hussars until 1975. A private investor purchased the historic site and built a new hotel (Delta London Armouries, 1996) in its place, preserving the shell of the historic building. In the 1950s, two reserve battalions amalgamated and became London and Oxford Rifles (3rd Battalion), The Royal Canadian Regiment. This unit continues to serve today as 4th Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment. The Regimental Headquarters of The Royal Canadian Regiment remains in London at Wolseley Barracks on Oxford Street. The barracks are home to the First Hussars militia regiment as well.
Annexation to presentEdit
London annexed many of the surrounding communities in 1961, including Byron and Masonville, adding 60,000 people and more than doubling its area. After this amalgamation, suburban growth accelerated as London grew outward in all directions, creating expansive new subdivisions such as Westmount, Oakridge, Whitehills, Pond Mills, White Oaks and Stoneybrook.
On 1 January 1993, London annexed nearly the entire township of Westminster, a large, primarily rural municipality directly south of the city, including the police village of Lambeth. With this massive annexation, London almost doubled in area again, adding several thousand more residents. In modern day, London stretches south to the boundary with Elgin County, north and east to Fanshawe Lake, north and west to the township of Middlesex Centre (the nearest developed areas of it being Arva to the north and Komoka to the west) and east to Nilestown and Dorchester.
The 1993 annexation made London one of the largest urban municipalities in Ontario. Intense commercial and residential development is presently occurring in the southwest and northwest areas of the city. Opponents of this development cite urban sprawl, destruction of rare Carolinian zone forest and farm lands, replacement of distinctive regions by generic malls, and standard transportation and pollution concerns as major issues facing London. The City of London is currently the eleventh-largest urban area in Canada, eleventh-largest census metropolitan area in Canada, and the sixth-largest city in Ontario.
On Victoria Day, 24 May 1881, the stern-wheeler ferry SS Victoria capsized in the Thames River close to Cove Bridge in West London. Approximately 200 passengers drowned in the shallow river, making it one of the worst disasters in London's history, and is now dubbed "The Victoria Day Disaster". At the time, London's population was relatively low; therefore it was hard to find a person in the city who did not have a family member affected by the tragedy.
Two years later, on 12 July 1883, the first of the two most devastating floods in London's history killed 17 people. The second major flood, on 26 April 1937, destroyed more than a thousand houses across London, and caused over $50 million in damages, particularly in West London.
After repeated floods, the Upper Thames River Conservation Authority in 1953 built Fanshawe Dam on the North Thames to control the downstream rivers. Financing for this project came from the federal, provincial, and municipal governments. Other natural disasters include a 1984 tornado that led to damage on several streets in the White Oaks area of South London.
Like another ten cities in the world, this London was named after the British capital of London by John Graves Simcoe, who also named the local river the Thames, in 1793. That was understandable since John Graves Simcoe and many of the original settlers were from Britain. Simcoe had intended London to be the capital of Upper Canada. Guy Carleton (Governor Dorchester) rejected that plan after the War of 1812, but accepted Simcoe's second choice, the present site of Toronto, to become the capital city of what would become the Province of Ontario, at Confederation, on 1 July 1867.
The area was formed during the retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age, which produced areas of marshland, notably the Sifton Bog (which is actually a fen), as well as some of the most agriculturally productive areas of farmland in Ontario. The Thames River dominates London's geography. The North and South branches of the Thames River meet at the centre of the city, a location known as "The Forks" or "The Fork of the Thames." The North Thames runs through the man-made Fanshawe Lake in northeast London. Fanshawe Lake was created by Fanshawe Dam, constructed to protect the downriver areas from the catastrophic flooding which affected the city in 1883 and 1937.
London has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), though due to its downwind location relative to Lake Huron and elevation changes across the city, it is virtually on the Dfa/Dfb (hot summer) boundary favouring the former climate zone to the southwest of the confluence of the South and North Thames Rivers, and the latter zone to the northeast (including the airport). Because of its location in the continent, London experiences large seasonal contrast, tempered to a point by the surrounding Great Lakes. The summers are usually warm to hot and humid, with a July average of 20.8 °C (69.4 °F), and temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) occur on average 10 days per year. In 2016, however, temperatures at or above 30 °C (86 °F) occurred more than 35 times, and in 2018, four heatwave incidents led to humidex temperatures topping out at 46 °C (115 °F) . The city is affected by frequent thunderstorms due to hot, humid summer weather, as well as the convergence of breezes originating from Lake Huron and Lake Erie. The same convergence zone is responsible for spawning funnel clouds and the occasional tornado. Spring and autumn in between are not long, and winters are cold but witness frequent thaws. Annual precipitation averages 1,011.5 mm (39.82 in). Its winter snowfall totals are heavy, averaging about 194 cm (76 in) per year, although the localized nature of snow squalls means the total can vary widely from year to year. The majority of snow accumulation comes from lake effect snow and snow squalls originating from Lake Huron, some 60 km (37 mi) to the northwest, which occurs when strong, cold winds blow from that direction. From 5 December 2010, to 9 December 2010, London experienced record snowfall when up to 2 m (79 in) of snow fell in parts of the city. Schools and businesses were closed for three days and bus service was cancelled after the second day of snow.
|Climate data for London, Ontario (London International Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871–present[a]|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.7
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||74.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||33.4
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||49.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||18.8||15.1||15.3||14.1||12.7||11.6||11.2||10.4||12.1||13.1||15.8||18.0||168.0|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||6.3||5.4||8.3||12.0||12.7||11.6||11.3||10.4||12.1||13.0||11.6||7.8||122.4|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||15.3||12.1||9.1||3.5||0.18||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.2||5.7||13.2||60.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75.9||71.9||65.0||56.9||54.8||57.0||57.6||59.7||59.9||63.1||72.0||76.9||64.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||64.4||89.9||124.0||158.0||219.6||244.3||261.6||217.7||165.1||128.7||67.4||52.1||1,792.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||22.1||30.4||33.6||39.4||48.4||53.2||56.2||50.4||43.9||37.5||23.0||18.5||38.1|
|Source: Environment Canada |
London has a number of parks. Victoria Park in downtown London is a major centre of community events, attracting an estimated 1 million visitors per year. Other major parks include Harris Park, Gibbons Park, Fanshawe Conservation Area (Fanshawe Pioneer Village), Springbank Park, and Westminster Ponds. The city also maintains a number of gardens and conservatories.
According to the 2016 census, the city of London had a population of 383,822 people, a 4.8% increase from the 2011 population. Children under five accounted for approximately 5.3 percent of the resident population of London. The percentage of the resident population in London of retirement age (65 and over) is 16.6, just under Canada's 16.9. The median age is 39.7 years of age, compared to 41.2 for all of Canada.
London's population is approximately 76.4% white, 19.9% visible minorities, and 3.7% aboriginal. Visible minorities include: 3.1% South Asian, 2.8% Chinese, 3.0% Black, 2.1% Southeast Asian, 2.4% Latin American and 3.6% Arab.
As per the 2016 census, the most common ethnicities in London, Ontario are English (28.4%), Canadian (25.8%), Scottish (20.9%), Irish (19.8%), German (11.6%), French (9.6%), Dutch (6.3%), Italian (5.0%), Polish (4.4%), and British Isles Origins, n.i.e. (3.4%).
According to the 2011 census, the majority of Londoners profess a Christian faith, which accounts for 62.8 percent of the population (Roman Catholic: 27.0%, Protestant: 25.0%, other Christian: 9.0%). Other religions include Islam (4.4%), Buddhism (0.8%), Hinduism (0.8%), and Judaism (0.5%), with 29.9 percent of the population reporting no religious affiliation.
London's economy is dominated by medical research, insurance, manufacturing, and information technology. Much of the life sciences and biotechnology-related research is conducted or supported by the University of Western Ontario, which adds about C$1.5 billion to the London economy annually.
Since the economic crisis of 2009, which gutted many of London's manufacturing jobs, the city has transitioned to become a technology hub with a focus on the Digital Creative sector. As of 2016, London is home to 300 technology companies that employ 3% of the city's labour force. Many of these companies have moved into former factories and industrial spaces in and around the downtown core, and have renovated them as modern offices. For example, Info-Tech Research Group's London office is in a hosiery factory, and Arcane Digital moved into a 1930s industrial building in 2015. The Historic London Roundhouse, a steam locomotive repair shop built in 1887, is now home to Royal LePage Triland Realty, rTraction, SmartWebPros.com and more. Its redesign, which opened in 2015, won the 2015 Paul Oberman Award for Adaptive Re-Use from the Architectural Conservancy of Ontario. London is also home to Diply, which is ranked among the top websites on the Internet, video game companies Big Viking Games, Big Blue Bubble and Digital Extremes, and Voices.com, which provides voiceover artists a platform to advertise and sell their services to those looking for voiceover work. Other local tech companies include HRDownloads, Mobials, Race Roster and Zomoron.
The headquarters of the Canadian division of 3M are in London. The London Life Insurance Company was founded there, as was Imperial Oil, GoodLife Fitness, and both the Labatt and Carling breweries. The Libro Financial Group was founded in London 1951 and is the second largest credit union in Ontario and employs over 550 people. Canada Trust was also founded in London in 1864.
General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS) builds armoured personnel carriers in the city. GDLS has a 14-year $15-billion deal to supply light armoured vehicles to Saudi Arabia. There are 2,400 workers at GDLS Canada.
McCormick Canada, formerly Club House Foods, was founded in 1883 and currently employs more than 600 Londoners.
London's fledgling city centre mall was first opened in 1960 as Wellington Square with 400,000 sq. ft. of leasable area, with Eaton’s and Woolworths as anchors. From 1986 to 1989, Campeau expanded Wellington Square into Galleria London with 1,000,000 sq. ft. of leasable area and 200 stores including The Bay and Eaton’s. However the early 1990s recession, following by the bankruptcy of Eaton's in 1999 and then the departure of The Bay in 2000 resulted in only 20 stores left by 2001. Galleria London then begun seeking non-retail tenants, becoming the home for London's central library branch, and satellite campuses for both Fanshawe College and Western University. The complex was purchased and renamed to Citi Plaza by Citigroup in 2009. Citi Plaza has been redeveloped as a mixed use complex that blends retail, office, businesses, and education providers. Alongside Citi Cards Canada's offices, in November 2016, CBC announced plans to move its expanded operations into the building.
A portion of the city's population work in factories outside of the city limits, including the General Motors automotive plant CAMI, and a Toyota plant in Woodstock. A Ford plant in Talbotville became one of the casualties of the economic crisis in 2011.
The city is home to many festivals including SunFest, the London Fringe Theatre Festival, the London Ontario Live Arts Festival (LOLA), the Home County Folk Festival, Rock the Park London, Western Fair, Pride London, and others. The London Rib Fest is the second largest barbecue rib festival in North America. SunFest, a world music festival, is the second largest in Canada after Toronto Caribbean Carnival (Caribana) and is among the top 100 summer destinations in North America.
London has a rich musical history. Guy Lombardo, the internationally acclaimed Big-Band leader, was born in London, as was jazz musician Rob McConnell, country music legend Tommy Hunter, singer-songwriter Meaghan Smith, pop icon Justin Bieber, and DJ duo Loud Luxury; it is also the adopted home-town of hip-hop artist Shad Kabango, rock-music producer Jack Richardson, and 1960s folk-funk band Motherlode. American country-music icon Johnny Cash proposed to his wife June Carter Cash onstage at the London Gardens -- site of the famous 26 April 1965, fifteen-minute Rolling Stones concert -- during his February 22 1968 performance in the city (which happened to be the home-town of his manager Saul Holiff). Avant-garde noise-pioneers The Nihilist Spasm Band formed in downtown London in 1965 (between 1966 and 1972, the group held a Monday night residency at the York Hotel in the city's core, which established it as a popular venue for emerging musicians and artists; now known as Call the Office, the venue served as a hotbed for punk music in the late 1970s and 1980s and continues to host college rock bands and weekly alternative-music nights). In 2003, CHRW-FM developed The London Music Archives, an online music database that chronicled every album recorded in London between 1966 and 2006, and in 2019 the CBC released a documentary entitled "London Calling" which outlined "The Secret Musical History of London Ontario" (including its importance for the massively popular electronic-music duo Richie Hawtin and John Acquaviva). London also had (and still has, in an unofficial capacity) a professional symphony orchestra -- Orchestra London -- which was founded in 1937; although the organization filed for bankruptcy in 2015, members of the orchestra continue to play self-produced concerts under the moniker of The London Symphonia. In addition, the city is home to the London Community Orchestra, the London Youth Symphony, and the Amabile Choirs of London, Canada. The Juno Awards of 2019 were hosted in London in March 2019, hosted by singer-songwriter Sarah McLachlan.
London artists Jack Chambers and Greg Curnoe co-founded The Forest City Gallery in 1973 and the Canadian Artists’ Representation society in 1968. Museum London, the city's central Art Gallery, was established in 1940 (initially operated from the London Public Library, until 1980, when renowned Canadian architect Raymond Moriyama was commissioned to design its current home at the forks of the Thames River). London is also home to the Museum of Ontario Archaeology, owned and operated by Western University; it is Canada's only ongoing excavation and partial reconstruction of a prehistoric village -- in this case, a Neutral Nation village (Lawson Site). The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum is a military museum at Wolseley Barracks (a Canadian former Forces Base in the city's Carling neighbourhood). The Secrets of Radar Museum was opened at Parkwood Hospital in 2003, and tells the story of the more than 6,000 Canadian World War II veterans who were recruited into a top-secret project during World War II involving radar. The London Regional Children's Museum in South London provides hands-on learning experiences for children and was one of the first children's museums established in Canada. The Canadian Medical Hall of Fame has its headquarters in downtown London and features a medical history museum.
Eldon House is the former residence of the prominent Harris Family and oldest surviving such building in London. The entire property was donated to the city of London in 1959 and is now a heritage site. An Ontario Historical Plaque was erected by the province to commemorate The Eldon House's role in Ontario's heritage. The Banting House National Historic Site of Canada is the house where Sir Frederick Banting thought of the idea that led to the discovery of insulin. Banting lived and practiced in London for ten months, from July 1920 to May 1921. London is also the site of the Flame of Hope, which is intended to burn until a cure for diabetes is discovered.
In addition to Museum London and The Forest City Gallery, London is also home to a number of other galleries and artspaces, including the McIntosh Gallery at Western University, the London ARTS Project, and various smaller galleries such as the Thielsen Gallery, the Westland Gallery, the Michael Gibson Gallery, the Jonathon Bancroft-Snell Gallery, The Art Exchange, the DNA ArtSpace, the VibraFusionLab, and others. London also hosts an annual Nuit Blanche every June.
London is home to the Grand Theatre, a professional proscenium arch theatre in Central London. The building underwent renovations in 1975 to restore the stage's proscenium arch and to add a secondary performance space. The architectural firm responsible for the re-design was awarded a Governor General's award in 1978 for their work on the venue. In addition to professional productions, the Grand Theatre also hosts the High School Project, a program unique to North America that provides high school students an opportunity to work with professional directors, choreographers, musical directors, and stage managers. The Palace Theatre, in Old East Village, originally opened as a silent movie theatre in 1929 and was converted to a live theatre venue in 1991. It is currently the home of the London Community Players, and as of 2016 is undergoing extensive historical restoration. The Original Kids Theatre Company, a nonprofit charitable youth organisation, currently puts on productions at the Spriet Family Theatre in the Covent Garden Market.
London serves as a core setting in Southern Ontario Gothic literature, most notably in the works of James Reaney. In 1995, rock-star David Bowie based his "Nonlinear Gothic Drama Hypercycle" Outside in London, subtly and suggestively reaffirming its status as a core setting of Southern Ontario Gothic works. Author David Southwell (perhaps in reference to David Bowie's 1995 Southern Ontario Gothic hypercycle and/or Bowie's character in David Lynch's Twin Peaks) likened London Ontario to the setting of Lynch's weird and wonderful TV-show Twin Peaks and/or a woodsy "Mirror London" akin to China Miéville's underworld-wonderworld Un Lun Dun. The pioneering psychologist Richard Maurice Bucke, author of Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind and Walt Whitman's literary executor, lived and worked in London, where he was often visited by Whitman (the Maurice Bucke Archive are part of the Special Collections in The Weldon Library of Western University). Modern writers from this city include fantasy-fiction authors R. Scott Bakker and Kelley Armstrong, Man Booker Prize winner Eleanor Catton, Scotiabank Giller Prize winner Bonnie Burnard and distinguished nominee Joan Barfoot. Emma Donoghue, whose 2010 novel, Room, was adapted into a 2015 Academy Award-winning film of the same name, also lives in London. WordFest is an annual literary and creative arts festival that takes place each November.
The city's cost of living is low compared to other southern Ontario cities. According to the London St. Thomas Association of Realtors, the average price of a home in the London and St. Thomas area in 2016 is $274,383, which is substantially lower than the national average of $467,082. It is also well below the average home prices of nearby cities including Toronto ($736,670), Hamilton ($510,204), and Kitchener-Waterloo ($364,290). The 2015 average rental rate for a one-bedroom apartment is $781.
London has nine major parks and gardens throughout the city, many of which run along the Thames River and are interconnected by a series of pedestrian and bike paths, known as the Thames Valley Parkway. This path system is 40 km (25 mi) in length, and connects to an additional 150 km (93 mi) of bike and hiking trails throughout the city. The city's largest park, Springbank Park, is 140-hectare (300 acre) and contains 30 km (19 mi) of trails. It is also home to Storybook Gardens, a family attraction open year-round.
London is among the best places to retire in Ontario according to Comfort Life (a publication for seniors), because of safety, affordability and the short distance to nearby beaches such as Port Stanley, Port Burwell and Lambton Shores.
London is currently the home of the London Knights of the Ontario Hockey League, who play at the Budweiser Gardens. The Knights are 2004–2005 and 2015–2016 OHL and Memorial Cup Champions. During the summer months, the London Majors of the Intercounty Baseball League play at Labatt Park. London City of the Canadian Soccer League, is the highest level of soccer in London. The club was founded in 1973; it is the oldest active professional soccer franchise in North America. The squad plays at Cove Road Stadium at the German Canadian Club. Other sports teams include the London Silver Dolphins Swim Team, the Forest City Volleyball Club, London Cricket Club, the London St. George's Rugby Club, the London Aquatics Club, the London Rhythmic Gymnastics Club, the London Rowing Club, London City Soccer Club and Forest City London.
Football teams include the London Beefeaters (Ontario Football Conference).
London's basketball team, the London Lightning plays at Budweiser Gardens as members of the National Basketball League of Canada. Finishing their inaugural regular season at 28–8, the Lightning would go on to win the 2011–12 NBL Canada championship, defeating the Halifax Rainmen in the finals three games to two.
There are also a number of former sports teams that have moved or folded. London's four former baseball teams are the London Monarchs (Canadian Baseball League), the London Werewolves (Frontier League), the London Tecumsehs (International Association) and the London Tigers (AA Eastern League). Other former sports teams include the London Lasers (Canadian Soccer League)
In March 2013, London hosted the 2013 World Figure Skating Championships.
The University of Western Ontario's teams play under the name Mustangs. The university's football team plays at TD Waterhouse Stadium. Western's Rowing Team rows out of a boathouse at Fanshawe Lake. Fanshawe College teams play under the name Falcons. The Women's Cross Country team has won 3 consecutive Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA) National Championships. In 2010, the program cemented itself as the first CCAA program to win both Men's and Women's National team titles, as well as CCAA Coach of the Year.
The Western Fair Raceway, about 85 acres harness racing track and simulcast centre, operates year-round. The grounds include a coin slot casino, a former IMAX theatre, and Sports and Agri-complex. Labatt Memorial Park the world's oldest continuously used baseball grounds was established as Tecumseh Park in 1877; it was renamed in 1937, because the London field has been flooded and rebuilt twice (1883 and 1937), including a re-orientation of the bases (after the 1883 flood). The Forest City Velodrome, at the former London Ice House, is the only indoor cycling track in Ontario and the third to be built in North America, opened in 2005.
|London Knights||OHL||Ice hockey||Budweiser Gardens||1965||4|
|London Nationals||GOJHL||Ice hockey||Western Fair District||1950||7|
|London Lightning||NBL Canada||Basketball||Budweiser Gardens||2011||3|
|London Majors||IBL||Baseball||Labatt Memorial Park||1925||9|
|London St. George's RFC||ORU (Marshall Premiership)||Rugby Union||London St. George's Club||1959||0|
|Forest City London||League1 Ontario||Soccer||TD Waterhouse Stadium||2009||1|
|London Beefeaters||CJFL||Canadian Football||TD Waterhouse Stadium||1975||1|
|London Blue Devils||Ontario Junior B Lacrosse League||Lacrosse||Earl Nichols Recreation Centre||2003||0|
Government and lawEdit
London's municipal government is divided among fourteen councillors (one representing each of London's fourteen wards) and the mayor. Matt Brown was elected mayor in the 2014 municipal election, officially taking office on 1 December 2014[update]. Prior to Brown's election, London's most recent elected mayor was Joe Fontana; following Fontana's resignation on 19 June 2014, city councillor Joe Swan served as acting mayor until councillor Joni Baechler was selected as interim mayor 24 June. Until the elections in 2010, there was a Board of Control, consisting of four controllers and the mayor, all elected citywide.
Although London has many ties to Middlesex County, it is a totally separate entity; the two have no jurisdictional overlap. The exception is the Middlesex County courthouse and former jail, as the judiciary is administered directly by the province.
In spite of some controversy about this move, London was the first city in Canada (in May 2017) to decide to move a ranked choice ballot for municipal elections starting in 2018. Voters mark their ballots in order of preference, ranking their top three favourite candidates. An individual must reach 50 per cent of the total to be declared elected; in each round of counting where a candidate has not yet reached that target, the person with the fewest votes is dropped from the ballot and their second or third choice preferences reallocated to the remaining candidates, with this process repeating until a candidate has reached 50 per cent.
In 2001, the City of London first published their Facilities Accessibility Design Standards (FADS) which was one of the first North American municipal accessibility requirements to include Universal Design. It has since been adopted by over 50 municipalities in Canada and the United States.
|Michael van Holst||Ward 1||Chelsea Green, Fairmont, Hamilton Road, River Run, Glen Cairn|
|Shawn Lewis||Ward 2||Pottersburg, Nelson Park, Trafalgar Heights|
|Mo Mohamed Salih||Ward 3||Huron Heights|
|Jesse Helmer||Ward 4||East London|
|Maureen Cassidy||Ward 5||Stoneybrook, Northdale, Northerest, Uplands|
|Phil Squire||Ward 6||Broughdale, University Heights, Orchard Park, Sherwood Forest|
|Josh Morgan||Ward 7||White Hills, Medway Heights, Masonville, Hyde Park|
|Steve Lehman||Ward 8||Oakridge Park, Oakridge Acres,|
|Anna Hopkins||Ward 9||Byron, Lambeth|
|Paul Van Meerbergen||Ward 10||Westmount|
|Stephen Turner||Ward 11||Cleardale, Southcrest Estates, Berkshire Village, Kensal Park, Manor Park|
|Elizabeth Peloza||Ward 12||Glendale, Southdale, Lockwood Park, White Oak|
|Arielle Kayabaga||Ward 13||Downtown London, Midtown, Blackfriars, Piccadilly/Adelaide, SoHo, KeVa, Woodfield, Oxford Park|
|Steve Hillier||Ward 14||Glen Cairn Woods, Pond Mills, Wilton Grove, Glanworth|
The city includes four provincial ridings. In the provincial government, London is represented by New Democrats Terence Kernaghan (London North Centre), Teresa Armstrong (London—Fanshawe) and Peggy Sattler (London West), and Progressive Conservative Jeff Yurek (Elgin—Middlesex—London).
The London and surrounding area includes four federal ridings. In the federal government, London is represented by Conservative Karen Vecchio (Elgin—Middlesex—London), Liberals Peter Fragiskatos (London North Centre) and Kate Young (London West), and NDP Irene Mathyssen (London—Fanshawe).
Statistics from police indicate that total overall crimes in London have held steady between 2010 and 2016, at roughly 24,000 to 27,000 incidents per year. The majority of incidents are property crimes, with violent crimes dropping markedly (up to about 20%) between 2012-2014 but rising again in 2015-2016. In July 2018, Police Deputy Chief Steve Williams was quoted as saying many crimes go unreported to police.
Research by Michael Andrew Arntfield, a police officer turned criminology professor, has determined that on a per-capita basis, London Ontario had more active serial killers than any locale in the world from 1959 to 1984. Arntfield determined there were at least six serial killers active in London during this era, some unidentified, but known killers in London included Russell Maurice Johnson, Gerald Thomas Archer, and Christian Magee.
The City of London initiatives in Old East London are helping to create a renewed sense of vigour in the East London Business District. Specific initiatives include the creation of the Old East Heritage Conservation District under Part V of the Ontario Heritage Act, special Building Code policies and Facade Restoration Programs.
Londoners have become protective of the trees in the city, protesting "unnecessary" removal of trees. The City Council and tourist industry have created projects to replant trees throughout the city. As well, they have begun to erect metal trees of various colours in the downtown area, causing some controversy.
London is at the junction of Highway 401 that connects the city to Toronto and Windsor, and Highway 402 to Sarnia. Also, Highway 403, which diverges from the 401 at nearby Woodstock, Ontario, provides ready access to Brantford, Hamilton, the Golden Horseshoe area, and the Niagara Peninsula. Many smaller two-lane highways also pass through or near London, including Kings Highways 2, 3, 4, 7 and 22. Many of these are "historical" names, as provincial downloading in the 1980s and 1990s put responsibility for most provincial highways on municipal governments. Nevertheless, these roads continue to provide access from London to nearby communities and locations in much of Western Ontario, including Goderich, Port Stanley and Owen Sound.
Since the 1970s, London has improved urban road alignments that eliminated "jogs" in established traffic patterns over 19th-century street misalignments. The lack of a municipal freeway (either through or around the city) as well as the presence of two significant railways (each with attendant switching yards and few over/underpasses) are the primary causes of rush hour congestion, along with construction and heavy snow. Thus, traffic times can be significantly variable, although major traffic jams are rare. Wellington Road between Commissioners Road E and Southdale Road E is London's busiest section of roadway, with more than 46,000 vehicles using the span on an average day City council rejected early plans for the construction of a freeway, and instead accepted the Veterans Memorial Parkway to serve the east end. Some Londoners have expressed concern the absence of a local freeway may hinder London's economic and population growth, while others have voiced concern such a freeway would destroy environmentally sensitive areas and contribute to London's suburban sprawl. Road capacity improvements have been made to Veterans Memorial Parkway (formerly named Airport Road and Highway 100) in the industrialized east end. However, the Parkway has received criticism for not being built as a proper highway; a recent city-run study suggested upgrading it by replacing the intersections with interchanges.
London's public transit system is run by the London Transit Commission, which has 44 bus routes throughout the city. Although the city has lost ridership over the last few years, the commission is making concerted efforts to enhance services by implementing a five-year improvement plan. In 2015, an additional 17,000 hours of bus service was added throughout the city. In 2016, 11 new operators, 5 new buses, and another 17,000 hours of bus service were added to the network. Bus service is currently the only mode of public transit available to the public in London, with no available rapid transit networks like those used in other Canadian cities. However, city council approved a bus rapid transit (BRT) network, named Shift, in May 2016. The network will consist of two corridors serving each end of the city, and meeting at a central hub in the downtown. Construction is expected to begin in 2018, with the service fully operational by 2025.
London has 330 km (205 mi) of cycling paths throughout the city, 91 km (59 mi) of which have been added since 2005. In June 2016, London unveiled its first bike corrals, which replace parking for one vehicle with fourteen bicycle parking spaces, and fix-it stations, which provide cyclists with simple tools and a bicycle pump, throughout the city. In September 2016, city council approved a new 15 year cycling master plan that will see the construction of an additional 470 km (292 mi) of cycling paths added to the existing network.
London is on the Canadian National Railway main line between Toronto and Chicago (with a secondary main line to Windsor) and the Canadian Pacific Railway main line between Toronto and Detroit. Via Rail operates regional passenger service through London station as part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, with connections to the United States. Via Rail's London terminal is the fourth-busiest passenger terminal in Canada.
London is also a destination for inter-city bus travellers. London is the seventh-busiest Greyhound Canada terminal in terms of passengers, and connecting services radiate from London throughout southwestern Ontario and through to the American cities of Detroit, Michigan and Chicago, Illinois.
London International Airport (YXU) is the 12th busiest passenger airport in Canada and the 11th busiest airport in Canada by take-offs and landings. It is served by airlines including Air Canada Express, and WestJet, and provides direct flights to both domestic and international destinations, including Toronto, Orlando, Ottawa, Winnipeg, Calgary, Cancún, Vancouver, Varadero, Punta Cana, Montego Bay, Santa Clara, and Holguin.
The city of London is considering bus rapid transit (BRT) and/or high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV) to help it achieve its long-term transportation plan. Additional cycleways are planned for integration in road-widening projects, where there is need and sufficient space along routes. An expressway/freeway network is possible along the eastern and western ends of the city, from Highway 401 (and Highway 402 for the western route) past Oxford Street, potentially with another highway, joining the two in the city's north end.
The City of London has assessed the entire length of the Veterans Memorial Parkway, identifying areas where interchanges can be constructed, grade separations can occur, and where cul-de-sacs can be placed. Upon completion, the Veterans Memorial Parkway would no longer be an expressway, but a freeway, for the majority of its length.
London public elementary and secondary schools are governed by four school boards – the Thames Valley District School Board, the London District Catholic School Board and the French first language school boards (the Conseil scolaire Viamonde and the Conseil scolaire catholique Providence or CSC). The CSC has a satellite office in London.
There are also more than twenty private schools in the city.
The city is home to two post-secondary institutions: the University of Western Ontario (UWO) and Fanshawe College, a college of applied arts and technology. UWO, founded in 1878, has about 3500 full-time faculty and staff members and almost 30,000 undergraduate and graduate students. It placed tenth in the 2008 Maclean's magazine rankings of Canadian universities. The Richard Ivey School of Business, part of UWO, was formed in 1922 and ranked among the best business schools in the country by the Financial Times in 2009. UWO has three affiliated colleges: Brescia University College, founded in 1919 (Canada's only university-level women's college); Huron University College, founded in 1863 (also the founding college of UWO) and King's University College, founded in 1954. All three are liberal arts colleges with religious affiliations: Huron with the Anglican Church of Canada, King's and Brescia with the Roman Catholic Church. London is also home to Lester B. Pearson School for the Arts one of few of its kind.
Fanshawe College has an enrollment of approximately 15,000 students, including 3,500 apprentices and over 500 international students from over 30 countries. It also has almost 40,000 students in part-time continuing education courses. Fanshawe's Key Performance Indicators (KPI) have been over the provincial average for many years now, with increasing percentages year by year.
- "London (City) community profile". 2006 Census data. Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- "London (Census metropolitan area) community profile". 2006 Census data. Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- "London (City) community profile". 2016 Census data. Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- St-Denis, Guy (1985). Byron:Pioneer Days in Westminster Township. Crinklaw Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-919939-10-4.
- Ellis, Christopher; Deller, D Brian. "An Early Paleo-Indian Site near Parkhill, Ontario". ASC Publications. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Max Braithwaite (1967). Canada: wonderland of surprises. Dodd, Mead. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
- "The beginnings". City of London. 2009. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "Reservoir Hill" (PDF). Ontario Municipal Board. February 2001. p. 40. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "Event Highlights for the City of London 1793–1843". City of London. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "Event Highlights for the City of London 1844–1894". City of London. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Adams, Bill (2002). The History of the London Fire Department of heroes, helmets and hoses (1st ed.). London Fire Department. p. 13. ISBN 0-9732159-0-9.
- Lutman, John (1977). The Historic Heart of London. Corporation of the City of London. p. 6.
- Smith, Wm. H. (1846). Smith's Canadian Gazetteer - Statistical and General Information Respecting all parts of The Upper Province, or Canada West. Toronto: H. & W. Rowsell. p. 100. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- "Ontario White Sulphur Springs". The London and Middlesex Historical Society. Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- McEvoy, H (1869). The Province of Ontario Gazetteer and Directory. Toronto: Robertson & Cook. pp. 269–271. ISBN 0665094124. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017.
- not stated (1889). History of the County of Middlesex, Canada. London: W.A. & C.L. Goodspeed. p. 294. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017.
- "RootsWeb.com Home Page". freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- Richard Preston 'Canada's RMC: A History of the Royal Military College of Canada' published by the RMC Club by U of Toronto Press.
- Moore, Avery (19 December 2013). "Blackfriars Bridge Open To Pedestrians". Blackburn News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Stott, Gregory (1999). "Four". The Maintenance of Suburban Autonomy: The Story of the Village of Petersville-London West, Ontario, 1874–1897 (MA thesis). University of Western Ontario.
- "Item 9b" (PDF). London Advisory Committee on heritage. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- Wilson, Robert. "London East". London and Middlesex Historical Society. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Broughdale Community Association". BCA. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- Ivor F. Goodson and Ian R. Dowbiggin, "Vocational education and school reform: the case of the London (Canada) Technical School, 1900-1930" History of Education Review (1991) 20#1: 39–60.
- "London, Ontario". Department of National Defence. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "History of London – 1977 to 2000". City of London. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- Martin, Chip (29 December 2007). "Did Annexation Work?". Special Report. London Free Press.[permanent dead link]
- "New Directions in Urban Planning". Urban League of London. Archived from the original on 3 December 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Environmentally Significant Areas". Urban League of London. 2006. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2006 and 2001 censuses: 100% data". Statistics Canada. 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for urban areas, 2006 and 2001 censuses: 100% data". Statistics Canada. 5 November 2008. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- "Event Highlights for the City of London 1930–1949". City of London. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Historical Flood-Related Events". Environment Canada. 18 February 2009. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- "Event Highlights for the City of London 1950–1959". City of London. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Event Highlights for the City of London 1980–1989". City of London. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Here are 11 other Londons in the world". 1 October 2015. Archived from the original on 6 May 2017.
- Spelt, J (1972). Urban development in south-central Ontario. McClelland and Stewart.
- Adam, Graeme Mercer; Mulvany, Charles Pelham; Robinson, Christopher Blackett (1885). History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario: Containing an Outline of the History of the Dominion of Canada; a History of the City of Toronto and the County of York, with the Townships, Towns, General and Local Statistics; Biographical Sketches (Part II: The County of York). 1. C.B. Robinson. p. 9.
- "Ontario". Historica-Dominion. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 June 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Your Guide to London's Major Public Parks & Gardens". City of London. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Fanshawe Dam". Upper Thames River Conservation Authority. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "London INT'L Airport, Ontario". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. 25 September 2013. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Canada, Government of Canada, Environment and Climate Change (16 December 2010). "Environment and Climate Change Canada - Weather and Meteorology - Canada's Top Ten Weather Stories for 2010 - Runner-Up stories". ec.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 18 November 2017.
- Daniszewski, Hank (7 December 2010). "It's one for the history books". London Free Press. Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- "August 1918". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "January 1892". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "London INT'L Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "London". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "London South". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "London Lambeth A". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "March 2012". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for February 2017". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Censuses 1871–1931 (PDF). Canada Yearbook 1932. Statistics Canada. 31 March 2008. p. 103. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2014.
- Census 1941–1951 (PDF). Canada Yearbook 1955. 31 March 2008. p. 145. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 December 2013.
- Census 1961 (PDF). Canada Yearbook 1967. 31 March 2008. p. 189. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 December 2014.
- Censuses 1966, 1971 (PDF). Canada Year Book 1974. 31 March 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 December 2014.
- Censuses 1981, 1986 (PDF). Canada Year Book 1988. 31 March 2008. p. 192. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 December 2014.
- "Canada: Ontario". City Population. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012.
- "2006 Community Profiles: London". Statistics Canada. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (8 February 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - London, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Middlesex, County [Census division], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (8 February 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - London, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "London Labour Market Monitor". Service Canada. January 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.[dead link]
- "LEDC - London Economic Development Corporation". LEDC - London Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "LEDC – London Economic Development Corporation". LEDC – London Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- nurun.com (13 December 2015). "The Cube: London's newest digital hothouse". The London Free Press. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "LRH Honoured with ACO Award". The London Roundhouse Project. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "LEDC – London Economic Development Corporation". LEDC – London Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Corporate Information: Company Overview". London Life. 2006. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- "Our History". Archived from the original on 31 July 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Introducing the New Libro Credit Union". Libro Credit Union. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Granger, Alix; Daly, Eric W. (7 February 2006). Canada Trust. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "General Dynamics Awarded $5 Million Contract to Perform Engineering Studies in Support of Mobile Gun System" (Press release). General Dynamics Land Systems. 22 October 2004. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- De Bono, Norman (30 September 2015). "Union asks NDP to keep Saudi armoured vehicles deal 'under wraps,' fearing 'significant' job losses". Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "The Transformation of Galleria London - Reurbanist". reurbanist.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- "Public library the new home for CBC's digital, radio programming in London, Ont". CBC News. Archived from the original on 22 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- DeBono, Norman (16 September 2011). "Ontario Ford plant closure brings tears". Toronto Sun. Québecor Média. Archived from the original on 13 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Dubinski, Kate (1 December 2009). "London lands freight centre". London Free Press. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Pride London Festival". Pride London Festival. Archived from the original on 2 November 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "Ribfest". Family Shows Canada. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "About Sunfest". Sunfest. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "94.9 CHRW – London Music Archive". chrwradio.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Museum of Ontario Archaeology". University of Western Ontario. Archived from the original on 14 July 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "Eldon House Historical Plaque". Archives of Ontario. 2005. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "Sir Frederick G. Banting Square". Canadian Diabetes Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- "History of The Palace". The Palace Theatre. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Our History". Original Kids Theatre Company. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Search - Directory of Special Collections of Research Value in Canadian Libraries". Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- "Best September EVER | London St. Thomas Association of Realtors". www.lstar.ca. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Major Parks and Gardens". www.london.ca. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Thames Valley Parkway". www.london.ca. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Best places to retire in Ontario". www.comfortlife.ca. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017.
- "Canadian Soccer League". 2007. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- "Facilities". University of Western Ontario. 2009. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Lethbridge Runners cross the finish line first at the 2008 CCAA Cross Country Running Open". CCAA. June 2009. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Alberta Runners Top 2010 CCAA Cross Country Running Nationals". CCAA. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- "Western Fair Raceway". Western Fair Entertainment Centre. 2006. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- McLarty, Butch (1 April 2014). "April Baseball at Historic Labatt Park". London Free Press. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Parks and Recreation Newsletter" (PDF). City of London. June 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Attractions". City of London. 2009. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Matt Brown elected as new mayor of London" Archived 30 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. CTV London, 27 October 2014.
- Maloney, Patrick (19 June 2014). "Joe Fontana officially resigns as mayor of London". Toronto Sun. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Maloney, Patrick (24 June 2014). "London, Ont. names new mayor to replace Fontana". Toronto Sun. Québecor Média. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Your December 2006 – November 2010 Council". City of London. 2006. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Middlesex County Information". Middlesex County. Archived from the original on 5 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "London, Ont., votes to become 1st Canadian city to use ranked ballots" Archived 3 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine. CBC News Windsor, May 2, 2017.
- "Facilities Accessibility Design Standards (FADS)". City of London Ontario. 2016. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "City of London Official Municipal 2018 Election Results" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- "Current MPPs". Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "London ridings: Canada Election 2015 results". Archived from the original on 8 January 2017.
- "Members of Parliament". Parliament of Canada. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- Crime Statistics Archived 15 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine from LondonPolice.ca, accessed 10 Aug 2018
- CBC News, London crime severity rate sees an increase, report says Archived 16 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Jul 24, 2018, accessed 10 Aug 2018
- Michael Arntfield (2018). Murder City: The Untold Story of Canada's Serial Killer Capital, 1959-1984. FriesenPress
- Jared Lindzon What turned one city in Canada into the 'serial killer capital' of the world? Archived 10 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, TheGuardian.com, Aug 19, 2015; accessed 10 Aug 2018
- "Re-establishing Value" (PDF). Ontario Professional Planners Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- "Heritage Inventory". City of London. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "London Tourism Information". London Kiosk. 2009. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- Haggarty, Jaclyn (30 September 2008). "Metal Tree Planting Continues" (PDF). UWO Gazette. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- "Getting to London". LEDC. 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Ontario government improving Highway 402 between London and Sarnia". Government of Ontario. 2009. Archived from the original on 30 June 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- Bevers, Cameron (2002). "The King's Highway 403". Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- Bevers, Cameron (2002). "The King's Highway 24". Archived from the original on 30 July 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Transportation Master Plan" (PDF). City of London. May 2013. pp. 2–23. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- City of London (2013). "City of London Traffic Volume Data". Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Long-Term Transportation Corridor Protection Study". City of London. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Steeves, Scott (2004). "King's Highway 401 – Images". Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Veterans Memorial Parkway" (PDF). City of London. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Adrian Gamble (16 May 2016). "Once Upon a Tram: The London Street Railway Company's 60-year Run in Ontario". Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
Patrick Maloney (6 December 2015). "It's back to the transit future". The London Free Press. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
But O’Neil, a local-history buff, has unearthed a document that suggests the proposed rail lines for London’s rapid-transit proposal are perfectly placed. He found a map outlining London’s streetcar lines in 1914, and notes the two lines earmarked today for light rail are where the old trolleys ran a century ago.
- "Routes and Schedules". London Transit Commission. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- nurun.com (16 August 2016). "LTC rolling out big changes". The London Free Press. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Timeline". Shift. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "#1: NEW- Updated London ON Bikes Executive Summary | City of London Cycling Master Plan Update". www.londonbikes.ca. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "City Unveils London's First Ever Bike Corrals and New Fix-it Stations". www.london.ca. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- nurun.com (6 September 2016). "Cycling plan ready for public test ride". The London Free Press. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Transportation". London Economic Development Corporation. 2006. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Train routes to/from London". Via Rail. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Facts & Figures". Greyhound Canada. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Airlines and Tour Operators". London International Airport. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- City of London and Giffels (13 December 2007). "Veterans Memorial Parkway Interchange Class Environmental Assessment Study and Concurrent Application to Amend the Official Plan and Zoning By-Law" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Education". City of London. 2009. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Bureau satellite de London / Middlesex." Conseil scolaire catholique Providence. Retrieved on 15 December 2014. "Adresse: 920, rue Huron London Ontario N5Y 4K4 Canada"
- "Compare academic rankings and ratings of Ontario schools". The Fraser Institute. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "About Western". University of Western Ontario. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- Travis, Heather (11 November 2008). "Western 10th in Maclean's ranking". Western News. University of Western Ontario. Archived from the original on 22 December 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Global MBA Rankings 2009". Financial Times. 2009. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "About". Brescia University College. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- "Historical Information". Huron University College. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Quick Facts". King's University College. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- "Western Facts". University of Western Ontario. 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- "Why Fanshawe?". Fanshawe College. Archived from the original on 11 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Key Performance Indicators". Fanshawe College. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- "Practical Studio Experience". OIART. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Westervelt College". Westervelt College. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Gilbert, Craig (14 March 2013). "London welcomes delegation from Chinese sister city". OurLondon.ca. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- London's long term climate record has been recorded at various climate stations in or near the city of London since 1871. From 1871 to 1891 at London, 1883 to 1932 at London South, 1930 to 1941 at Lambeth Airport, and 1940 to present at London International Airport.