List of cities in Ontario
"City" forms part of the name of many municipalities in the Canadian province of Ontario, generally the largest in the province or in their region but there is no current threshold in law. Cities have the municipal status of either a single-tier or lower-tier municipality.
Municipalities are administrative and political divisions and in most cases do not conform to the boundaries of discrete urbanized areas nor to those of urban areas together with their adjacent economically integrated rural areas ("metropolitan area"). In many cases, several municipalities will comprise a single metropolitan area; in others a municipality will include multiple urban areas (often referred to as "population centres" by Statistics Canada). An example of the former is that the adjacent municipalities of Toronto and Mississauga plus those westward to Oakville, eastward to Ajax, and as far as Orangeville and Newmarket in the northwest and north are part of the Toronto metropolitan area. An example of the latter is the single-tier municipality of Norfolk County, which has a few separate population centres within its borders: Dunnville, Caledonia and Hagersville.
Ontario has 52 cities, which together had in 2016 a cumulative population of 9,900,179 and average population of 190,388. The most and least populous are Toronto and Dryden, with 2,731,571 and 7,749 residents, respectively. Ontario's newest city is Richmond Hill, whose council voted to change from a town to a city on March 26, 2019. Previous to that, Markham changed from a town to a city on July 1, 2012.
Under the former Municipal Act, a city was both an urban and a local municipality, with slightly different legal treatment from a town, for instance. Under that act, the Ontario Municipal Board could change the status of a village or town, upon its request, to a city if it had a population of 15,000 or more. The Municipal Board could also incorporate a township as a city under the same conditions except its population requirement was 25,000. In either event, if located within a county, authorization by the Minister of Municipal Affairs was also required.
The Municipal Act, 2001, abandoned the different statuses of village, etc. Municipal "tier" (lower, upper or single)[note 1] is the main factor differentiating the legal powers, etc., although differences among upper-tier types (county, region) still exist. December 31, 2002, was the transition date:
- every city that "existed and formed part of a county, a regional or district municipality or the County of Oxford for municipal purposes" became the next day a lower-tier municipality yet retained city in its name; and
- every city that "existed and did not form part of a county, a regional or district municipality or the County of Oxford for municipal purposes" became the next day a single-tier municipality yet retained city in its name.
Cities in OntarioEdit
Toronto is Ontario's capital and Canada's largest city
Ottawa is Canada's capital and Ontario's second largest city
Skyline of downtown Hamilton
Skyline of downtown London
Downtown of Kitchener
Downtown of Windsor
|Brockville||Single-tier||Leeds and Grenville||21,346||21,870||−2.4||20.85||1,023.6|
|Clarence-Rockland||Lower-tier||Prescott and Russell||24,512||23,185||5.7||297.71||82.3|
|Cornwall||Single-tier||Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry||46,589||46,340||0.5||61.56||756.8|
|Greater Sudbury[note 7]||Single-tier||Sudbury||161,531||160,274||0.8||3,228.35||50.0|
|Kawartha Lakes||Single-tier||Kawartha Lakes||75,423||73,214||3.0||3,084.38||24.5|
|Niagara Falls[note 15]||Lower-tier||Niagara||88,071||82,997||6.1||209.73||419.9|
|Prince Edward County||Single-tier||Prince Edward||24,735||25,258||−2.1||1,050.49||23.5|
|Richmond Hill[note 20]||Lower-tier||York||195,022||185,541||5.1||101.11||1,928.8|
|Sault Ste. Marie||Single-tier||Algoma||73,368||75,141||−2.4||223.24||328.6|
|St. Catharines[note 21]||Lower-tier||Niagara||133,113||131,400||1.3||96.13||1,384.8|
|Thunder Bay[note 22]||Single-tier||Thunder Bay||107,909||108,359||−0.4||328.36||328.6|
|Toronto[note 23]||Single-tier[note 1]||Toronto||2,731,571||2,615,060||4.5||630.20||4,334.4|
Notes and referencesEdit
- A unique set of legal powers is provided by the City of Toronto Act, 2006, SO 2006, c 11, Sch A.
- The Barrie census metropolitan area (CMA) is formed around the City of Barrie.
- Brampton is Canada's ninth-largest city.
- The Brantford CMA includes the City of Brantford as well as the County of Brant, which is a single-tier city.
- The City of Cambridge, as well as the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo, form parts of the Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo CMA.
- Dryden is Ontario's smallest city by population.
- Greater Sudbury is Ontario's largest city by area. The Greater Sudbury CMA is formed around the City of Greater Sudbury.
- The Guelph CMA is formed around the City of Guelph.
- Hamilton is Canada's tenth-largest city. The Hamilton CMA includes the cities of Burlington and Hamilton.
- The Kingston CMA is formed around the City of Kingston.
- The City of Kitchener, as well as the cities of Cambridge and Waterloo, form parts of the Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo CMA.
- The London CMA includes the cities of London and St. Thomas.
- Markham is Ontario's second-newest city, adopting the name on July 1, 2012.
- Mississauga is Canada's sixth-largest city.
- The City of Niagara Falls, as well as the cities of Port Colborne, St. Catharines, Thorold and Welland, form parts of the St. Catharines–Niagara CMA.
- The Oshawa CMA is formed around the City of Oshawa.
- Ottawa is Canada's capital and fourth-largest city. The Ontario portion of the Ottawa–Gatineau CMA includes the cities of Clarence-Rockland and Ottawa.
- Pembroke is Ontario's smallest city by area.
- The Peterborough CMA is formed around the City of Peterborough.
- Richmond Hill is Ontario's newest city, adopting the name on March 26, 2019.
- The City of St. Catharines, as well as the cities of Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, Thorold and Welland, form parts of the St. Catharines–Niagara CMA.
- The Thunder Bay CMA is formed around the City of Thunder Bay.
- Toronto is Ontario's capital and Canada's and Ontario's largest city by population. The Toronto CMA includes the cities of Brampton, Markham, Mississauga, Pickering, Richmond Hill, Toronto and Vaughan.
- The City of Waterloo, as well as the cities of Cambridge and Kitchener, form parts of the Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo CMA.
- The Windsor CMA is formed around the City of Windsor.
- "List of Ontario Municipalities". Ontario Municipal Affairs and Housing. September 21, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "subdivisions (municipalities) and designated places, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada.
- "Richmond Hill Becomes a City". RichmondHill.ca. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Markham to change from town to city". CBC News. May 30, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- RSO 1990, c M.45.
- "Municipal Act, R.S.O. 1990, Chapter M.45". Service Ontario. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- SO 2001, c 25.
- "Municipal Act, S.O. 2001, Chapter 25". Service Ontario. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- "The Ontario Municipal Councillor's Guide 2018". Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. 2018. Section 5. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
- Municipal Act, 2001, S.O. 2001, c. 25, s. 187.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Ontario)". Statistics Canada. May 28, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census divisions, 2011 and 2006 censuses (Ontario)". Statistics Canada. January 30, 2013. Retrieved June 27, 2013.