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List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members and an executive secretary elected by the Karolinska Institute.[2][3] While commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel specifically stated that the prize be awarded for "physiology or medicine" in his will. Because of this, the prize can be awarded in a broader range of fields.[3] The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, of Germany. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[4] In 1901, von Behring received 150,782 SEK, which was equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2008. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

Laureates have won the Nobel Prize in a wide range of fields that relate to physiology or medicine. As of 2009, 8 Prizes have been awarded for contributions in the field of signal transduction by G proteins and second messengers, 13 have been awarded for contributions in the field of neurobiology and 13 have been awarded for contributions in intermediary metabolism.[3] In 1939 Gerhard Domagk, a German, was not allowed by his government to accept the prize. He later received a medal and diploma, but not the money.[6] As of 2018, the prize has been awarded to 216 individuals, twelve of them were women: Gerty Cori (1947), Rosalyn Yalow (1977), Barbara McClintock (1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986), Gertrude B. Elion (1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck (2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn (2009), Carol W. Greider (2009), May-Britt Moser (2014)[7] and Tu Youyou (2015). There have been nine years in which the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942).

Contents

LaureatesEdit

Year Image Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C] Ref
1901   Emil Adolf von Behring   Germany "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths" [8]
1902   Sir Ronald Ross   United Kingdom
  India
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it" [9]
1903   Niels Ryberg Finsen   Denmark
(  Faroe Islands)
"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science" [10]
1904   Ivan Petrovich Pavlov   Russia "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged" [11]
1905   Robert Koch   Germany "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis" [12]
1906   Camillo Golgi   Italy "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system" [13]
  Santiago Ramón y Cajal   Spain
1907   Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran   France "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases" [14]
1908   Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov   Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity" [15]
  Paul Ehrlich   Germany
1909   Emil Theodor Kocher    Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland" [16]
1910   Albrecht Kossel   Germany "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances" [17]
1911   Allvar Gullstrand   Sweden "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye" [18]
1912   Alexis Carrel   France "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs" [19]
1913   Charles Richet   France "[for] his work on anaphylaxis" [20]
1914   Robert Bárány   Austria-Hungary "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus" [21]
1915 Not awarded
1916
1917
1918
1919   Jules Bordet   Belgium "for his discoveries relating to immunity" [22]
1920   Schack August Steenberg Krogh   Denmark "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism" [23]
1921 Not awarded
1922   Archibald Vivian Hill   United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle" [24]
  Otto Fritz Meyerhof   Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle" [24]
1923   Sir Frederick Grant Banting   Canada "for the discovery of insulin" [25]
  John James Rickard Macleod   United Kingdom
1924   Willem Einthoven   Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram" [26]
1925 Not awarded
1926   Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger   Denmark "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma" [27]
1927   Julius Wagner-Jauregg   Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica" [28]
1928   Charles Jules Henri Nicolle   France "for his work on typhus" [29]
1929   Christiaan Eijkman   Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin" [30]
  Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins   United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins" [30]
1930   Karl Landsteiner   Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups" [31]
1931   Otto Heinrich Warburg   Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme" [32]
1932   Sir Charles Scott Sherrington   United Kingdom "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons" [33]
  Edgar Douglas Adrian   United Kingdom
1933   Thomas Hunt Morgan   United States "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity" [34]
1934   George Hoyt Whipple   United States "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia" [35]
  George Richards Minot   United States
  William Parry Murphy   United States
1935   Hans Spemann   Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development" [36]
1936   Sir Henry Hallett Dale   United Kingdom "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses" [37]
  Otto Loewi   Austria
  Germany
1937   Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt   Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid" [38]
1938   Corneille Jean François Heymans   Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration" [39]
1939   Gerhard Domagk   Germany "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil" [40]
1940 Not awarded
1941
1942
1943   Carl Peter Henrik Dam   Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K" [41]
  Edward Adelbert Doisy   United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K" [41]
1944   Joseph Erlanger   United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres" [42]
  Herbert Spencer Gasser   United States
1945   Sir Alexander Fleming   United Kingdom "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases" [43]
  Sir Ernst Boris Chain   United Kingdom
  Howard Walter Florey   Australia
1946   Hermann Joseph Muller   United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation" [44]
1947   Carl Ferdinand Cori   United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen" [45]
  Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz   United States
  Bernardo Alberto Houssay   Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar" [45]
1948   Paul Hermann Müller    Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods" [46]
1949   Walter Rudolf Hess    Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs" [47]
  António Caetano Egas Moniz   Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses" [47]
1950   Philip Showalter Hench   United States "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects" [48]
  Edward Calvin Kendall   United States
  Tadeusz Reichstein    Switzerland
  Poland
1951   Max Theiler   South Africa "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it" [49]
1952   Selman Abraham Waksman   United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis" [50]
1953   Sir Hans Adolf Krebs   United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle" [51]
  Fritz Albert Lipmann   United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism" [51]
1954 John Franklin Enders   United States "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue" [52]
  Frederick Chapman Robbins   United States
  Thomas Huckle Weller   United States
1955   Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell   Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes" [53]
1956   André Frédéric Cournand   United States "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system" [54]
  Werner Forssmann   West Germany
  Dickinson W. Richards   United States
1957   Daniel Bovet   Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles" [55]
1958   George Wells Beadle   United States "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events" [56]
  Edward Lawrie Tatum   United States
  Joshua Lederberg   United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria" [56]
1959   Arthur Kornberg   United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid" [57]
  Severo Ochoa   United States
  Spain
1960   Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet   Australia "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance" [58]
  Sir Peter Brian Medawar   Brazil
  United Kingdom
1961   Georg von Békésy   United States "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea" [59]
1962   Francis Harry Compton Crick   United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material" [60]
  James Dewey Watson   United States
  Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins   New Zealand
  United Kingdom
1963   Sir John Carew Eccles   Australia "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane" [61]
  Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin   United Kingdom
  Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley   United Kingdom
1964   Konrad Bloch   United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism" [62]
  Feodor Lynen   West Germany
1965   François Jacob   France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis" [63]
  André Lwoff   France
  Jacques Monod   France
1966   Peyton Rous   United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses" [64]
  Charles Brenton Huggins   United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer" [64]
1967   Ragnar Granit   Finland
  Sweden
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye" [65]
  Haldan Keffer Hartline   United States
  George Wald   United States
1968   Robert W. Holley   United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis" [66]
  Har Gobind Khorana   India
  United States[67]
  Marshall W. Nirenberg   United States
1969   Max Delbrück   United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses" [68]
  Alfred D. Hershey   United States
  Salvador E. Luria   Italy
  United States
1970   Julius Axelrod   United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation" [69]
  Ulf von Euler   Sweden
Sir Bernard Katz   United Kingdom
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.   United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones" [70]
1972    Gerald M. Edelman   United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies" [71]
Rodney R. Porter   United Kingdom
1973 Karl von Frisch   West Germany "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns" [72]
  Konrad Lorenz   Austria
  Nikolaas Tinbergen   Netherlands
1974 Albert Claude   Belgium "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell" [73]
  Christian de Duve   Belgium
George E. Palade   Romania
1975   David Baltimore   United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell" [74]
  Renato Dulbecco   Italy
  United States
Howard Martin Temin   United States
1976   Baruch S. Blumberg   United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases" [75]
  D. Carleton Gajdusek   United States
1977 Roger Guillemin   United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain" [76]
  Andrew V. Schally   Canada
  Poland
  United States
  Rosalyn Yalow   United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones" [76]
1978   Werner Arber    Switzerland "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics" [77]
Daniel Nathans   United States
  Hamilton O. Smith   United States
1979 Allan M. Cormack   South Africa "for the development of computer assisted tomography" [78]
Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield   United Kingdom
1980 Baruj Benacerraf   Venezuela "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions" [79]
  Jean Dausset   France
George D. Snell   United States
1981 Roger W. Sperry   United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres" [80]
David H. Hubel   Canada "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system" [80]
  Torsten N. Wiesel   Sweden
1982   Sune K. Bergström   Sweden "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances" [81]
Bengt I. Samuelsson   Sweden
  Sir John R. Vane   United Kingdom
1983   Barbara McClintock   United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements" [82]
1984   Niels K. Jerne   Denmark "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies" [83]
Georges J.F. Köhler   West Germany
  César Milstein   Argentina
  United Kingdom
1985   Michael S. Brown   United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism" [84]
  Joseph L. Goldstein   United States
1986   Stanley Cohen   United States "for their discoveries of growth factors" [85]
  Rita Levi-Montalcini   Italy
1987   Susumu Tonegawa   Japan "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity" [86]
1988   Sir James W. Black   United Kingdom "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment" [87]
  Gertrude B. Elion   United States
  George H. Hitchings   United States
1989   J. Michael Bishop   United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes" [88]
  Harold E. Varmus   United States
1990 Joseph E. Murray   United States "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease" [89]
E. Donnall Thomas   United States
1991   Erwin Neher   Germany "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells" [90]
  Bert Sakmann   Germany
1992 Edmond H. Fischer    Switzerland
  United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism" [91]
Edwin G. Krebs   United States
1993   Sir Richard J. Roberts   United Kingdom "for their discoveries of split genes" [92]
  Phillip A. Sharp   United States
1994 Alfred G. Gilman   United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells" [93]
  Martin Rodbell   United States
1995 Edward B. Lewis   United States "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development" [94]
  Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard   Germany
  Eric F. Wieschaus   United States
1996 Peter C. Doherty   Australia "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence" [95]
  Rolf M. Zinkernagel    Switzerland
1997   Stanley B. Prusiner   United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection" [96]
1998   Robert F. Furchgott   United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system" [97]
  Louis J. Ignarro   United States
  Ferid Murad   United States
1999   Günter Blobel   Germany
  United States
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell" [98]
2000   Arvid Carlsson   Sweden "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system" [99]
  Paul Greengard   United States
  Eric R. Kandel   United States
2001 Leland H. Hartwell   United States "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle" [100]
  Sir Tim Hunt   United Kingdom
  Sir Paul M. Nurse   United Kingdom
2002 Sydney Brenner   South Africa "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'" [101]
H. Robert Horvitz   United States
  Sir John E. Sulston   United Kingdom
2003   Paul Lauterbur   United States "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging" [102]
  Sir Peter Mansfield   United Kingdom
2004   Richard Axel   United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system" [103]
  Linda B. Buck   United States
2005   Barry J. Marshall   Australia "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease" [104]
  J. Robin Warren   Australia
2006   Andrew Z. Fire   United States "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA" [105]
  Craig C. Mello   United States
2007   Mario R. Capecchi   United States
  Italy
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells." [106]
  Sir Martin J. Evans   United Kingdom
  Oliver Smithies   United States
2008   Harald zur Hausen   Germany "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer" [107]
  Françoise Barré-Sinoussi   France "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus" [107]
  Luc Montagnier   France
2009   Elizabeth H. Blackburn   United States
  Australia
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase" [108]
  Carol W. Greider   United States
  Jack W. Szostak   United States
2010 Sir Robert G. Edwards   United Kingdom "for the development of in vitro fertilization" [109]
2011   Bruce A. Beutler   United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" [110]
  Jules A. Hoffmann   France
Ralph M. Steinman   Canada "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity" (awarded posthumously)[111][112] [110]
2012   Sir John B. Gurdon   United Kingdom "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent" [113]
  Shinya Yamanaka   Japan
2013 James E. Rothman   United States "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells" [114]
  Randy W. Schekman   United States
  Thomas C. Südhof   United States
  Germany
2014   John O'Keefe   United States
  United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain" [115]
  May-Britt Moser   Norway
  Edvard I. Moser   Norway
2015   William C. Campbell   Ireland
  United States
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites" [116]
  Satoshi Ōmura   Japan
  Tu Youyou   China "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against malaria" [116]
2016   Yoshinori Ohsumi   Japan "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy" [117]
2017   Jeffrey C. Hall   United States "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" [118]
  Michael Rosbash   United States
  Michael W. Young   United States
2018   James P. Allison   United States "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation" [119]
  Tasuku Honjo   Japan

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physiology and medicine for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

CitationsEdit

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