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Vsevolozhsky District (Russian: Все́воложский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[7] district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central northwestern part of the oblast on the Karelian Isthmus and borders with Priozersky District in the north, Kirovsky District in the south, Vyborgsky District in the northwest, Nevsky, Krasnogvardeysky, Kalininsky, Vyborgsky, and Kurortny Districts of the federal city of St. Petersburg in the west, and is washed by Lake Ladoga in the east. The area of the district is 3,036.4 square kilometers (1,172.4 sq mi).[3] Its administrative center is the town of Vsevolozhsk.[1] Population (excluding the administrative center): 153,045 (2010 Census);[4] 131,233 (2002 Census);[9] 135,318 (1989 Census).[10]

Vsevolozhsky District

Всеволожский район
Lake Korkinskoye in Vsevolozhsky District
Lake Korkinskoye in Vsevolozhsky District
Flag of Vsevolozhsky District
Flag
Coat of arms of Vsevolozhsky District
Coat of arms
Location of Vsevolozhsky District in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 60°00′54″N 30°39′04″E / 60.01500°N 30.65111°E / 60.01500; 30.65111Coordinates: 60°00′54″N 30°39′04″E / 60.01500°N 30.65111°E / 60.01500; 30.65111
CountryRussia
Federal subjectLeningrad Oblast[1]
EstablishedAugust 19, 1936[2]
Administrative centerVsevolozhsk[1]
Area
 • Total3,036.4 km2 (1,172.4 sq mi)
Population
 • Total153,045
 • Estimate 
(2018)[5]
354,723 (+131.8%)
 • Density50/km2 (130/sq mi)
 • Urban
29.9%
 • Rural
70.1%
Administrative structure
 • Administrative divisions11 Settlement municipal formations
 • Inhabited localities[1]2 Cities/towns, 6 Urban-type settlements[6], 146 Rural localities
Municipal structure
 • Municipally incorporated asVsevolozhsky Municipal District[7]
 • Municipal divisions[7]8 Urban settlements, 11 Rural settlements
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[8])
OKTMO ID41612000
Websitehttp://www.vsevreg.ru/

GeographyEdit

The Okhta River flows through the district while the Neva defines its southeastern border. There are many lakes in the district, most significant of them being Lakes Lembolovskoye, Kavgolovskoye, Khepoyarvi, and Voloyarvi. The landscape is mostly flat with in the south and east and hilly in the west and northwest. Altitudes range between 170–180 meters (560–590 ft) above sea level in the north to less than 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) in the south.

Low moraine ridges with the relative height of 10–20 meters (33–66 ft) are located parallel to the shore of Lake Ladoga, and along the coastal lowlands are the coastal dunes which reach the height of 3–5 meters (9.8–16.4 ft). About 60% of the district's territory is covered by forests, mostly pine. Swamps occupy another 3.6%.

HistoryEdit

 
Sts. Peter and Paul Lutheran (Finnish) Church, Toksovo

Originally, the area of the district was populated by Finnic peoples, and historically was changing hands between Sweden and Russia; in particular, at some point it belonged to the Novgorod Republic, and from the 15th century, it was annexed together with all Novgorod Lands by the Grand Duchy of Moscow; it belonged to the Vodskaya pyatina, one of the five pyatinas of Novgorod Lands. In 1617, according to the Treaty of Stolbovo, the west of the area was transferred to Sweden, and in 1721, according to the Treaty of Nystad, it was transferred back by Russia.

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, it became a part of Saint Petersburgsky Uyezd, and in 1755, Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was established, and the current area of the district became split between the two uyezds. In 1914, the uyezd and the governorate were renamed Leningradsky. On February 14, 1923 Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was merged into Petrogradsky Uyezd. In January, 1924 the uyezd and the governorate were renamed Leningradsky.[11]

On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Leninsky District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Vsevolozhskoye, was established. The governorates were also abolished, and the district was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Leningradsky Uyezd. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast.[12] On August 19, 1930 Leninsky District was abolished and merged into newly established Leningradsky Prigorodny District with the administrative center in the city of Leningrad.

Another district established on August 1, 1927 was Pargolovsky District with the administrative center in the settlement of Pargolovo III. It was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast and included parts of former Leningradsky Uyezd.[13] On August 19, 1930 Pargolovsky District was abolished and split between Kuyvozovsky District and newly established Leningradsky Prigorodny District.

On August 19, 1936 Leningradsky Prigorodny District was abolished and split between the town of Leningrad and Krasnoselsky, Slutsky, Mginsky, Vsevolozhsky and Pargolovsky Districts. Krasnoselsky, Slutsky, Vsevolozhsky, and Pargolovsky Districts were established on that day to accommodate the areas previously belonging to Leningradsky Prigorodny District.[14]

On August 19, 1936 Vsevolozhsky District, with the administrative center in the suburban settlement of Vsevolozhskoye, was established on the areas which previously belonged to Leningradsky Prigorodny District. It also included urban-type settlements of Imeni Morozova and Dubrovka. On November 27, 1938 a number of suburban settlements, including Vsevolozhskoye, were merged into the urban-type settlement of Vsevolozhsky, which became the center of the district. During World War II, the district was not occupied, and played an important role in the Siege of Leningrad: The goods were transported to Leningrad across the ice on the Lake Ladoga, to Kokkorevo, and then to Leningrad across the district (the Road of Life). On December 8, 1955 some areas in the south of the district were transferred to the city of Leningrad. On February 1, 1963 the urban-type settlement of Vsevolozhsky was renamed Vsevolozhsk and granted the status of town of oblast significance.[2] In 2010, the administrative division of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal division, and Vsevolozhsk was made the town of district significance.[15] On 29 June 2018, the former village of Kudrovo was granted a town status.[16]

Another district established on August 19, 1936 was Pargolovsky District with the administrative center in the settlement of Pargolovo. It included areas which previously belonged to Leningradsky Prigorodny District and Toksovsky District. On November 9, 1938 Pargolovo became an urban-type settlement. During World War II, in Pargolovsky District battles between Soviet and Finnish armies took place. On April 3, 1954 Pargolovsky District was abolished and split between the city of Leningrad and Vsevolozhsky District. In particular, the urban-type settlement of Pargolovo was transferred to Leningrad.[13]

On August 1, 1927, Kuyvozovsky District with the administrative center in the village of Kuyvoz was established as well. It was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast and included parts of former Leningradsky Uyezd. On October 30, 1930 the administrative center of the district was moved to the suburban settlement of Toksovo. In February 1931 Kuyvozovsky District was transformed into a Finnish national district. On March 20, 1936 it was renamed Toksovsky District. On February 22, 1939 Toksovsky District was abolished and merged into Pargolovsky District.[17]

EconomyEdit

IndustryEdit

The district is heavily industrialized as it includes suburbs of Saint Petersburg. The industrial enterprises serve chemical, machine building (including the Ford Vsevolozhsk Assembly plant), and timber industries, as well as the others. There is a growing high-tech component in the industry of the district. Part of the population commutes to Saint Petersburg for work.[18]

AgricultureEdit

The agriculture in the district is performed by a variety of farms, including nine (as of 2012) large-scale agricultural enterprises.[18]

TransportationEdit

 
Melnichny Ruchey station, Vsevolozhsk

A number of railways, originating from the Ladozhsky and Finlyandsky railway stations of Saint Petersburg cross the district. Saint Petersburg – Hiitola railroad runs through Toksovo to Sosnovo and Priozersk. Another line runs to Vsevolozhsk (Melnichny Ruchey railway station) and splits into two, one terminating at Ladozhskoye Ozero railway station, and another one at Nevskaya Dubrovka railway station. One more railway line cross the Neva and runs to Mga.

One of the stations of Saint Petersburg Metro, Devyatkino, is located in Vsevolozhsky District, outside the city of Saint Petersburg. Standard fares apply.

The M18 highway connecting Saint Petersburg with Petrozavodsk and Murmansk crosses the southern part of the district. Generally, the road network of the district is dense and includes roads connecting Saint Petersburg and Shlisselburg with Priozersk, and Sertolovo with Vyborg.

Culture and recreationEdit

 
The former laboratory of Ivan Pavlov, currently a research institution

The district contains 52 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 131 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.[19] The federally protected monuments include the Priyutino Estate in Berngardovka, Vsevolozhsk, the complex of buildings around the laboratory of Ivan Pavlov in the settlement of Pavlovo, the Ryabovo Estate in Vsevolozhsk, and various monuments related to the events of the Siege of Leningrad in 1941—1944.

Vsevolozhsk State Museum of History is located in the town of Vsevolozhsk and displays collections of local interest.[20] The Priyutino Estate, which belonged to Alexey Olenin, a president of the Imperial Academy of Arts in the 19th century, is a museum as well.[21] Several state museums in the district describe events related to the Siege of Leningrad.

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. ^ a b Всеволожский район (август 1936 г .) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Official website of Vsevolozhsky District. Territorial Planning of Vsevolozhsky Municipal District of Leningrad Oblast, p. 65 (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. ^ The count of urban-type settlements may include the work settlements, the resort settlements, the suburban (dacha) settlements, as well as urban-type settlements proper.
  7. ^ a b c Law #17-oz
  8. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Петроградский уезд (1917 - янв. 1924), Ленинградский уезд( янв.1924 г.- авг. 1927 г.) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  12. ^ Ленинский район Ленинградского округа (август 1927 г . - август 1930 г .) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  13. ^ a b Парголовский район (август 1927 г . - август 1930 г ., август 1936 г . - апрель 1954 г .) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  14. ^ Ленинградский Пригородный район (август 1930 г . - август 1936 г .) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  15. ^ Отчет о работе комитета по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Ленинградской области в 2010 году (in Russian). Комитет по печати и связям с общественностью Ленинградской области. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  16. ^ Деревня Кудрово сегодня официально стала городом (in Russian). Bn-Gazeta. June 29, 2018. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  17. ^ Куйвозовский район (август 1927 г . - март 1936 г .), Токсовский район (март 1936 г. - февраль 1939 г.). (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  18. ^ a b Экономика (in Russian). Официальный сайт муниципального образования Всеволожский муниципальный район. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
  19. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
  20. ^ Всеволожский государственный историко-краеведческий музей (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
  21. ^ Литературно-художественный музей-усадьба "Приютино" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved April 9, 2013.

SourcesEdit

  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №17-оз от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований Всеволожский район и Выборгский район и муниципальных образований в их составе», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №27, 11 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #17-oz of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formations of Vsevolozhsky District and Vyborgsky District and to the Municipal Formations Comprising It, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).