Metalcore is a fusion genre combining elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk. The word is a portmanteau of the two genres. Among other styles blending metal and hardcore, such as crust punk and grindcore, metalcore is noted for its use of breakdowns, which are slow, intense passages conducive to moshing. Pioneering metalcore bands—such as Integrity, Earth Crisis, Converge and All Out War —are described as leaning more toward hardcore, with their style sometimes being called metallic hardcore, whereas later bands—such as Killswitch Engage, All That Remains, Trivium, As I Lay Dying, Bullet for My Valentine, and Parkway Drive—are described as leaning more towards metal. Pantera and Sepultura (who influenced Trivium, Atreyu, Bleeding Through and Unearth) have been particularly influential to the development of metalcore in the 2000s, which saw many bands in the genre achieve commercial success.
|Other names||Metallic hardcore|
|Cultural origins||Late 1980s and early 1990s, United States|
Black Flag and Bad Brains, among the originators of hardcore, admired and emulated Black Sabbath. British punk rock groups such as Discharge and the Exploited also took inspiration from heavy metal. The Misfits put out the Earth A.D. album, becoming a crucial influence on thrash. Nonetheless, punk and metal cultures and music remained fairly separate through the first half of the 1980s. Cross-pollination between metal and hardcore eventually birthed the crossover thrash scene, which gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984. The term "metalcore" was originally used to refer to these crossover groups. Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity, D.R.I. and Suicidal Tendencies played alongside thrash metal groups like Metallica and Slayer. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which also began in 1984, and included groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front and Warzone. The Cro-Mags were among the most influential of these bands, drawing equally from Bad Brains, Motörhead and Black Sabbath. Cro-Mags also embraced straight edge and Krishna consciousness. Another New York metal-influenced straight edge group of this time period is the Crumbsuckers. 1985 saw the development of the hardcore breakdown, an amalgamation of Bad Brains' reggae and metal backgrounds, which encouraged moshing. Agnostic Front's 1986 album Cause for Alarm, a collaboration with Peter Steele, was a watershed in the intertwining of hardcore and metal.
Origins (1980s and 1990s)Edit
Between 1984 and 1995, a wave of metallic hardcore bands emerged, including Hogan's Heroes, Integrity, Earth Crisis, Converge, Shai Hulud, Judge, Strife, Rorschach, Vision of Disorder Hatebreed, and Disembodied.
Integrity drew influence from the hardcore band G.I.S.M. and the thrash metal band Slayer, with others like Septic Death, Samhain, Motörhead and Joy Division. Earth Crisis, Converge and Hatebreed borrowed from hardcore punk and death metal. Earth Crisis's albums Firestorm, Destroy the Machines and Gomorrah's Season Ends were particularly influential to the (further) development of the genre. Biohazard, Coalesce and Overcast were also important early metalcore groups. Journalist Lars Gotrich wrote, "Along with key records by The Dillinger Escape Plan and Botch, Give Them Rope (1997) is an underground milestone that helped [further] what was soon [universally] called 'metalcore'. At the risk of sounding too reductive—metalcore was the natural progression where extreme metal and hardcore met, but with spiraling time signatures that somehow felt more aggressive." Shai Hulud's 1997 album Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion became especially influential in the latter part of the decade.
In the early 2000s, metalcore started to gain more prominence, with several independent metal labels, including Century Media and Metal Blade, signing metalcore bands. A new subgenre, melodic metalcore, strongly influenced by Swedish melodic death metal, has formed and quickly came to the forefront of metalcore's rise to popularity. By 2002, Killswitch Engage's Alive or Just Breathing, was the prominent album that thrust metalcore into the spotlight. In 2004 into Shadows Fall's The War Within, and Atreyu's The Curse debuted at numbers 21, 20, and 36, respectively, on the Billboard album chart. Also, in 2006, Atreyu's third studio album, A Death-Grip on Yesterday debuted at Number 9 on the Billboard 200, only to be followed up by 2007's Lead Sails Paper Anchor, which debuted at Number 8. All That Remains' single "Two Weeks" peaked at number 9 at the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart in the U.S. The song peaked on the Modern Rock Tracks chart at number 38. In 2007, the songs "Nothing Left" by As I Lay Dying and "Redemption" by Shadows Fall were nominated for a Grammy award in the "Best Metal Performance" category. An Ocean Between Us (the album that included "Nothing Left") itself was a commercial success, debuting at number 8 on the "Billboard 200".
In 2008 Welsh metalcore band Bullet for My Valentine's second album, Scream Aim Fire, went straight to number 4 on the Billboard 200, which was later surpassed in 2010 by their third album Fever, which debuted at number 3 selling more than 71,000 copies in its first week in the United States and more than 21,000 in the United Kingdom. Bullet for My Valentine's 2006 album The Poison was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Underoath's fifth album Define the Great Line, released in 2006, peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200 charts, selling 98,000 copies in its first week.
Trivium have met with success, making the top 25 positions on charts in several countries, including the United States, and top 10 positions in both Australia and the United Kingdom (where it even achieved Gold status). Hatebreed, God Forbid, and As I Lay Dying have also charted. The Devil Wears Prada achieved some commercial success with their album, With Roots Above and Branches Below, peaking at number 11 on the Billboard 200 upon its release. Underoath's album Lost in the Sound of Separation reached number 8 on the Billboard 200 and sold 56,000 copies in its first week of sales in the United States alone, with Killswitch Engage's self-titled fifth album reaching number 7 on the same chart and selling 58,000 copies.
By the early 2010s, metalcore was evolving to more frequently incorporate synthesizers and elements from genres beyond rock and metal. The Devil Wears Prada's 2011 album Dead Throne (which sold 32,400 in its first week) reached number 10, on the Billboard 200 chart. In 2013, British band Bring Me the Horizon released their fourth studio album Sempiternal to critical acclaim. The album debuted at number 3 on the UK Album Chart and at number 1 in Australia. The album sold 27,522 copies in the US, and charted at number 11 on the US Billboard Chart, making it their highest charting release in America until their follow-up album That's the Spirit, on which they abandoned metalcore, debuted at no. 2 in 2015.
Metalcore is known for its use of breakdowns, in which it was preceded by heavy hardcore. Metalcore singers typically perform screaming, a vocal technique developed in the 1980s and characteristic of 1990s metalcore. More recent bands often combine this with the use of standard singing, usually during the bridge or chorus of a song. The death growl technique is also popular.
The instrumentation of metalcore includes heavy guitar riffs often utilizing percussive pedal tones, double bass drumming, and breakdowns. Drop guitar tunings are often used. Most bands use tuning ranging between Drop D and A, although lower tunings, as well as 7 and 8 string guitars are not uncommon. Drummers typically use a lot of double bass technique and general drumming styles across the board. Blast beats are also heard at times. According to author James Giordano, "tempos in metalcore tend to be slower than those found in thrash metal".
The early 2000s included a wave of metalcore bands who placed significantly greater emphasis on melody. Melodic metalcore bands include Avenged Sevenfold, As I Lay Dying, Trivium, Dead by April, All That Remains, Atreyu, Bullet for My Valentine, Bury Tomorrow, Darkest Hour, Shadows Fall, and August Burns Red. These groups took major influence, cues, and writing styles from Swedish melodic death metal bands, particularly At the Gates, In Flames, Arch Enemy and Soilwork. Melodic metalcore often employs clean vocals.
Mathcore began with the mid-1990s work of Converge, Botch Eso-Charis and The Dillinger Escape Plan. The term mathcore is meant to suggest an analogy with math rock. Mathcore is characterized by increased speed, technical riffing, and unusual time signatures. Bands such as Fear Before also combine the metalcore sound with odd time signatures, as well as progressive elements.
Deathcore is a fusion of metalcore and death metal. Deathcore is defined by breakdowns, blast beats and death metal riffs. Bands may also incorporate guitar solos and even riffs that are influenced by metalcore. New York-based death metal group Suffocation is credited as one of the main influences for the emergence of deathcore. Some examples of deathcore bands are Suicide Silence, Whitechapel, Knights of the Abyss, Carnifex Chelsea Grin, Impending Doom, and Emmure.
Electronicore describes a stylistic fusion of electronic music and metalcore. Notable artists of this genre have originated from the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, France, Hong Kong and Japan.
Progressive metalcore is a fusion of progressive metal and metalcore characterized by highly technical lead guitar and djent-influenced breakdowns. Practitioners of the genre often rely heavily on "atmospheric" elements and complex instrumentation.
Nu metalcore is the musical fusion of nu metal and metalcore originating in the 2010s. Many notable groups take influence from deathcore, R&B, post-hardcore and industrial metal. Metalcore and deathcore groups such as Emmure, Of Mice & Men, Suicide Silence, and Issues all gained moderate popularity drawing influence from nu metal and metalcore.
- ROA, RAY. "WTF is sasscore, and why is SeeYouSpaceCowboy bringing it to St. Petersburg's Lucky You Tattoo?". Creative Loafing. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- Bowar, Chad. "What Is Metalcore?". About.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
- Heaney, Gregory. "Converge - Caring and Killing; 1991 Through 1994". AllMusic. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
Perhaps one of the most influential forces in the metalcore genre, Converge changed the face of underground metal with their fusion of hardcore punk and thrash, creating a perfect blend of raw aggression and astounding technicality.
- Rauf, Raziq. "Converge – All We Love We Leave Behind Review". BBC. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
Though they're now in their third decade as a group, Massachusetts metalcore pioneers Converge find themselves as influential as ever.
- "Blood Runs Deep: 23 Bands Who Shaped Punk". Alternative Press. July 7, 2008. pp. 110, 118.
- "MTVNews.com: The Greatest Metal Bands of All Time: Pantera". MTV. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "MTVNews.com: The Greatest Metal Bands of All Time". MTV. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- Blush, American Hardcore, part 2, "Thirsty and Miserable", p. 63, 66.
- Andersen, Mark and Mark Jenkins (2003). Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. "Positive Mental Attitude". p. 27. Akashic Books. ISBN 1-888451-44-0.
- Glasper, Ian (2004). Burning Britain: The History of UK Punk 1980–1984. Cherry Red Books. p. 5. ISBN 1-901447-24-3.
- Blush, "Hits from Hell", American Hardcore, p. 204.
- Blush, p. 115.
- Felix von Havoc, Maximum Rock'n'Roll #198 Archived June 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Access date: June 20, 2008.
- Blush, p. 193.
- Christe, Ian: Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal (2003), p. 184.
- Blush, p. 186.
- Blush, p. 188.
- Blush, p. 189.
- Blush, p. 189. "Cro-Mags were the first band to attract both Skinheads and Metalheads audiences; their music at the point where Hardcore nihilism met Metal power."
- Blush, p. 193. "Howie Abrams (NYHC scene): Mosh style was slower, very tribal – like a Reggae beat adapted to Hardcore. (...) It was an outbreak of dancing with a mid-tempo beat driven by floor tom and snare."
- Blush, p. 192.
- McClard, Kent. Record Reviews. No Answers, November 1988, p. 13.
- Ian Glasper, Terrorizer no. 171, June 2008, p. 78, "here the term (metalcore) is used in its original context, referencing the likes of Strife, Earth Crisis, and Integrity (...)".
- Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X. p. 222-223.
- "Kill Your Stereo – Reviews: Shai Hulud – Misanthropy Pure".
Shai Hulud, a name that is synonymous (in heavy music circles at least) with intelligent, provocative and most importantly unique metallic hardcore. The band's earliest release is widely credited with influencing an entire generation of musicians.
- "Shai Hulud – Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion Review". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion is pretty much the prime in early melodic metalcore. So many bands in both the modern metalcore and hardcore scene have drawn vast influence from them, because of how perfect they blend hardcore and metal.
- "In at the Deep End Records".
Regardless of whether or not you liked Shai Hulud, it is undeniable that Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion was an oft-imitated and highly influential release in the mid-to-late nineties.
- Ross Haenfler, Straight Edge: Clean-living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3852-1. p. 87-88.
- Sharpe-Young, p. 119
- Hatebreed cites Entombed and Bolt Thrower. Q&A with Jamey Jasta, Miami New Times, May 27, 2008. Access date: June 22, 2008.
- Karl Buechner of Earth Crisis cites Napalm Death, Bolt Thrower, and Obituary as prime influences. Mudrian also discusses Converge and Bloodlet and their relationship to death metal. See Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X. p. 222-223.
- Gabriel Cardenas Salas, "Blasts from the Past", Terrorizer 180, February 2009, p. 96.
- Deneau, Max (April 15, 2009). "Scott Crouse of Earth Crisis". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
Earth Crisis started it all, pretty much. Opening the door for countless metal/hardcore hybrids and setting the bar for politically motivated heavy music, Earth Crisis trailblazed their way through the '90s with a series of landmark releases, particularly the Firestorm EP and Destroy the Machines.
- Ernst, Tobias (June–July 2007). "EARTH CRISIS | ZURÜCK ZU DEN WURZELN" [EARTH CRISIS | BACK TO THE ROOTS]. Ox-Fanzine (in German). No. 72. Archived from the original on June 20, 2009. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
EARTH CRISIS waren Mitte der 1990er Jahre nicht nur eine der vehementesten Vertreter des Veganismus und der Straight Edge-Bewegung, sondern auch musikalisch auf dem Höhepunkt ihrer Karriere. Mit ihrem Album "Gomorrah's Season Ends" bereiteten sie den Weg für einen Musikstil, der heute allgemein als Metalcore bezeichnet wird, und waren zusammen mit INTEGRITY ein maßgeblicher Einfluss für unzählige Metalcore-Bands der letzten Jahre. (In the mid-1990s, EARTH CRISIS was not only one of the most vehement representatives of veganism and the straight-edge movement, but also were musically at the peak of their career. With their album Gomorrah's Season Ends they paved the way for a musical style that is now generally known as Metalcore, and together with INTEGRITY they have been a major influence for countless metalcore bands of recent years.)
- J. Bennett, "Converge's Jane Doe", Revolver, June 2008.
- Lars Gotrich, "Coalesce: A Tale of Two Ropes", All Songs Considered, 25 October 2011.
- Alive of Just Breathing at Billboard.com.
- "Shadows Fall to Co-Headline Sounds of the Underground". Blabbermouth.net. Archived from the original on August 19, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Scream Aim Fire at Billboard.com.
- "American album certifications – Bullet for My Valentine – The Poison". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.
- Define the Great Line at Billboard.com.
- Supremacy at Billboard.com.
- Perseverance at Billboard.com.
- Sacrament at Billboard.com.
- [dead link]
- Lost in the Sound of Separation at Billboard.com.
- "Killswitch Engage Debuts @ #7 on Billboard Top 200". Roadrunner Records. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "Lady Antebellum 'Own' the Billboard 200 with Second No. 1 Album". Billboard.com. 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2011-10-20.
- "The Devil Wears Prada Post A Video Update For New Album". Metal Insider.
- "Resistance" (22–26). Resistance Records. 2004: 111.
- Giordano 2016, p. 141.
- "INTERVIEW: DEAD BY APRIL". RockRevolt Mag.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Overcome review". AllMusic. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
Overcome offers very dependable melodic metalcore in the spirit of All That Remains' albums past, without succumbing to outright stagnation.
- D. Taylor, Jason. "Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses review". AllMusic. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
Atreyu's debut album, Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses, is an invigorating foray into melodic metalcore in the vein of Darkest Hour, Poison the Well, and Eighteen Visions.
- "Taste of Chaos", Revolver, June 2008, p. 110. "This is the Rockstar Taste of Chaos Tour, a night when heavier melodic-metalcore bands like Atreyu and Avenged Sevenfold intend to position themselves as the next generation of bands to actually pack arenas (...)".
- Apar, Corey. "Bullet for My Valentine". AllMusic. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- Phil Freeman (16 March 2010). "Alternative Press | Reviews | Bury Tomorrow – Portraits". Alternative Press. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
If you're wondering whether they bring anything unique or unexpected to the table, the answer is no. Is Portraits a pleasurable enough melodic metalcore album while it's playing? Absolutely.
- "August Burns Red – Constellations". Way Too Loud!. July 15, 2012. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015.
- "Eternal Closure". Sputnik. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- "August Burns Red Burns Red Presents Sleddin' Holiday Album". Bradley Zorgdrager. October 9, 2012.
- Metal Injection, August 28, 2007. Access date: June 24, 2008.
- "It's Through the Approach". El Paisano. September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- "Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses review". mp3.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009.
- "Converge biography". Rockdetector.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
- Bowar, Chad. "Botch – We Are the Romans Review". About.com. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "Botch". San Francisco Bay Guardian. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "Eso-Charis: Biography". New Release Tuesday. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
- "Mathcore band the 'Dillinger Escape Plan' visit NZ". TV3. Archived from the original on October 17, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "Events for this weekend in New York (page 2 of 2)". NY Daily News. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "The Battalion". 12 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- "Fear Before the March of Flames Bio". The Gauntlet. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
Drawing inspiration from the intricacies of Converge, the varied time signatures of Botch and the temperament of the Blood Brothers, they produced a distinctive combination of hardcore, metal and indie rock that was eclectic, fresh and frenetic.
- "lambgoat.com". Retrieved July 11, 2012.
This is deathcore. This is what happens when death metal and hardcore, along with healthy doses of other heavy music styles, are so smoothly blended...
- Lee, Cosmo. "metalinjection.net". Retrieved November 11, 2008.
...All Shall Perish... Alienacja (Poland), Despised Icon (Montreal) and Whitechapel (Knoxville, TN)... They're all textbook 'deathcore', fusing death metal and hardcore punk.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Heaven Shall Burn". AllMusic. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
Munich, Germany's Heaven Shall Burn specialize in highly controversial and politicized death metal fused with hardcore; a hybrid style often referred to as death-core.
- Lee, Cosmo. "Doom". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Rose Funeral – 'The Resting Sonata'". About.com. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Lee, Cosmo (September 2009). "Suffocation reclaim their rightful place as kings of death metal". Decibel Magazine. No. 059.
One of Suffocation's trademarks, breakdowns, has spawned an entire metal subgenre: deathcore.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (September 2008). "Dawn of the Deathcore". Revolver. No. 72. Future US. pp. 63–66. ISSN 1527-408X. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Knights of the Abyss". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- Henderson, Alex. "Desolation of Eden review". AllMusic. Macrovision. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- Kapper, Andrew. "Impending Doom – Baptized In Filth Review". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
- Heaney, George. "Ghost Town – The After Party". AllMusic. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
most electronicore is essentially metalcore with some synths tacked on for good measure
- Birchmeier, Jason. "I See Stars – Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Birchmeier, Jason. "Sky Eats Airplane – Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- "Capture the Crown – Last.fm". Last.fm. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- Heaney, Gregory. "Abandon All Ships – Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Candi H, Altsounds Punk Goes Pop - Vol. Album Review Archived 2012-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
- "BLΛK – Bitetone". Bitetone Magazine. Bitetone. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- "Crossfaith – Apocalyze Album Review". New Noise Magazine. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- "The History Of Progressive Metal – Metal Storm". www.metalstorm.net. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
- Giffin, Brian (2015). Encyclopaedia of Australian Heavy Metal. Australia: DarkStar. ISBN 9780994320612.
- "Quick Review: AURAS Heliospectrum – Metal Injection". Metal Injection. 2016-10-03. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- "Album Review: Invent, Animate – "Everchanger" – New Noise Magazine". New Noise Magazine. 2014-08-28. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- "Invent, Animate – Stillworld (album review ) | Sputnikmusic". www.sputnikmusic.com. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
- "Thrash Hits - Nu metalcore". Archived from the original on 2017-03-15.
- "Alternative Nation - Nu Metal Revival".
- "That's Rocking Awesome - Nu Metalcore".
- Lloyd, Gavin (September 19, 2013). "Nu Metalcore is definitely happening. Why?". Thrash Hits. Archived from the original on March 15, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- "Eternal Enemies - Emmure". Allmusic.
- "Guest Insider: Mike Gitter Reviews Emmure's 'Felony'". Metal Insider. 2009-09-10. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "Emmure - Slave to the Game Review". DecoyMusic.com. Archived from the original on March 24, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "Of Mice & Men - Restoring Force (Album review)". Crypticrock.com.
- "Of Mice & Men - Restoring Force (2014)". Megusta Reviews.
- "Review: Of Mice & Men - Restoring Force". The Monolith. Archived from the original on 2017-07-01. Retrieved 2017-07-16.
- "Is Nu-Dethcore The Next Big Thing???? #Bouncewitme". MetalSucks. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "Interviews: Suicide Silence - Alex Lopez". Live-Metal.Net. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "Issues: The Band That (Finally) Gets Nu-Metal Right". MetalSucks. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "Are Issues Ushering In A New Wave of Nü-Metal?". Metal Injection. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- Haenfler, Ross. Straight Edge: Clean-living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3852-1.
- Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry (2005). New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Zonda Books. ISBN 0-9582684-0-1.
- Giordano, James (2016). Maldynia: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Illness of Chronic Pain. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439836316.