Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, an entertainment industry job, and a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2009 report found that the skateboarding market is worth an estimated $4.8 billion in annual revenue with 11.08 million active skateboarders in the world. In 2016, it was announced that skateboarding will be represented at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.
|Mixed gender||Yes, separate competitions|
|Country or region||Worldwide|
|Olympic||Will debut in 2020|
Since the 1970s, skateparks have been constructed specifically for use by skateboarders, Freestyle BMXers, aggressive skaters, and very recently, scooters. However, skateboarding has become controversial in areas in which the activity, although illegal, has damaged curbs, stoneworks, steps, benches, plazas and parks.
The first skateboards started with wooden boxes, or boards, with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. Crate scooters preceded skateboards, having a wooden crate attached to the nose (front of the board), which formed rudimentary handlebars. The boxes turned into planks, similar to the skateboard decks of today.
Skateboarding, as we know it, was probably born sometime in the late 1940s, or early 1950s, when surfers in California wanted something to do when the waves were flat. This was called "sidewalk surfing" – a new wave of surfing on the sidewalk as the sport of surfing became highly popular. No one knows who made the first board; it seems that several people came up with similar ideas at around the same time. The first manufactured skateboards were ordered by a Los Angeles, California surf shop, meant to be used by surfers in their downtime. The shop owner, Bill Richard, made a deal with the Chicago Roller Skate Company to produce sets of skate wheels, which they attached to square wooden boards. Accordingly, skateboarding was originally denoted "sidewalk surfing" and early skaters emulated surfing style and maneuvers, and performed barefoot.
By the 1960s a small number of surfing manufacturers in Southern California such as Jack's, Kips', Hobie, Bing's and Makaha started building skateboards that resembled small surfboards, and assembled teams to promote their products. One of the earliest Skateboard exhibitions was sponsored by Makaha's founder, Larry Stevenson, in 1963 and held at the Pier Avenue Junior High School in Hermosa Beach, California. Some of these same teams of skateboarders were also featured on a television show called "Surf's Up" in 1964, hosted by Stan Richards, that helped promote skateboarding as something new and fun to do.
As the popularity of skateboarding began expanding, the first skateboarding magazine, The Quarterly Skateboarder was published in 1964. John Severson, who published the magazine, wrote in his first editorial:
Today's skateboarders are founders in this sport—they're pioneers—they are the first. There is no history in Skateboarding—its being made now—by you. The sport is being molded and we believe that doing the right thing now will lead to a bright future for the sport. Already, there are storm clouds on the horizon with opponents of the sport talking about ban and restriction.
The magazine only lasted four issues, but resumed publication as Skateboarder in 1975. The first broadcast of an actual skateboarding competition was the 1965 National Skateboarding Championships, which were held in Anaheim, California and aired on ABC's Wide World of Sports. Because skateboarding was a new sport during this time, there were only two original disciplines during competitions: flatland freestyle and slalom downhill racing.
One of the earliest sponsored skateboarders, Patti McGee, was paid by Hobie and Vita Pak to travel around the country to do skateboarding exhibitions and to demonstrate skateboarding safety tips. McGee made the cover of Life magazine in 1965 and was featured on several popular television programs—The Mike Douglas Show, What's My Line? and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson—which helped make skateboarding even more popular at the time. Some other well known surfer-style skateboarders of the time were Danny Bearer, Torger Johnson, Bruce Logan, Bill and Mark Richards, Woody Woodward, & Jim Fitzpatrick.
The growth of the sport during this period can also be seen in sales figures for Makaha, which quoted $10 million worth of board sales between 1963 and 1965 (Weyland, 2002:28). By 1966 a variety of sources began to claim that skateboarding was dangerous, resulting in shops being reluctant to sell them, and parents being reluctant to buy them. In 1966 sales had dropped significantly (ibid) and Skateboarder Magazine had stopped publication. The popularity of skateboarding dropped and remained low until the early 1970s.
In the early 1970s, Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of polyurethane, calling his company Cadillac Wheels. Prior to this new material, skateboards wheels were metal or "clay" wheels. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that from the wheel's release in 1972 the popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again, causing companies to invest more in product development. Nasworthy commissioned artist Jim Evans to do a series of paintings promoting Cadillac Wheels, they were featured as ads and posters in the resurrected Skateboarder magazine, and proved immensely popular in promoting the new style of skateboarding.
In the early 1970s skateparks hadn't been invented yet, so skateboarders would flock and skateboard in such urban places as The Escondido reservoir in San Diego, California. Skateboarding magazine would publish the location and Skateboarders made up nicknames for each location such as the Tea Bowl, the Fruit Bowl, Bellagio, the Rabbit Hole, Bird Bath, the Egg Bowl, Upland Pool and the Sewer Slide. Some of the development concepts in the terrain of skateparks were actually taken from the Escondido reservoir. Many companies started to manufacture trucks (axles) specially designed for skateboarding, reached in 1976 by Tracker Trucks. As the equipment became more maneuverable, the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches (250 mm) and over, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. A banana board is a skinny, flexible skateboard made of polypropylene with ribs on the underside for structural support. These were very popular during the mid-1970s and were available in a myriad of colors, bright yellow probably being the most memorable, hence the name.
In 1975 skateboarding had risen back in popularity enough to have one of the largest skateboarding competitions since the 1960s, the Del Mar National Championships, which is said to have had up to 500 competitors. The competition lasted two days and was sponsored by Bahne Skateboards & Cadillac Wheels. While the main event was won by freestyle spinning skate legend Russ Howell, a local skate team from Santa Monica, California, the Zephyr team, ushered in a new era of surfer style skateboarding during the competition that would have a lasting impact on skateboarding's history. With a team of 12, including skating legends such as Jay Adams, Tony Alva, Peggy Oki & Stacy Peralta, they brought a new progressive style of skateboarding to the event, based on the style of Hawaiian surfers Larry Bertlemann, Buttons Kaluhiokalani and Mark Liddell. Craig Stecyk, a photo journalist for Skateboarder Magazine, wrote about and photographed the team, along with Glen E. Friedman, and shortly afterwards ran a series on the team called the Dogtown articles, which eventually immortalized the Zephyr skateboard team. The team became known as the Z-Boys and would go on to become one of the most influential teams in skateboarding's history.
Soon, skateboarding contests for cash and prizes, using a professional tier system, began to be held throughout California, such as the California Free Former World Professional Skateboard Championships, which featured Freestyle and Slalom competitions.
A precursor to the extreme sport of street luge, that was sanctioned by the United States Skateboarding Association (USSA), also took place during the 1970s in Signal Hill, California. The competition was called "The Signal Hill Skateboarding Speed Run", with several competitors earning entries into the Guinness Book of World Records, at the time clocking speeds of over 50 mph on a skateboard. Due to technology and safety concerns at the time, when many competitors crashed during their runs, the sport did not gain popularity or support during this time.
In March 1976, Skateboard City skatepark in Port Orange, Florida and Carlsbad Skatepark in San Diego County, California would be the first two skateparks to be opened to the public, just a week apart. They were the first of some 200 skateparks that would be built through 1982. This was due in part to articles that were running in the investment journals at the time, stating that skateparks were a good investment. Notable skateboarders from the 1970s also include Ty Page, Tom Inouye, Laura Thornhill, Ellen O'Neal, Kim Cespedes, Bob Biniak, Jana Payne, Waldo Autry, Robin Logan, Bobby Piercy, Russ Howell, Ellen Berryman, Shogo Kubo, Desiree Von Essen, Henry Hester, Robin Alaway, Paul Hackett, Michelle Matta, Bruce Logan, Steve Cathey, Edie Robertson, Mike Weed, David Hackett, Gregg Ayres, Darren Ho, and Tom Sims.
Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites and metals, like fiberglass and aluminium, but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. Skateboarders, most notably Ty Page, Bruce Logan, Bobby Piercy, Kevin Reed, and the Z-Boys started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. This started the "vert" trend in skateboarding. With increased control, vert skaters could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks, such as slash grinds and frontside/backside airs. This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners, and the development (first by Norcon, then more successfully by Rector) of improved knee pads that had a hard sliding cap and strong strapping proved to be too-little-too-late. During this era, the "freestyle" movement in skateboarding began to splinter off and develop into a much more specialized discipline, characterized by the development of a wide assortment of flat-ground tricks.
As a result of the "vert" skating movement, skate parks had to contend with high liability costs that led to many park closures. In response, vert skaters started making their own ramps, while freestyle skaters continued to evolve their flatland style. Thus, by the beginning of the 1980s, skateboarding had once again declined in popularity.
This period was fueled by skateboard companies that were run by skateboarders. The focus was initially on vert ramp skateboarding. The invention of the no-hands aerial (later known as the ollie) by Alan Gelfand in Florida in 1976, and the almost parallel development of the grabbed aerial by George Orton and Tony Alva in California, made it possible for skaters to perform airs on vertical ramps. While this wave of skateboarding was sparked by commercialized vert ramp skating, a majority of people who skateboarded during this period didn't ride vert ramps. As most people could not afford to build vert ramps, or did not have access to nearby ramps, street skating increased in popularity.
Freestyle skating remained healthy throughout this period, with pioneers such as Rodney Mullen inventing many of the basic tricks that would become the foundation of modern street skating, such as the "Impossible" and the "kickflip". The influence that freestyle exerted upon street skating became apparent during the mid-1980s; however, street skating was still performed on wide vert boards with short noses, slide rails, and large soft wheels. In response to the tensions created by this confluence of skateboarding "genres", a rapid evolution occurred in the late 1980s to accommodate the street skater. Since few skateparks were available to skaters at this time, street skating pushed skaters to seek out shopping centers and public and private property as their "spot" to skate. (Public opposition, in which businesses, governments, and property owners have banned skateboarding on properties under their jurisdiction or ownership, would progressively intensify over the following decades.) By 1992, only a small fraction of skateboarders continuing to take part in a highly technical version of street skating, combined with the decline of vert skating, produced a sport that lacked the mainstream appeal to attract new skaters.
Skateboarding during the 1990s became dominated by street skateboarding. Most boards are about 7 1⁄4 to 8 inches (180 to 200 mm) wide and 30 to 32 inches (760 to 810 mm) long. The wheels are made of an extremely hard polyurethane, with hardness (durometer) approximately 99A. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards are lighter, and the wheels' inertia is overcome quicker, thus making tricks more manageable. Board styles have changed dramatically since the 1970s but have remained mostly alike since the mid-1990s. The contemporary shape of the skateboard is derived from the freestyle boards of the 1980s with a largely symmetrical shape and relatively narrow width. This form had become standard by the mid '90s.
By 2001 skateboarding had gained so much popularity that more people under the age of 18 rode skateboards (10.6 million) than played baseball (8.2 million), although traditional organized team sports still dominated youth programs overall. Skateboarding and skateparks began to be viewed and used in a variety of new ways to complement academic lessons in schools, including new non-traditional physical education skateboarding programs, like Skatepass and Skateistan, to encourage youth to have better attendance, self-discipline and confidence. This was also based on the healthy physical opportunities skateboarding was understood to bring participants for muscle & bone strengthening and balance, as well as the positive impacts it can have on youth in teaching them mutual respect, social networking, artistic expression and an appreciation of the environment.
In 2003 Go Skateboarding Day was founded in southern California by the International Association of Skateboard Companies to promote skateboarding throughout the world. It is celebrated annually on June 21 "to define skateboarding as the rebellious, creative celebration of independence it continues to be." According to market research firm American Sports Data the number of skateboarders worldwide increased by more than 60 percent between 1999 and 2002—from 7.8 million to 12.5 million.
Many cities also began implementing recreation plans and statutes during this time period, as part of their vision for local parks and communities to make public lands more available, in particular, for skateboarding, inviting skateboarders to come in off of the city streets and into organized skateboarding activity areas. By 2006 there were over 2,400 skateparks worldwide and the design of skateparks themselves had made a transition, as skaters turned designers. Many new places to skateboard designed specifically for street skaters, such as the "Safe Spot Skate Spot" program, first initiated by professional skateboarder Rob Dyrdek throughout many cities, allowed for the creation of smaller alternative safe skate plazas to be built at a lower cost. One of the largest locations ever built to skateboard in the world, SMP Skatepark in China, at 12,000 square meters in size, was built complete with a 5,000-seat stadium.
Efforts have been taken to improve recognition of the cultural heritage as well as the positive effects of encouraging skateboarding within designated spaces. In 2015, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C., hosted an event at which skateboarders accompanied by music did tricks on a ramp constructed for a festival of American culture. The event was the climax of a ten-day project that transformed a federal institution formerly off-limits to the skateboarding community into a platform for that community to show its relevance through shared cultural action in a cultural common space.
By raising £790,000, the Long Live Southbank initiative managed in 2017 to curb the destruction of a forty years old spot in London due to urban planning, a salvaging operation whose effect extends beyond skateboarding. The presence of a designated skating area within this public space keeps the space under nearly constant watch and drives homeless people away, increasing the feeling of safety in and near the space. The activity attracts artists such as photographers and film makers, as well as a significant number of tourists, which in turn drives economic activity in the neighborhood.
Recently, barefoot skating has been experiencing a revival. Many skaters ride barefoot, particularly in summer and in warmer countries, such as South Africa, Australia, Spain and South America. The plastic penny board is intended to be ridden barefoot, as is the surfboard-inspired hamboard.
With the evolution of skateparks and ramp skating, the skateboard began to change. Early skate tricks had consisted mainly of two-dimensional freestyle manoeuvres like riding on only two wheels ("wheelie" or "manual"), spinning only on the back wheels (a "pivot"), high jumping over a bar and landing on the board again, also known as a "hippie jump", long jumping from one board to another, (often over small barrels or fearless teenagers), or slalom. Another popular trick was the Bertlemann slide, named after Larry Bertelemann's surfing manoeuvres.
In 1976, skateboarding was transformed by the invention of the ollie by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand. It remained largely a unique Florida trick until the summer of 1978, when Gelfand made his first visit to California. Gelfand and his revolutionary maneuvers caught the attention of the West Coast skaters and the media where it began to spread worldwide. The ollie was adapted to flat ground by Rodney Mullen in 1982. Mullen also invented the "Magic Flip," which was later renamed the kickflip, as well as many other tricks including, the 360 Kickflip, which is a 360 pop shove-it and a kickflip in the same motion. The flat ground ollie allowed skateboarders to perform tricks in mid-air without any more equipment than the skateboard itself, it has formed the basis of many street skating tricks. A recent development in the world of trick skating is the 1080, which was first ever landed by Tom Schaar in 2012.
Skateboarding was popularized by the 1986 skateboarding cult classic Thrashin'. Directed by David Winters and starring Josh Brolin, it features appearances from many famous skaters such as Tony Alva, Tony Hawk, Christian Hosoi and Steve Caballero. Thrashin' also had a direct impact on Lords of Dogtown, as Catherine Hardwicke, who directed Lords of Dogtown, was hired by Winters to work on Thrashin' as a production designer where she met, worked with and befriended many famous skaters including the real Tony Alva, Tony Hawk, Christian Hosoi and Steve Caballero.
These films have helped improve the reputation of skateboarding youth, depicting individuals of this subculture as having a positive outlook on life, prone to poking harmless fun at each other, and engaging in healthy sportsman's competition. According to the film, lack of respect, egotism and hostility towards fellow skateboarders is generally frowned upon, albeit each of the characters (and as such, proxies of the "stereotypical" skateboarder) have a firm disrespect for authority and for rules in general. Gleaming the Cube, a 1989 movie starring Christian Slater as a skateboarding teen investigating the death of his adopted Vietnamese brother, was somewhat of an iconic landmark to the skateboarding genre of the era. Many well-known skaters had cameos in the film, including Tony Hawk and Rodney Mullen, where Mullen served as Slater's stunt double.
Skateboarding was, at first, tied to the culture of surfing. As skateboarding spread across the United States to places unfamiliar with surfing or surfing culture, it developed an image of its own. For example, the classic film short Video Days (1991) portrayed skateboarders as reckless rebels.
Certain cities still oppose the building of skate parks in their neighborhoods, for fear of increased crime and drugs in the area. The rift between the old image of skateboarding and a newer one is quite visible: magazines such as Thrasher portray skateboarding as dirty, rebellious, and still firmly tied to punk, while other publications, Transworld Skateboarding as an example, paint a more diverse and controlled picture of skateboarding. As more professional skaters use hip hop, reggae, or hard rock music accompaniment in their videos, many urban youths, hip-hop fans, reggae fans, and hard rock fans are also drawn to skateboarding, further diluting the sport's punk image.
Group spirit supposedly influences the members of this community. In presentations of this sort, showcasing of criminal tendencies is absent, and no attempt is made to tie extreme sports to any kind of illegal activity. Female based skateboarding groups also exist, such as Brujas which is based in New York City. Many women use their participation in skate crews to perform an alternative form of femininity. These female skate crews offer a safe haven for women and girls in cities, where they can skate and bond without male expectations or competition.
The increasing availability of technology is apparent within the skateboarding community. Many skateboarders record and edit videos of themselves and friends skateboarding. However, part of this culture is to not merely replicate but to innovate; emphasis is placed on finding new places and landing new tricks.
Skateboarding video games have also become very popular in skateboarding culture. Some of the most popular are the Tony Hawk series and Skate series for various consoles (including hand-held) and personal computer.
Whilst early skateboarders generally rode barefoot, preferring direct foot-to-board contact, and some skaters continue to do so, one of the early leading trends associated with the sub-culture of skateboarding itself, was the sticky-soled slip-on skate shoe, most popularized by Sean Penn's skateboarding character from the film Fast Times at Ridgemont High. Because early skateboarders were actually surfers trying to emulate the sport of surfing, at the time when skateboards first came out on the market, many skateboarded barefoot. But skaters often lacked traction, which led to foot injuries. This necessitated the need for a shoe that was specifically designed and marketed for skateboarding, such as the Randy "720", manufactured by the Randolph Rubber Company, and Vans sneakers, which eventually became cultural iconic signifiers for skateboarders during the 1970s and '80s as skateboarding became more widespread.
While the skate shoes design afforded better connection and traction with the deck, skaterboarders themselves could often be identified when wearing the shoes, with Tony Hawk once saying, "If you were wearing Vans shoes in 86, you were a skateboarder" Because of its connection with skateboarding, Vans financed the legendary skateboarding documentary Dogtown and Z-Boys and was the first sneaker company to endorse a professional skateboarder Stacy Peralta. Vans has a long history of being a major sponsor of many of skateboarding's competitions and events throughout skateboarding's history as well, including the Vans Warped Tour and the Vans Triple Crown Series.
As it eventually became more apparent that skateboarding had a particular identity with a style of shoe, other brands of shoe companies began to specifically design skate shoes for functionality and style to further enhance the experience and culture of skateboarding including such brands as; Converse, Nike, DC Shoes, Globe, Adidas, Zoo York and World Industries. Many professional skateboarders are designed a pro-model skate shoe, with their name on it, once they have received a skateboarding sponsorship after becoming notable skateboarders. Some shoe companies involved with skateboarding, like Sole Technology, an American footwear company that makes the Etnies skate shoe brand, further distinguish themselves in the market by collaborating with local cities to open public Skateparks, such as the etnies skatepark in Lake Forest, California.
Individuality and a self-expressed casual style have always been cultural values for skateboarders, as uniforms and jerseys are not typically worn. This type of personal style for skateboarders is often reflected in the graphical designs illustrated on the bottom of the deck of skateboards, since its initial conception in the mid seventies, when Wes Humpston and Jim Muri first began doing design work for Dogtown Skateboards out of their garage by hand, creating the very first iconic skateboard-deck art with the design of the "Dogtown Cross".
Prior to the mid-seventies many early skateboards were originally based upon the concept of “Sidewalk Surfing” and were tied to the surf culture, skateboards were surfboard like in appearance with little to no graphics located under the bottom of the skateboard-deck. Some of the early manufactured skateboards such as "Roller Derby", the "Duraflex Surfer" and the "Banana board" are characteristic. Some skateboards during that time were manufactured with company logo's or stickers across the top of the deck of the skateboard, as griptape was not initially used for construction. But as skateboarding progressed & evolved, and as artist began to design and add influence to the artwork of skateboards, designs and themes began to change.
There were several artistic skateboarding pioneers that had an influence on the culture of skateboarding during the 1980s, that transformed skateboard-deck art like Jim Phillips, whose edgy comic-book style "Screaming Hand", not only became the main logo for Santa Cruz Skateboards, but eventually transcended into tattoos of the same image for thousands of people and vinyl collectible figurines over the years. Artist Vernon Courtlandt Johnson is said to have used his artwork of skeletons and skulls, for Powell Peralta, during the same time that the music genres of punk rock and new wave music were beginning to mesh with the culture of skateboarding. Some other notable skateboard artists that made contribrutions to the culture of skateboarding also include Andy Jenkins, Todd Bratrud, Neil Blender, Marc McKee, Tod Swank, Mark Gonzales, Lance Mountain, Natas Kaupas and Jim Evans.
Over the years skateboard-deck art has continued to influence and expand the culture of skateboarding, as many people began collecting skateboards based on their artistic value and nostalgia. Productions of limited editions with particular designs and types of collectible prints that can be hung on the wall, have been created by such famous artists as Andy Warhol and Keith Haring. Most professional skateboarders today have their own signature skateboard decks, with their favorite artistic designs printed on them using computer graphics.
High value and collectible skateboards
In January 2019, Sotheby's in New York auctioned the full set of the 248 skateboard deck designs ever sold by Supreme, collected by Ryan Fuller. The full set sold for $800,000 to 17 year old Carson Guo from Vancouver who plans to exhibit them in a local gallery.
New York based SHUT skateboards had a goldplated skateboard for sale at $15,000 in 2014, then the most expensive skateboard in the world.
In 2019, artist Adrian Wilson created the SUPREME Mundi, a cross between an artist palette and a skateboard as a commentary on the record bids at auction of the Supreme decks and the restored Salvatore Mundi which was sold by a New York art gallery for $20,000
Skateboards, along with other small-wheeled transportation such as in-line skates and scooters, suffer a safety problem: riders may easily be thrown from small cracks and outcroppings in pavement, especially where the cracks run across the direction of travel. Hitting such an irregularity is the major cause of falls and injuries. The risk may be reduced at higher travel speeds.
Severe injuries are relatively rare. Commonly, a skateboarder who falls suffers from scrapes, cuts, bruises, and sprains. Among injuries reported to a hospital, about half involve broken bones, usually the long bones in the leg or arm. One-third of skateboarders with reported injuries are very new to the sport, having started skating within one week of the injury. Although less common, involving 3.5–9 percent of reported injuries, traumatic head injuries and death are possible severe outcomes.
Skating as a form of transportation exposes the skateboarder to the dangers of other traffic. Skateboarders on the street may be hit by other vehicles or may fall into vehicular traffic.
Skateboarders also pose a risk to other pedestrians and traffic. If the skateboarder falls, the skateboard may roll or fly into another person. A skateboarder who collides with a person who is walking or biking may injure or, rarely, kill that person.
Many jurisdictions require skateboarders to wear bicycle helmets to reduce the risk of head injuries and death. Other protective gear, such as wrist guards, also reduce injury. Some medical researchers have proposed restricting skateboarding to designated, specially designed areas, to reduce the number and severity of injuries, and to eliminate injuries caused by motor vehicles or to other pedestrians.
The use, ownership and sale of skateboards were forbidden in Norway from 1978 to 1989 because of the high number of injuries caused by boards. The ban led skateboarders to construct ramps in the forest and other secluded areas to avoid the police. There was, however, one legal skatepark in the country in Frogner Park in Oslo.
Other uses and styles
The use of skateboards solely as a form of transportation is often associated with the longboard. Depending on local laws, using skateboards as a form of transportation outside residential areas may or may not be legal. Backers cite portability, exercise, and environmental friendliness as some of the benefits of skateboarding as an alternative to automobiles.
The United States Marine Corps tested the usefulness of commercial off-the-shelf skateboards during urban combat military exercises in the late 1990s in a program called Urban Warrior '99. Their special purpose was "for maneuvering inside buildings in order to detect tripwires and sniper fire".
Trampboarding is a variant of skateboarding that uses a board without the trucks and the wheels on a trampoline. Using the bounce of the trampoline gives height to perform tricks, whereas in skateboarding you need to make the height by performing an ollie. Trampboarding is seen on YouTube in numerous videos.
Swing boarding is the activity where a skateboard deck is suspended from a pivot point above the rider which allows the rider to swing about that pivot point. The board swings in an arc which is a similar movement to riding a half pipe. The incorporation of a harness and frame allows the rider to perform turns and spins all while flying through the air.
Skateboarding damages urban terrain features such as curbs, benches, and ledges when skateboarders perform "grinds" and other tricks on these surfaces. Private industry has responded to this problem by using skate deterrent devices, such as the Skatestopper, in efforts to prevent further damage and to reduce skateboarding on these surfaces.
The enactment of ordinances and the posting of signs stating "Skateboarding is not allowed" have also become common methods to discourage skateboarding in public areas in many cities, to protect pedestrians and property. In the area of street skating, tickets and arrest from police for trespassing and vandalism are not uncommon.
Skateboarding has become an important problem in Freedom Plaza, a National Park within the Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site in Washington, D.C. The Plaza contains copies of portions of Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the nation's capital city that have been inscribed in the park's raised marble surface.
Freedom Plaza has become a popular location for skateboarding, although the activity is illegal and has resulted in police actions. A 2016 National Park Service management plan for the Historic Site states that skateboarding has damaged stonework, sculptures, walls, benches, steps, and other surfaces in some areas of the Plaza. The management plan further states that skateboarding presents a persistent law enforcement and management challenge, as popular websites advertise the Plaza's attractiveness for the activity. The plan notes that vandals have removed "No Skateboarding" signs and recommends the replacement of those signs.
This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (November 2016)
- Ocean Howell (2003). "Extreme Market Research". Topic Magazine. Topic Magazine. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Montgomery, Tiffany (May 12, 2009). "The state of the skateboarding industry". Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- "Skateboarding Is Officially an Olympic Sport. What Now?". August 6, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
- Steve Cave, about.com. "Skateboarding: A Brief History (page 2)". Retrieved December 13, 2006.
- "Skateboarding" (PDF). Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site Management Plan: Visitor Information, Education and Enjoyment. Washington, D.C.: National Mall and Memorial Parks: National Park Service: United States Department of the Interior. April 2014. pp. 24–25. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
Skateboarding damages stonework, walls, steps, and sculpture in some areas and presents a persistent law enforcement and management challenge. Damaged areas include stone facing on memorials, benches, and other surfaces. Moreover, popular websites advertise the attractiveness of these areas for skateboarding, which indicates the large scope of this challenge. .... Actions: .... In park areas replace and maintain “No Skateboarding” signs that have been vandalized.
- Marcus, Ben; Grggi, Lucia (2011). The Skateboard: The Good, the Rad, and the Gnarly: An Illustrated History. MVP Book. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- "Skateboarding: A Brief History (page 1)". Retrieved September 1, 2007.
- Brooke, Michael (1999). "The Concrete Wave: The History of Skateboarding". Warwick Publishing Inc. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- Borden, Iain (2019). Skateboarding and the City: a Complete History. Bloomsbery. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- Weyland, Jocko (2002). The Answer Is Never: A Skateboarder's History of the World. Grove Press. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
- Rompella, Natalie (2007). Famous Firsts: The Trendsetters, Groundbreakers & Risk-Takers Who Got America Moving!. Lobster Press.
- gbemi (August 29, 2012). "Brian Logan Interview". Thane Magazine. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Cave, Steve. "A Brief History of Skateboarding". About.com. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
- Smith, Jack (2009). The Skateboarder's Journal – Lives on Board. The Morro Skateboard Group. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- Lannes, Xavier (2011). "Five writers that changed the way we read skateboarding magazines". Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- VintageSkateboardMagazine (2007). "The Quarterly Skateboarder (USA)". Jospehdreams. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- VintageSkateboardMagazine (2007). "Skateboarder (USA)". Jospehdreams. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Surfstyley4 (April 7, 2010). "GIRLS Skateboarding 1965 Skateboard Championships". Starrfilms. YouTube. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- slalomvideos (June 17, 2010). "1965 American Skateboard Slalom Championships – Anaheim, California". YouTube.
- Bill Eppridge. "LIFE Goes Skateboarding, 1965". Time magazine. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Surfstyley (January 25, 2011). "Patti McGee Skateboard Champion Tv 1965". Starrfilms. YouTube. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Surfstyley (October 31, 2010). "Patti McGee 1965 Skateboard Champion on What's My Line". Starrfilms. YouTube. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- "Patti McGee interview with isTia". I Skate Therefore I Am. October 17, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- "Skateboarding History". Retrieved September 2, 2007.
- "Jim Fitzpatrick Interview". I Skate Therefore I Am. January 6, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
- Mortimer, Sean (2008). Stalefish: Skateboard Culture from the Rejects Who Made It. Chronicle Books. ISBN 9780811860420. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- "Stacy Peralta 1st SkateBoarder Magazine Interview". Z-Boys.com. SkateBoarder Magazine. October 1976. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Ben Marcus (May 24, 2012). "Sims Contributions and Importance to Skateboarding". Calstreets. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
- Dan Gesmer. "Russ Howell Interview". Skate Legends.com. Archived from the original on December 24, 2001. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Steve Cave. "The True Story of Dogtown and the Zephyr Team". About.com. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Dogtown Skateboards. "Our only Crime is Being Original". Archived from the original on December 26, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
- Craig Stecyk; Glen E. Friedman; C. R. Stecyk (2002). Dogtown: The Legend Of The Z-Boys. Burning Flags Press. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Brisick, Jamie (2004). Have Board, Will Travel: The Definitive History of Surf, Skate, and Snow. ISBN 0060563591.
- Lannes, Xavier. "Happy Birthday Ellen Oneal". istia. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Mike Horelick (November 18, 2007). "Board out of their minds". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Killeen Gonzalez (June 9, 2011). "vHistory of skateboard competitions 1960s to 1980s: A brief overview". Yahoo. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Doeden, Matt (2002). Skateparks: Grab Your Skateboard. Capstone Press. ISBN 0-7368-1072-2.
- Transworld (October 11, 2005). "GASBAG". Transworld Skateboarding. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Thomas Slee. "Skate For Life: An Analysis of the Skateboarding Subculture" (PDF). Skate For Life: An Analysis of the Skateboarding Subculture (Honors Thesis). USF University of South Florida. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Ocean Howell (2001). "The Poetics of Security: Skateboarding, Urban Design, and the New Public Space|1". Urban Action 2001. San Francisco State University. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- "HOME FREESTYLE Freestyle". Skateboard Express. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- John Weyler (February 2003). "Why kids climb higher and jump farther – on their own terms". OC Metro. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- "Skateboards coming to a gym class near you". NBC News. May 9, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Simon Crerar (August 23, 2012). "Female skateboarder pulls off fearless big air at Bamiyan Buddha site". News Limited Network. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Ellen Greenlaw (2012). "What Do You Know About PE for Kids?". WebMD. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- "Ramp it Up: Skateboard Culture in Native America". Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Sara-Ellen Amster (December 2000). "Getting a Jump on Good Health". Volume 16, Number 6. Harvard University. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Kelli Hargrove (May 24, 2012). "'Just one Board' Skateboard Recycling Program". Transworld Business. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Jacy Danque (June 20, 2012). "'Just One Board' offers skateboarders a chance to give back to their community". OC Metro. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- "Why a Skatepark is a Good Idea". Wheelscape. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- "2008 Physical Activity Guidelins for Americans". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Vickie Kavanagh (June 15, 2011). "Celebrate International Go Skateboarding Day Tuesday in Wilsonville". The Oregonian. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "GO SKATEBOARDING DAY 2012 PICS". The Adrenalist. Unilever. June 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Ricardo Lopez; Andrew Blankstein (June 22, 2011). "Hundreds in L.A. celebrate Go Skateboarding Day". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- Steve Cave. "Go Skateboarding Day". About.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "United States Government Goes Skateboarding". GlobeNewswire, Inc. June 11, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Kelli Hargrove (June 13, 2012). "Just One Board Makes Its Mark On Go Skateboarding Day". Transworld Business. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Domingo Antonio Robledo (June 8, 2011). "Globe International Headquarters". Australian Design Review. Niche Media. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Richard Lacayo (July 30, 2006). "It's All in the Swoop". Time Magazine. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- The Florida Legislature (1999) (c. 1999). "The 1999 Florida Statutes 316.0085 Skateboarding; inline skating; freestyle bicycling; definitions; liability". leg.state.fl.us. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Childs, Marti; March, Jeff (Spring 2002). "Issues Facing California's Skate Parks". California Park & Recreation Society. p. 32. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Ben Wixon (2009). Skateboarding Instruction, Programming and Park Design. Human Kinetics. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- Blair Alley (May 15, 2012). "Kansas City's First Safe Spot Skate Spot". Transworld Skateboarding. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Jonathan Chow (June 20, 2008). "Skateboarding with Chinese Characteristics". University of Southern California. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "Six added to Skateboarding Hall of Fame". ESPN Action. November 2, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Thomas Gase (May 5, 2008). "Hawk, other skateboarding legends slated to attend book signing at Skatelab". Simi Valley Acorn. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- "Finding a Line: Skateboarding, Music, and Media with Jason Moran and The Bandwagon". Washington, D.C.: John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. September 11, 2015. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Long Live Southbank". www.llsb.com. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- Rinvolucri, Bruno (August 7, 2017). "How skaters make cities safer – and the fight to save the Southbank skate spot". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- "How Skaters Make Cities Safer". YouTube. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- "12 year old lands the first ever 1080 on a skateboard". Skateboarding.com.au. July 3, 2012. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- "12-year-old skateboarder nails first ever 1080" (video). Red Bull. March 30, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- Kelly, Deirdre (August 2005). "Skater girlhood and emphasized femininity: 'you can't land an ollie properly in heels'". Gender and Education. 17: 229–248.
- Fritz Radtke (October 25, 2012). "Most Popular and Era-Defining Skateshoes Of the Last 30 Years Part 2". Highsnob. Retrieved November 10, 1012. Check date values in:
- Hang Nguyen (June 1, 2007). "Vans strides back to O.C." Orange County Register. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- David Browne (2012). "Jimmy Van Doren: Skating's Accidental Hero". Men's Journal. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
- Josh Rabinowitz (November 23, 2002). "Microsoft, Video Games, and Vans Skateparks". SkateboardDirectory. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- Vans Inc. (December 26, 2003). "Vans Second Quarter Sales and Earnings". SkateboardDirectory. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- "Xbox sponsors vans triple crown". Transworld Snowboarding. July 23, 2001. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- Vans (2000). "World's Best Skateboarders to Compete in Southern California". PRNewswire. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Adam Salo (January 5, 2006). "15 Things You Didn't Know About Skate Shoes". GrindMedia. Archived from the original on January 27, 2011. Retrieved November 2, 1012. Check date values in:
- Jurgen Blumlein; Daniel Schmid; Dirk Vogel (July 1, 2010). Made for Skate:The Illustrated History of Skateboard Footwear. Gingko Press. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Tatiana Simonian (2005). "The Heads Behind The Shoes". Anthem Magazine. Archived from the original on June 25, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 1012. Check date values in:
- "Etnies Skatepark Of Lake Forest Aerial". Site Design Group. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved November 2, 1012. Check date values in:
- Davis, James (2004). Skateboarding is not a Crime: 50 years of Street Culture. Firefly Books. p. 67. ISBN 9781554070015.
- Linda Moore (October 2009). "An Ethnographic Study of the Skateboarding Culture". The Sport Journal. Archived from the original on October 12, 2009. Retrieved November 12, 1012. Check date values in:
- Ari Marsh (December 1, 2005). "Dog Town Chronicles:Wes Humpston". Juice Magazine. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Walrus TV (December 2, 2009). "Walrus TV: Wes Humpston Interview from "The Run Up"". Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- V.Courtlandt Johnson (September 25, 2009). "Skateboarding's History in Graphics". the Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Kendra Gaines (June 14, 2012). "Art on Board: Skateboarding and the Artistic Sub-Culture". Noupe. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Mary Spicuzza (May 1998). "Extreme Success". Metro Santa Cruz. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- "Jim Phillips Q/A". Skateboarder Magazine. June 1, 2006. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- Wallace Baine (April 12, 2012). "The wild, aggressive artwork of Jimbo Phillips carries on a well-known Santa Cruz dynasty". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- Jeff DiNunzio (March 24, 2011). "VCJ rejoins Powell-Peralta". ESPN Action Sports. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
- Brian Wingate (2003). The World of Skateboarding. Rosen Publishing group. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- Xavier Lannes (March 14, 2011). "The skateboard in the hat". I Skate Therefore I Am. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Josh Brooks (November 4, 2009). "Indisposable: "The Disposable Skateboard Bible"". ESPN Action Sports. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- Andy Horsley (2012). To the Limit Skateboarding. Rosen Publishing group. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- Fleming, Robin (August 14, 2012). "Keith Haring x Alien Workshop". ESPN Action Sports. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "Sotheby's Supreme Skateboard Auction".
- Berlinger, Max (February 12, 2019). "Meet the Teen Collector Who Just Spent $800,000 on a Collection of Supreme Skate Decks". Robb Report. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- McGauley, Joe (April 29, 2014). "Ollie Like A Baller On Your Very Own Gold Skateboard". Thrillist. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- "This Artist Just Sold the 'World's Most Expensive Skateboard'—Called 'Supreme Mundi'—for $20,000". artnet News. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Fountain, JL.; Meyers, MC. (December 1996). "Skateboarding injuries". Sports Med. 22 (6): 360–6. doi:10.2165/00007256-199622060-00004. PMID 8969014.
- Keilani, M.; Krall, C.; Lipowec, L.; Posch, M.; Komanadj, TS.; Crevenna, R. (July 2010). "Skateboarding injuries in Vienna: location, frequency, and severity". PM&R. 2 (7): 619–24. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.04.022. PMID 20659717.
- White, Kimberly (July 11, 2011). "Woman killed after collision with skateboarder had been hit by one 15 years prior". San Jose Mercury News.
- "The secret skateboarders who defied Norway's 11-year ban". BBC. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Forsman, L.; Eriksson, A. (June 26, 2001). "Skateboarding injuries of today". British Journal of Sports Medicine. BMJ Publishing Group. 35: 325–328. doi:10.1136/bjsm.35.5.325. PMC 1724407. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013.
- "Norway to Ban Skateboards". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. September 14, 1978. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- "Board shapes and its uses » Blog Archive » Longboard Girls Crew". longboardgirlscrew.com. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
- Behre, Robert (March 23, 2012). "Skateboarders face legal roadblocks". The Post and Courier. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- LCPL CHRISTOPHER L. VALLEE (March 16, 1999). "URBAN WARRIOR `99". DefenseImagery.mil. Defense Visual Information (DVI) Directorate. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Naval Studies Board (2004). "The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces". The National Academies Press. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- Rosenberger, Robert (June 19, 2014). "How Cities Use Design to Drive Homeless People Away: Saying "you're not welcome here"—with spikes". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
An example of an everyday technology that’s used to forbid certain activities is “skateboard deterrents,” that is, those little studs added to handrails and ledges. These devices, sometimes also called “skatestoppers” or “pig ears,” prevent skateboarders from performing sliding—or “grinding”—tricks across horizontal edges. A small skateboard deterrence industry has developed, with vendors with names like “stopagrind.com” and “grindtoahault.com.”
- Costello, Becca (November 10, 2005). "Skateboarding is not a sport: Skateboarding the Sacramento streets takes skill, balance and nerve. Just don't call it a sport". Sacramento News & Review. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
Despite stickers, posters and T-shirts stating the contrary, it turns out that skateboarding is, in fact, a crime. “In the downtown district, you can skateboard as transportation,” Rafter explained. “Anything other than all four wheels on the ground and getting to where you’re going, they have a problem with.”
Illegal skating includes jumping over cracks or obstacles on the sidewalk (rather than stopping, picking up one’s board and walking around the obstacle), turning, riding over certain public property and any stopping maneuver that could be considered a trick. A ticket for skateboarding is a traffic violation, but skaters are more commonly cited for vandalism or trespassing—misdemeanors that stay on a skater’s record and usually carry a fine or a sentence of 40 hours of community service, or both.
- "Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: National Park Service: United States Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C.: Government of the District of Columbia Planning Office. pp. 191–192. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- (1) Giambrone, Andrew (June 21, 2016). "Park Police Disperse Scores of Skaters at Freedom Plaza". Washington City Paper. Archived from the original on June 22, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
(2) Goldchain, Michelle (July 31, 2018). "Why is Pennsylvania Avenue's Freedom Plaza such a failure?". Greater Greater Washington. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
One group of people do use Freedom Plaza regularly: skateboarders. The open hardscape and railings of Freedom Plaza make an excellent and popular skate park, though skating there is not actually allowed and Park Police regularly chase skaters from the park.Archived August 16, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
Scott Brown said, “They came from all over the country to wreck our plaza, which they nearly did, and all those inscriptions on the floor and everything else, that’s ruined by roller skating.”
- Williamson, Elizabeth (October 11, 2013). "Skateboarders See a (Kick) Flip Side to the Government Closing: With Washington Plazas Empty and Patrols Down, a Banned Sport Is Suddenly On" (video). The Wall Street Journal, U.S. Edition. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
One positive thing about the gov't shutdown – spots at gov't buildings are now skateable – Darren Harper, Pro Skateboarder, via Facebook.
- Borden, Iain (2019). Skateboarding and the City: a Complete History. London: Bloomsbury.
- Brooke, Michael (1999). The Concrete Wave: The History of Skateboarding. Warwick Publishing.
- Hawk, Tony and Mortimer, Sean (2000). Hawk: Occupation: Skateboarder. New York: HarperCollins.
- Hocking, Justin, Jeffrey Knutson and Jared Maher (eds.) (2004). Life and Limb: Skateboarders Write from the Deep End. New York: Soft Skull Press.
- Mullen, Rodney and Mortimer, Sean (2003). The Mutt.
- Thrasher Magazine (2001). Thrasher: Insane Terrain. New York: Universe.
- Weyland, Jocko (2002). The Answer Is Never: A History and Memoir of Skateboarding. New York: Grove Press.