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Pontiac woodie, used by early surfers.

Surf culture includes the people, language, fashion, and lifestyle surrounding the sport of surfing. The history of surfing began with the ancient Polynesians. That initial culture directly influenced modern surfing, which began to flourish and evolve in the early 20th century, with its popularity spiking during the 1950s and 1960s (principally in Hawaii, Australia, and California). It has affected music, fashion, literature, film, art, and youth jargon in popular culture. The number of surfers throughout the world continues to increase as the culture spreads.

Surfers' desire for the best possible waves to ride make them dependent on conditions that may change rapidly, given the unpredictable nature of weather events and their effect on the surface of the ocean. Because surfing was limited by the geographical necessity of an ocean coastline with beaches, the culture of beach life often influenced surfers and vice versa. The staff of Surfer Magazine, founded in the 1960s when surfing had gained popularity with teenagers, used to say that if they were hard at work and someone yelled "Surf's up!" the office would suddenly empty. Localism or territorialism is a part of the development of surf culture in which individuals or groups of surfers claim certain key surfing spots as their own.[1]

Aspects of 1960s surf culture in Southern California, where it was first popularized, include the woodie,[2] bikinis[3] and other beach wear, such as boardshorts or baggies,[4] and surf music.[5] Surfers developed the skateboard to be able to "surf" on land;[6] and a number of other boardsports.[7]

Surfers and spectators in boats at Mavericks, a world-renowned big wave break about 800 meters off the coast of Half Moon Bay, California

Big Wave cultureEdit

A surfer in Santa Cruz, California

A non-competitive adventure activity involving riding the biggest waves possible (known as "rhino hunting") is also popular with some surfers. A practice popularized in the 1990s has seen big wave surfing revolutionized, as surfers use personal watercraft to tow them out to a position where they can catch previously unrideable waves (see tow-in surfing). These waves were previously unrideable due to the speed at which they travel. Some waves reach speeds of over 60 km/h; personal watercraft enable surfers to catch up to the speed of the wave, thereby making them rideable. Personal watercraft also allow surfers to survive wipeouts. In many instances surfers would not survive the battering of the "sets" (groups of waves together). This spectacular activity is extremely popular with television crews, but because such waves rarely occur in heavily populated regions, and usually only a very long way out to sea on outer reefs, few spectators see such events directly.

Though surfers come from all walks of life, the basis of the beach bum stereotype comes from that great enthusiasm that surfers can have for their sport. Dedication and perfectionism are also qualities that surfers bring to what many have traditionally regarded as a commitment to a lifestyle as well as a sport.[8]

For specific surf spots, the state of the ocean tide can play a significant role in the quality of waves or hazards of surfing there. Tidal variations vary greatly among the various global surfing regions, and the effect the tide has on specific spots can vary greatly among the spots within each area. Locations such as Bali, Panama, and Ireland experience 2-3 meter tide fluctuations, whereas in Hawaii the difference between high and low tide is typically less than one meter.

Surfing on the Gold Coast, Australia

Each surf break is different, since the underwater topography of one place is unlike any other. At beach breaks, the sandbanks can change shape from week to week, so it takes commitment to get good waves.

The saying "You should have been here yesterday," became a commonly used phrase for bad conditions.[9] Nowadays, however, surf forecasting is aided by advances in information technology, whereby mathematical modeling graphically depicts the size and direction of swells moving around the globe.

The quest for perfect surf has given rise to a field of tourism based on the surfing adventure. Yacht charters and surf camps offer surfers access to the high quality surf found in remote, tropical locations, where tradewinds ensure offshore conditions.

Along with the rarity of what surfers consider truly perfect surf conditions (due to changing weather and surf condition) and the inevitable hunt for great waves, surfers often become dedicated to their sport in a way that precludes a more traditional life. Surfing, instead, becomes their lifestyle.

The goals of those who practice the sport vary, but throughout its history, many have seen surfing as more than a sport, as an opportunity to harness the waves and to relax and forget about their daily routines. Surfers have veered from even this beaten path, and foregone the traditional goals of first world culture in the hunt for a continual 'stoke', harmony with life, their surfing, and the ocean. These "Soul Surfers" are a vibrant and long-standing sub-group.[8][10][11] Competitive surf culture, centered around surf contests and endorsement deals, and localism's disturbance of the peace, are often seen in opposition to this.[8]


Even though waves break everywhere along a coast, good surf spots are rare. A surf break that forms great surfable waves may easily become a coveted commodity, especially if the wave breaks there only rarely. If this break is near a large population center with many surfers, territorialism often arises. Regular surfers who live around a desirable surf break may often guard it jealously, hence the expression "locals only." The expression is common in beach towns, especially those that attract seasonal vacationers who live outside the area. Localism is expressed when surfers are involved in verbal or physical threats or abuse to deter people from surfing at certain spots. It is based in part on the belief that fewer people mean more waves per surfer.

Fistral Beach showing the beach bar setup ready for the 2010 Boardmasters Festival

Some locals have been known to form loose gangs that surf in a certain break or beach and fiercely protect their "territory" from outsiders.[1] These surfers are often referred to as "surf punks" or "surf nazis." The local surfer gangs in Southern California (Malibu Locals Only and Lunada Bay Boys) and those on Hawaii island (da hui) have been known to threaten tourists with physical violence for invading their territory.[12] In Southern California, local surfers are especially hostile to the surfers from the San Fernando Valley whom they dub "vallies" or "valley kooks". The expression "Surf Nazi" arose in the 1960s to describe territorial, aggressive, and obsessive surfers, often involved in surf gangs or surf clubs. The term "Surf Nazi" was originally used simply to denote the strict territorialism, violence and hostility to outsiders and the absolute obsession with surfing that was characteristic in the so-called "surf nazis." However, some surfers reclaimed and accepted the term, and a few actually embraced Nazism or Nazi symbolism. Some surf clubs in the 1960s, particularly at Windansea in La Jolla, embraced the term by using the swastika symbol on their boards and identified with Nazism as a counterculture (though this may have just been an effort to keep out or scare non-locals and may have been a tongue-in-cheek embrace of the "surf nazi" label as a form of rebellion). The "locals only" attitude and protectionism of the Santa Monica surf spots in the early 1970s was depicted in the movie Lords of Dogtown, which was based on the documentary Dogtown and Z-Boys.

Localism often exists due to socioeconomic factors as well. Until relatively recently, surfers were looked down upon as lazy people on the fringe of society (hence the term "beach bum.") Many who surfed were locals who lived in a beach town year-round, and were from a lower economic class. For that reason, these groups were resentful of outsiders, particularly those who were well-to-do and came to their beaches to surf recreationally rather than as a way of life. Australia has its own history where surfers were openly treated with hostility from local governments in the sport's early days, and the tension never really went away, despite the sport's enormous increase in popularity. Maroubra Beach in Australia became infamous for localism and other violence chronicled in the documentary film Bra Boys about the eponymous group, although the surfers in the film maintain they are not a "gang."

Surf gangsEdit

Surf gangs often form to preserve cultural identity through the protection of beach towns and shorelines. If known territory is trespassed by members of another surf gang, violence usually occurs. Long Beach is home to one of the oldest and biggest surf gangs, called "Longos." Some surf gangs have been known to not only claim land territory, but also claim specific surfing waves as territory. Surf gangs have gained notoriety over the years, especially with the production of Bra Boys.

The Lunada Bay Boys (in Palos Verdes Estates, California) became the subject of a class action lawsuit in 2016.[13]


The Wolfpak was originally composed of a few select surfers from Kauai, Hawaii who believed in respecting localism.[14] Kauai, according to a Wolfpak member, is a place where one is raised to honor the value of respect.[15] This value is what led to the group's effort to manage the chaos associated with North Shore surfing. Some notable members have been pro surfers Andy Irons and Bruce Irons, as well as the reality show 808 star and Blue Crush actor, Kala Alexander.[16]

Wolfpak began in 2001 when leader Kala Alexander moved to North Shore in search for job opportunities, and found disorganization and lack of respect in the surf lineup at surf reef break, Pipeline. Alexander found it necessary to dictate organization in who would surf the Pipeline to both preserve the value, and also protect surfers from the reef's potentially life-threatening waves.[16]

The waves at Pipeline can reach over 6 meters and its powerful disposition has taken the lives of professional surfers. If a visiting surfer collided with another surfer, this could result in serious harm or death. These observations led to the Wolfpak's proactive enforcement on the North Shore.[17]

The Wolfpak's territorial enforcement has drawn attention because of its violent means. In an incident where a tourist cut off a friend of Alexander's in a dangerous 180 centimeter swell, the Wolfpak leader assaulted the tourist.[17] Comments from anonymous locals show that the presence of Wolfpak is well perceived, if not intimidating. Some locals[who?] who hold similar values of cultural respect support what the members are trying to do.[16]

Alexander does not view Wolfpak as a gang, but says they look out for every local Hawaiian. They attempt to preserve their way of life and realize the implications that a lack of respect can have on Hawaiian culture.[17]

Bra BoysEdit

The Bra Boys are a popular surf gang founded in Maroubra, a beachside suburb in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, Australia. They established international fame and attention in 2007 with the release of Bra Boys: Blood is Thicker than Water, a documentary about the bonds and struggles of the many gang members. The Bra Boys name originates both from the slang word for brother, and as a reference to the gang's home suburb, Maroubra.[18] Gang members tattoo "My Brothers Keeper" across the front of their chests and the Maroubra area code across their back.

Many of the Bra Boys came from impoverished homes and families torn apart by drug use. Brothers Sunny, Jai, Koby and Dakota Abberton, came from an especially difficult upbringing. To them the Bra Boys were much more than a gang, they were a group of friends, a family of their own that loved to surf and always stood up for each other.[19] The documentary, written and directed by the gang members themselves, showed the raw gritty side of a surf life previously glamorized by Hollywood.[20]

Women in surfingEdit

Like men, women started surfing in ancient Polynesia. This was especially documented in the waters around Hawaii. Until the 1830s these women were actively engaged in surfing. This changed when American missionaries came to the islands and told them that it was not proper for women to be surfing. Women did not begin surfing around the Hawaiian islands again until the late 1800s. By the end of World War II surfing would have a major revival that increased its popularity and participating membership.[21] Women were encouraged to take up surfing by two of the early board designers, in part because these men believed that surfing would help women to keep their feminine figure.[21]

1 January 1931. Coffs Harbour, the first fully equipped women’s surf life saving competition team in the world, 1931 / photographed by Sam Hood

There would be another rise in the popularity of women's surfing just a decade later as they were increasingly a part of surfing films. One example of this are the Gidget movie trilogy and TV series based on the book by the same title. In spite of this it was still believed that women should be the viewers rather than the participants of surfing.[21]

Due to the negative reactions women received because of their involvement in surfing, being labeled as 'masculine' or 'tomboys', women began to take ownership of their participation. This is seen in their working together to organize surfing competitions for women. There had been competitions for women held in the 50s and 60s but these were amateur events. The 70s and 80s saw a shift in this as women entered into the world of professional surf competitions. This caused a change in the style with which women surfed at the time by focusing more on their power and speed as athletes rather than being aesthetically pleasing to the viewer. Today, professional female surfers continue to have a difficult time being recognized as athletes, and must deal with the continued objectification and sexual gazes from spectators.[22]

Professional female surfers have also noted that they face pay inequality when compared to their male counterparts. Women do not win the same amount in prize money as men do. These women have also indicated that the issue of pay equality arises when it comes to corporate sponsorships by surf brands. There is a prioritization here for the brands to hire surfers who appear more conventionally attractive but not be the most talented of surfers.[23]

Surf terminologyEdit

Surfing (particularly in Southern California) has its own sociolect, which has comingled with Valleyspeak. Words such as "dude", "tubular", "radical", and "gnarly" are associated with both and Northern California created its own unique surf terms as well that include "groovy", "hella", and "tight". One of the primary terms used by surfers around the world is the word "stoked". This refers to a mixed feeling of anxiety and happiness towards the waves breaking. Surfers have often been associated with being slackers or 'beach bums' (with women being known as 'beach bunnies').

Beach bunnyEdit

beach bunnies

A beach bunny is general North American popular culture term for a young woman who spends her free time at the beach. In surf culture it may also refer to a female surfer. Beach bunnies are known for the amount of time they spend sun tanning and are usually represented wearing bikinis, see Muscle Beach Party and Gidget.[24]

Shaka signEdit

The shaka sign, associated with Hawaii, origins unknown,[26][27] is a common greeting in surfer culture.[25]

Issues affecting surfersEdit

Environmental damage, and increasing riparian development may continue to increase pressure on the sport. Oil spills and toxic algae growth can threaten surfing regions.

Some of these stresses may be overcome by building of artificial reefs for surfing. Several have been built in recent years (one is at Cables in Western Australia), and there is widespread enthusiasm in the global surfing community for additional projects. However, environmental opposition and rigorous coastal permitting regulations is dampening prospects for building such reefs in some countries, such as the United States.

Surfing and environmentalismEdit

Surfing, as a sport, is heavily dependent on a healthy environment. As a result, interest groups have blossomed to influence the utilization of coastal properties relevant to surfing. There is conflict between surfers and other user groups over the allocation of coastal resources.[28] Common to most disputes are two issues, disposal of sewage and toxic waste into near shore waters and the formation of harbors, breakwaters and jetties. Sewage and toxic waste almost always affects mammals in a negative way. Coastal construction and engineering projects can have either good or bad effects on surf breaks. While some sources suspect the effectiveness of surfing environmentalist groups,[29] notable victories have been achieved by surfers championing their issues. Some examples of these victories include:

  • In 1991 the Surfrider Foundation and the EPA won, at the time, the second largest Clean Water Act lawsuit in history. A $5.4 million lawsuit against two paper mills, Louisiana-Pacific Corporation and the Simpson Paper Company resulted in the creation of the Humboldt Area Recreation Enhancement and Water Quality Fund and $50 million was spent by the mills to reduce ocean discharges at their facilities near Eureka, CA.[30]
  • In 2008 the U.S. Department of Commerce upheld a California Coastal Commission decision to deny the $1.3 Billion extension of California State Highway 241 that would have impacted the popular and world-renowned surf site Trestles near San Clemente, California. This decision was a victory for surf environmentalists who led a grassroots campaign to "Save Trestles, Stop the Toll Road." At the time federal officials received 35,000 written statements on the issue, most in support of upholding the decision of the CCC.[31]
  • A global example can be found in the case of the newly formed World Surfing Reserve at Ericeira Portugal that was dedicated in October 2011 and endorsed by Portuguese President Aníbal Cavaco Silva. President Silva "acknowledged the significance of preserving the surfing coastline ... for the vitality of Portugal's economy, the health of the coastal and marine environment, and maintaining a high quality of life for the residents."[32] The preservation of this pristine surf spot was accomplished by the Save the Waves Coalition and its World Surfing Reserves program whose goal is to, "proactively identifies, designates and preserves outstanding waves, surf zones and their surrounding environments, around the world...."[33]

Surf tourismEdit

The surf industry is a billion dollar industry whose popularity as a recreational sport has gained momentum in many coastal areas around the world over the past decades.[34] With the publicizing of new surf destinations through television, movies, magazines, and the Internet, and other media, as well as greater access to traveling accommodations, surf tourism has created large impacts on local communities and environments in developing countries as well as in established areas around the world.[35] Tourism is not always the main reason for fast expansion in developing countries, but under those circumstances groups of activists and non-profits such as Surfrider Foundation, SurfAid, IJourneyGreen, Surf Resource Network, World Tourism Organization, NEF, and UNESCO have begun working with locals and their governments to minimize the negative impacts of tourism upon host communities’ environments and maximize and equitably distribute the positive impacts of tourism.[35] Some of the negative impacts of tourism relevant to surf dominant communities are:

  • Failure to create adequate levels of employment and income
  • Loss of local skills and failure to provide skilled jobs for local population
  • Labor exploitation
  • Inequitable distribution of the costs and benefits of tourism
  • Fast, unstable development of infrastructure which can cause beach erosion and safety and health problems
  • Improper waste disposal and pollution
  • Lack of political will to pursue sustainable tourism
  • Lack of resources both human and economic
  • Central and local government corruption
  • Short-term focus undermining long-term goals for development [36]

Some of the positive impacts of tourism relevant to surf dominant communities include:

  • The extent of linkages to the domestic economy
  • The creation of employment
  • Fostering of genuine appropriate technology transfer
  • Generation of jobs for skilled labor as well as local managers, technicians, and personnel
  • Equitable social, sectorial and regional distribution of costs and benefits
  • Coordination of government policies and programs for locals and foreign visitors
  • Infrastructure and incentives [36]


A surfer memorial service, Huntington Beach Pier, Orange County, California.

Many surfers combine their love of the sport with their own religious or spiritual beliefs. In Huntington Beach, California for example, a local Christian non-denominational church occasionally meets on the beach for Sunday early-morning services. After the closing prayer, the minister and congregation paddle out for a morning session. Many surfing communities organize and take part in memorial services for fallen surfers, sometimes on the anniversary of passing such as the Eddie Aikau memorial service held annually at Waimea Bay, Hawaii.

Participants in the memorial service paddle out to a suitable location with flower leis around their necks or with loose flowers (sometimes held between their teeth). The participants then get into a circular formation, hold hands, and silently pray. Sometimes they will raise their clasped hands skyward before tossing their flowers or leis into the center of the ring. Afterward, they paddle back toward the beach to begin their surf session. Often these services take place at sunrise or sunset. In locations with a pier, such as Huntington Beach, Orange County, California, the service can take place near the end of the pier so that any non-surfers, such as elderly relatives, can watch and participate. Often the participants on the pier will throw down bouquets of flowers into the center of the ring.

Surfing artEdit

Surf graphicsEdit

"Surf graphics" is the art style associated with the surfing subculture in posters, flyers, T-shirts and logos. It is heavily influenced by skate art,[37] Kustom Kulture and tiki culture. Popular artists in the genre are Drew Brophy, Damian Fulton, Rick Griffin, Bill Ogden and Jim Phillips.

Surf musicEdit

Surf culture is reflected in surf music, with subgenres such as surf rock and surf pop. This includes works from such artists as Jan and Dean, The Beach Boys, The Surfaris ("Wipe Out!"), Dick Dale, The Shadows, and The Ventures. The music inspired dance crazes such as The Stomp, The Frug, and The Watusi. While the category surf music helped popularize surfing, most surfers at the time, such as Miki Dora, preferred R&B and blues.[citation needed] A newer wave of surf music has started in the acoustic riffs of artists such as Jack Johnson and Donavon Frankenreiter, who are both former professional surfers.

Surf rockEdit

Surf pop / California Sound / Vocal surf musicEdit

Dick Dale in 2005

Instrumental Surf RockEdit

Surf punkEdit

Surf visual artEdit

Many people have incorporated the free spirited and hippie nature of many surfing lifestyles into their paintings and murals such as the Surfing Madonna mosaic in Encinitas. Well known artists included Damian Fulton, Rick Reitveld and Phil Roberts.


Bethany Hamilton wearing surfwear.

Surfwear is a popular style of casual clothing, inspired by surf culture. Many surf-related brand names originated as cottage industry, supplying local surfers with boardshorts, wetsuits, surfboards or leashes, as well as other hardware.

An early Australian surf fashion company was Kuta Lines, founded by Tony Brown after visiting Bali in 1973. Brown adapted Indonesian textiles and designs for his surfwear. From the 1980s, Kuta Lines used traditional ikat weaving and dyeing techniques, adapted to a heavier, fleecy fabric for cool climate surfing.[38]

Some other clothing brands include O'Neill, Rip Curl, Quiksilver, Town & Country, Ocean Pacific, Billabong, Oakley, DaKine, Reef, Roxy, Volcom, Element, Hurley, Von Zipper, Golden Breed and RVCA.


The bikini is an iconic piece of swim clothing. It was popularized in Europe initially but then was popularized in the United States after it was seen being worn by famous Hollywood stars. Based on this popularity films used the bikini to market their movies. The bikini created a connection between sexuality and the exoticism that was seen in the people and culture of the Pacific Islands.[39] For many years women did not have the option to not wear the bikini as there were not other pieces of surf wear being tailored to their need. This changed as the style of surf clothes was adopted by those who were not part of the culture. Companies began to create board shorts specifically for women's bodies, thus giving them an option besides the bikini to wear while surfing in competitions.[21] This is beneficial for both the female surfers and the brands as it gives women more clothing options and creates more revenue for the companies.


International Surfing Day celebrates the sport and lifestyle on June 20.

Surfing contestsEdit

Competitive surfing is a comparison sport. Riders, competing in pairs or small groups, are allocated a certain amount of time to ride waves and display their prowess and mastery of the craft. Competitors are then judged according to how competently the wave is ridden, including the level of difficulty, as well as frequency of maneuvers. There is a professional surfing world surfing championship series held annually at surf breaks around the world.

Although competitive surfing has become an extremely popular and lucrative activity, both for its participants and its sponsors, the sport does not have its origins as a competitive pursuit. It is common to hear debate rage between purists of the sport, who still maintain the ideal of "soul surfing", and surfers who engage in the competitive and, consequently, commercial side of the activity.[40] An organisation called the Spirit of Surfing has chosen not to accept surf label sponsorship, since an association of that sort could detract from the sentiment they wish to promote.

Surfing organizationsEdit

Spin-offs & influencesEdit


Surfers developed the skateboard to be able to "surf" on land. Later came windsurfing (also known as sailboarding), bodyboarding, wakeboarding, wakesurfing, skimboarding, snowboarding, riverboarding, kiteboarding, sandboarding, mountainboarding, carveboarding all now competitive sports. Another fast growing boardsport is skurfing a mix of surfing and more conventional water sports in which the participant is towed behind the boat. Pineboarding and sandboarding are recreational boardsports.

Surfing in multimediaEdit

Films about surfingEdit

The surf culture is reflected in film. Bruce Brown's classic movie The Endless Summer glorified surfing in a round-the-world search for the perfect wave. John Milius's homage to the Malibu of his youth in Big Wednesday remains a poignant metaphor for the similarities between the changing surf and life. The 1980s cult classics North Shore and Fast Times at Ridgemont High serve as mainstream introductions to teenage, light-hearted, superficial surf life (from the "heyday"). Beach movies such as the Gidget series, and Beach Party films such as Beach Blanket Bingo are less reverential depictions of the culture. Liquid Time (2002) is an avant-garde surf film that focuses solely on the fluid forms of tubing waves. Blue Crush (2002) is a film about surfer girls on Hawaii's North Shore. The sequel, Blue Crush 2 (2011) is a film about a California rich girl who travels to South Africa to find out more about her mother and herself. The 1991 film Point Break involves a group of bank robbers who are also surfers. The 1987 comedy film Surf Nazis Must Die features surfer gangs in the wake of an earthquake that destroys the California coastline. Soul Surfer is a biopic about real-life surfer Bethany Hamilton in Hawaii.

Some film events include the Sydney Fringe Festival, Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia.[41] the Surf Film Festival,[42][43] Saint Jean de Luz Surf Film Festival,[44] Wavescape Surf Film Festival in South Africa,[45] and the New York Surfing Film Festival.

Television shows about surfingEdit

TV documentary series about surfingEdit

TV episodes featuring surfingEdit

Fictional surfers in TVEdit

Television advertisingEdit

Major advertisers appeal to the surfing market (and to would-be surfers)[46] with commercials featuring, in some cases famed surfing athletes, such as the Coca-Cola commercial featuring Kalani Robb and Maila Jones,[47] and a Kashi food commercial featuring Kashi nutritionist and surfer Jeff Johnson, 2006

Print mediaEdit

Surfing magazinesEdit

Video games about surfingEdit

Surfing in non-fictionEdit

A surfer waits as a wave crashes

Conceptual metaphorEdit

The word "surf" is polysemous; having multiple, related meanings. "Surfing" the World Wide Web is the act of following hyperlinks. The phrase "surfing the Internet" was first popularized in print by Jean Armour Polly, a librarian, in an article called "Surfing the INTERNET", published in the Wilson Library Bulletin in June 1992.


Academic topicsEdit

Natural scienceEdit

Surfing in fictionEdit



  • Kem Nunn, "Tapping the Source: Waves and Mystery, Guns and Grit" "Dogs of winter" and "Tijuana Straights"
  • Desmond Muirhead, Surfing in Hawaii: A Personal Memoir
  • Rustom Calisch, Paunalu
  • Ray Maloney, The Impact Zone
  • Dean Koontz, Fear Nothing, Seize the Night. Christopher Snow, the main character, is a surfer, as are his best friend Bobby Halloway and girlfriend Sasha Goodall. Bobby makes his living running a surf forceasting service called Surfcast. Christopher's experience of surfing is rather unusual: suffering from the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum he cannot go out during the day, but only at night.
  • Allen Weisbecker, In Search of Captain Zero.
  • Christopher Hess, Where Tigers Rest at Midnight.
  • Tim Winton, "Breath"
  • Don Winslow, "The Winter of Frankie Machine", "The Dawn Patrol" and "The Gentlemen's Hour"
  • Malcolm Knox, The Life

Philosophical novels

Graphic artEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Malibu Surfers Fight Paparazzi (internet video). 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-07-14.
  2. ^ Harshaw, p. 708
  3. ^ Warshaw, Matt (2005). The Encyclopedia of Surfing - Matt Warshaw. p. 552. ISBN 0156032511. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  4. ^ Warshaw, Matt (2005). The Encyclopedia of Surfing - Matt Warshaw. p. 552. ISBN 0156032511. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  5. ^ Warshaw, Matt (2005). The Encyclopedia of Surfing - Matt Warshaw. p. 552. ISBN 0156032511. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  6. ^ Ben Wixon (2009). Skateboarding: Instruction, Programming and Park Design. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-7426-1.
  7. ^ Wixon, Ben (2009). Skateboarding: Instruction, Programming, and Park Design - Ben Wixon. p. 41. ISBN 9780736074261. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  8. ^ a b c Dawnea Adams (1997-12-29). Soul surfing: tune in your power to live the movie of your life. ISBN 9780385319331.
  9. ^ "I should have been here yesterday". Retrieved 2016-01-15.
  10. ^ Bethany Hamilton; Sheryl Berk; Rick Bundschuh (2004). Soul Surfer: A True Story of Faith, Family, and Fighting to Get Back on the Board. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743499224.
  11. ^ Matt Harshaw (2005). The Encyclopedia of Surfing. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0156032511.
  12. ^ Weiss, Kenneth (December 24, 1996). "Territorial Surfer Wipes Out". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
  13. ^
  14. ^ Higgins, Matt (22 January 2009). "Rough Waves, Tougher Beaches". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  15. ^ Surfermag. "Kai Garcia-The Surfer Interview". Retrieved July 22, 2010.
  16. ^ a b c Borow, Zev. "Surf N' Turf". ESPN.
  17. ^ a b c Melekian, Brad. "Rough Justice". Outside Online. Archived from the original on 2010-09-20. Retrieved November 2008. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  18. ^ Marks, Kathy (19 March 2007). "Sydney's notorious surf gang turns tide of violence into big-screen adulation". London: The Independent. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
  19. ^ "Surfing Gangs". SurfingGangs.TK. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
  20. ^ "Bra Boys breaks box office record". ABC News Online. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  21. ^ a b c d Franklin, Roslyn (April 2012), Making waves: Contesting the lifestyle marketing and sponsorship of female surfers.
  22. ^ "Female pro surfers pushing for end to 'sexualised' culture". ABC News. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  23. ^ "Female pro surfers pushing for end to 'sexualised' culture". ABC News. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  24. ^ eHow Sports & Fitness Editor. "How to Be a Beach Bunny". EHow. eHow, Inc. Retrieved 13 March 2008.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)[dead link]
  25. ^ a b Trevor Cralle (2001). The surfin'ary: a dictionary of surfing terms and surfspeak. Quiksilver. ISBN 9781580081931.
  26. ^ Watanabe, June (31 March 2002). "Wherever it came from, shaka sign part of Hawaii". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  27. ^ "The Shaka". Polynesian Cultural Center. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  28. ^ Scarfe, B.E.; T.R. Healy; H.G. Rennie; S.T. Mead (2009). "Sustainable Management of Surfing Breaks: Case Studies and Recommendations". Journal of Coastal Research. 25 (3): 684–703. doi:10.2112/08-0999.1.
  29. ^ Wheaton, B (2007). "Identity, Politics, and the Beach: Environmental Activism in Surfers Against Sewage". Leisure Studies. 26 (3): 279–302. doi:10.1080/02614360601053533.
  30. ^ Paddock, Richard (September 10, 1991). "Surfers Force Pulp Mills to Halt Ocean Pollution: Suit brings about precedent-setting accord. Firms to spend $56 million in fines, improvements". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  31. ^ Rosenblatt, Susannah (September 23, 2008). "Federal officials struggle to maintain order at toll road hearing". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  32. ^ "Ericeira, Portugal Dedicated as World Surfing Reserve". Save the Waves Coalition. Archived from the original on November 4, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  33. ^ "Inspire. Activate. Empower". Save the Waves Coalition. Archived from the original on June 1, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
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