Perfectionism, in psychology, is a personality trait characterized by a person's striving for flawlessness and setting high performance standards, accompanied by critical self-evaluations and concerns regarding others' evaluations. It is best conceptualized as a multidimensional characteristic, as psychologists agree that there are many positive and negative aspects. In its maladaptive form, perfectionism drives people to attempt to achieve unattainable ideals or unrealistic goals, often leading to depression and low self-esteem. By contrast, adaptive perfectionism can motivate people to reach their goals, and to derive pleasure from doing so. Recent data show that perfectionistic tendencies are on the rise among recent generations of young people.
Perfectionists strain compulsively and unceasingly toward unattainable goals, and measure their self-worth by productivity and accomplishment. Pressuring oneself to achieve unrealistic goals inevitably sets the person up for disappointment. Perfectionists tend to be harsh critics of themselves when they fail to meet their standards.
Normal vs. neuroticEdit
D. E. Hamachek in 1978 argued for two contrasting types of perfectionism, classifying people as tending towards normal perfectionism or neurotic perfectionism. Normal perfectionists are more inclined to pursue perfection without compromising their self-esteem, and derive pleasure from their efforts. Neurotic perfectionists are prone to strive for unrealistic goals and feel dissatisfied when they cannot reach them. Hamachek offers several strategies that have proven useful in helping people change from maladaptive towards healthier behavior. Contemporary research supports the idea that these two basic aspects of perfectionistic behavior, as well as other dimensions such as "nonperfectionism", can be differentiated. They have been labeled differently, and are sometimes referred to as positive striving and maladaptive evaluation concerns, active and passive perfectionism, positive and negative perfectionism, and adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. Although there is a general perfectionism that affects all realms of life, some researchers contend that levels of perfectionism are significantly different across different domains (i.e. work, academic, sport, interpersonal relationships, home life).
Others such as T. S. Greenspon disagree with the terminology of "normal" vs. "neurotic" perfectionism, and hold that perfectionists desire perfection and fear imperfection and feel that other people will like them only if they are perfect. For Greenspon, perfectionism itself is thus never seen as healthy or adaptive, and the terms "normal" or "healthy" perfectionism are misnomers, since absolute perfection is impossible. He argues that perfectionism should be distinguished from "striving for excellence",[self-published source?] in particular with regard to the meaning given to mistakes. Those who strive for excellence can take mistakes (imperfections) as incentive to work harder. Unhealthy perfectionists consider their mistakes a sign of personal defects. For these people, anxiety about potential failure is the reason perfectionism is felt as a burden.
Strivings vs. concernsEdit
J. Stoeber and K. Otto suggest that perfectionism consists of two main dimensions: perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Perfectionistic strivings are associated with positive aspects of perfectionism; perfectionistic concerns are associated with negative aspects (see below).
- Healthy perfectionists score high in perfectionistic strivings and low in perfectionistic concerns.
- Unhealthy perfectionists score high in both strivings and concerns.
- Non-perfectionists show low levels of perfectionistic strivings.
Prompted by earlier research providing empirical evidence that perfectionism could be associated with positive aspects (specifically perfectionistic strivings), they challenged the widespread belief that perfectionism is only detrimental. In fact, people with high levels of perfectionistic strivings and low levels of perfectionist concerns demonstrated more self-esteem, agreeableness, academic success and social interaction. This type of perfectionist also showed fewer psychological and somatic issues typically associated with perfectionism, namely depression, anxiety and maladaptive coping styles.
Multidimensional perfectionism scale (MPS)Edit
Randy O. Frost et al. (1990) developed a multidimensional perfectionism scale (now known as the "Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale", FMPS) with six dimensions:
- Concern over making mistakes
- High personal standards (striving for excellence)
- The perception of high parental expectations
- The perception of high parental criticism
- The doubting of the quality of one's actions, and
- A preference for order and organization.
Hewitt & Flett (1991) devised another "multidimensional perfectionism scale", a 45-item measure that rates three aspects of perfectionistic self-presentation:
- Self-oriented perfectionism
- Other-oriented perfectionism, and
- Socially prescribed perfectionism.
Self-oriented perfectionism is having unrealistic expectations and standards for oneself that lead to perfectionistic motivation. An example is the constant desire to achieve an ideal physical appearance out of vanity. Other-oriented perfectionism is having unrealistic expectations and standards for others that in turn pressure them to have perfectionistic motivations of their own. Socially prescribed perfectionism is developing perfectionistic motivations due to the fact that significant others expect them to be perfect. Parents that push their children to be successful in certain endeavors (such as athletics or academics) provide an example of this type of perfectionism, as the children feel that they must meet their parents' lofty expectations.
A similarity has been pointed out among Frost's distinction between setting high standards for oneself and the level of concern over making mistakes in performance (the two most important dimensions of the FMPS) and Hewitt & Flett's distinction between self-oriented versus socially prescribed perfectionism.
Almost perfect scale-revised (APS-R)Edit
Slaney and his colleagues (1996) developed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) to identify perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) and non-perfectionists. People are classified based on their scores for three measures:
- High Standards
- Order, and
Both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionists rate highly in High Standards and Order, but maladaptive perfectionists also rate highly in Discrepancy. Discrepancy refers to the belief that personal high standards are not being met, which is the defining negative aspect of perfectionism. Maladaptive perfectionists typically yield the highest social stress and anxiety scores, reflecting their feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem.
In general, the APS-R is a relatively easy instrument to administer, and can be used to identify perfectionist adolescents as well as adults, though it has yet to be proven useful for children. In one study evaluating APS-R in an adolescent population, maladaptive perfectionists obtained higher satisfaction scores than non-perfectionists. This finding suggests that adolescents' high standards may protect them from challenges to personal satisfaction when their standards are not met.
Two other forms of the APS-R measure perfectionism directed towards intimate partners (Dyadic Almost Perfect Scale) and perceived perfectionism from one's family (Family Almost Perfect Scale).
Physical appearance perfectionism scale (PAPS)Edit
The Physical Appearance Perfectionism Scale (PAPS) explains a particular type of perfectionism - the desire for a perfect physical appearance. The PAPS is a multidimensional assessment of physical appearance perfectionism that provides the most insight when the sub-scales are evaluated separately.
In general, the PAPS allows researchers to determine participants' body image and self-conceptions of their looks, which is critical in present times when so much attention is paid to attractiveness and obtaining the ideal appearance. The two sub-scales it uses to assess appearance concerns are:
- Worry About Imperfection, and
- Hope For Perfection.
Those that obtain high "Worry About Imperfection" scores are usually greatly concerned with maladaptive aspects of perfectionism, physical appearance, and body control behavior. They also demonstrate low positive self-perceptions of their appearance, whereas those scoring highly on "Hope for Perfection" yielded high positive self-perceptions. Hope For Perfection also corresponded with impression management behaviors and striving for ambitious goals.
In summary, Worry About Imperfection relates to negative aspects of appearance perfectionism, while Hope For Perfection relates to positive aspects. One limitation of using the PAPS is the lack of psychological literature evaluating its validity.
Daniels & Price (2000) refer to perfectionists as "ones.” Perfectionists are focused on personal integrity and can be wise, discerning and inspiring in their quest for the truth. They also tend to dissociate themselves from their flaws or what they believe are flaws (such as negative emotions) and can become hypocritical and hypercritical of others, seeking the illusion of virtue to hide their own vices.
Researchers have begun to investigate the role of perfectionism in various mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and personality disorders. Each disorder has varying levels of the three measures on the MPS-scale. Socially prescribed perfectionism in young women has been associated with greater body-image dissatisfaction and avoidance of social situations that focus on weight and physical appearance.
The self-help book Too Perfect: When Being in Control Gets Out of Control by Jeanette Dewyze and Allan Mallinger contends that perfectionists have obsessive personality types. Obsessive personality type is different from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in that OCD is a clinical disorder that may be associated with specific ritualized behavior or thoughts. According to Mallinger and DeWyze, perfectionists are obsessives who need to feel in control at all times to protect themselves and ensure their own safety. By always being vigilant and trying extremely hard, they can ensure that they not only fail to disappoint or are beyond reproach but that they can protect against unforeseen issues caused by their environment. Vigilance refers to constant monitoring, often of the news, weather, and financial markets.
The relationship that exists between perfectionistic tendencies and methods of coping with stress has also been examined with some detail. One recent study found that college students with adaptive perfectionistic traits, such as goal fixation or high standards of performance, were more likely to utilize active or problem focused coping.
Those who displayed maladaptive perfectionistic tendencies, such as rumination over past events or fixation on mistakes, tended to utilize more passive or avoidance coping. Despite these differences, both groups tended to utilize self-criticism as a coping method. This is consistent with theories that conceptualize self-criticism as a central element of perfectionism.
There have been identified three main components of perfectionism:
- other-oriented, and
- socially prescribed
Self-oriented perfectionism is an intrapersonal dimension characterized by a strong motivation to be perfect, setting and striving for unrealistic self-standards, focusing on flaws, and generalization of self-standards. Self-oriented perfectionism may also involve a well-articulated ideal self-schema. Other-oriented perfectionism involves similar behaviors, but these behaviors are directed toward others instead of toward the self. Socially prescribed perfectionism entails the belief that others have perfectionistic expectations and motives for oneself.
Perfectionism can drive people to accomplishments and provide the motivation to persevere in the face of discouragement and obstacles. Roedell (1984) argues:
In a positive form, perfectionism can provide the driving energy which leads to great achievement. The meticulous attention to detail, necessary for scientific investigation, the commitment which pushes composers to keep working until the music realises the glorious sounds playing in the imagination, and the persistence which keeps great artists at their easels until their creation matches their conception all result from perfectionism.
Slaney and his colleagues found that adaptive perfectionists had lower levels of procrastination than non-perfectionists. In the field of positive psychology, an adaptive and healthy variation of perfectionism is referred to as optimalism.[unreliable medical source?]
The adaptive form of perfectionism is also typically considered the positive component of this personality trait. Adaptive perfectionism includes preferences for order and organization, a persistent striving for excellence, and conscientious orientation to tasks and performance. All of these characteristics are accompanied by low criticism and negativity, and high support and self-esteem. The positive, adaptive forms of perfectionism are more closely associated with the Big Five personality factor of conscientiousness, whereas maladaptive forms are more similar to neuroticism (see below).
Scientists that intently pursue their interests in the laboratory are often considered perfectionists. This obsession with an end result may motivate them to work diligently and maintain an impressive work ethic. Famous figures also have publicly admitted that they have perfectionist tendencies, suggesting that an intense focus on one's passion can lead to success. Martha Stewart once described herself to Oprah Winfrey as a "maniacal perfectionist." High-achieving athletes often show signs of perfectionism as well.
Exceptionally talented people are also often perfectionists. Many individuals now widely regarded as geniuses were obsessive about the quality of their work. In the book Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy, it is said that "Newton, perhaps because of a basic ambivalence between wanting his discoveries to be known and his fear of criticism, tended to be fussy about his publications." When finding that an initial print of his Opticks (1704) featured errors, his response was for his name to be removed from the title page entirely; his reaction was the same after William Whiston used the wrong manuscript when printing Arithmetica Universalis (1707). Scholar D. T. Whiteside likewise notes Newton's "usual perfectionist manner".
Other highly celebrated figures who were perfectionists include Filippo Brunelleschi, Leonardo da Vinci, Nicolaus Copernicus, Ludwig van Beethoven, Gustave Flaubert, Johannes Brahms, Franz Kafka, Stanley Kubrick, Andrei Tarkovsky, Brian Wilson, and Steve Jobs, all of whom have been considered to be among the most central figures in their respective fields' histories.
Gary Garrison wrote of Kubrick, "His perfectionism led to a handful of cinema’s finest works." Some[who?] contend that Michelangelo's perfectionism motivated him to painstakingly complete works including the statue David and the Sistine Chapel ceiling.
In The Guardian, Laya Maheshwari argued that perfectionism's bad reputation is unfair and wrote that "when there’s even one ambitious member who’ll create self-imposed deadlines and ask for a chart to supplement the bullet point, the work you produce will be that much better."
In its pathological form, perfectionism can be damaging. It can take the form of procrastination when used to postpone tasks and self-deprecation when used to excuse poor performance or to seek sympathy and affirmation from other people. These, together or separate, are self-handicapping strategies perfectionists may use to protect their sense of self-competence. In general, maladaptive perfectionists feel constant pressure to meet their high standards, which creates cognitive dissonance when one cannot meet their own expectations. Perfectionism has been associated with numerous other psychological and physiological complications as well.
Perfectionism is increasingly being seen as a risk factor for suicide that has a double edged sword. The tendency of perfectionists to have excessively high expectations of self and to be self-critical when their efforts do not meet the standard they have established combined with their tendency to show a "perfect face" to the world increases their risk of suicide ideation while decreasing the likelihood they will seek help when they should.
In 2017 Suicide Statistics found that suicide was 10th leading cause of overall death with firearms being accounted for 50.57 percent of those deaths. Men were 3.54 more likely to commit suicide than women and white males accounted for 69.67 percent of suicide. Men ages 45-85 were 20 percent more likely to commit suicide than adolescents and young adults. Mood such as perfectionism or depression can affect the risk of suicide. Perfectionism is one of many suicide predictors that affect a person negatively with stress and suicide ideation. In a 2013-2016 study it was shown that 8.1 percent of Americans were diagnosed with depression, women being twice as likely to be more depressed than men. The numbers vary annually as suicide is underreported.
Perfectionism has been linked with anorexia nervosa in research for decades. Researchers in 1949 described the behavior of the average anorexic person as being "rigid" and "hyperconscious", observing also a tendency to "neatness, meticulosity, and a mulish stubbornness not amenable to reason [which] make her a rank perfectionist". Perfectionism is a life enduring trait in the biographies of anorexics. It is felt before the onset of the eating disorder, generally in childhood, during the illness, and also, after remission. The incessant striving for thinness among anorexics is itself a manifestation of this trait, of an insistence upon meeting unattainably high standards of performance.
Because of its chronicity, those with eating disorders also display perfectionistic tendencies in other domains of life than dieting and weight control. Over-achievement at school, for example, has been observed among anorexics, as a result of their over-industrious behavior. To help individuals differentiate if they have an eating disorder or a non-eating disorder, they are able to take a self-report instrument called the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (QEDD) which has been used in several studies of anorexia nervosa.
The level of perfectionism was found to have an influence in individual's long-term recovery of anorexia. Those who scored a normal range of perfectionism were able to have a faster recovery rate than patients who scored high in perfectionism.
Perfectionism often shows up in performance at work or school, neatness and aesthetics, organization, writing, speaking, physical appearance, and health and personal cleanliness. In the workplace, perfectionism is often marked by low productivity and missed deadlines as people lose time and energy by paying attention to irrelevant details of their tasks, ranging from major projects to mundane daily activities. This can lead to depression, social alienation, and a greater risk of workplace "accidents".[unreliable medical source?] Adderholdt-Elliot (1989) describes five characteristics of perfectionist students and teachers which contribute to underachievement: procrastination, fear of failure, an "all-or-nothing" mindset, paralysed perfectionism, and workaholism.[unreliable medical source?]
According to C. Allen, in intimate relationships, unrealistic expectations can cause significant dissatisfaction for both partners.[unreliable medical source?] Greenspon lists behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that typically characterize perfectionism. Perfectionists will not be content with their work until it meets their standards, which can make perfectionists less efficient in finishing projects, and they therefore will struggle to meet deadlines.
In a different occupational context, athletes may develop perfectionist tendencies. Optimal physical and mental performance is critical for professional athletes, which are aspects that closely relate to perfectionism. Although perfectionist athletes strive to succeed, they can be limited by their intense fear of failure and therefore not exert themselves fully or feel overly personally responsible for a loss.[unreliable medical source?] Because their success is frequently measured by a score or statistics, perfectionist athletes may feel excessive pressure to succeed.
Perfectionism sheds light on people's desire for structure and guidance. They tend to work well in structured environments with explicit instructions. Because perfectionists focus on concrete aspects of a task, they may be inflexible to change and lack creativity if problems arise. This can pose a problem when an unforeseen situation arises.
While perfectionism has played a major role in the achievements of many highly accomplished historical figures, there have been examples of extreme perfectionism leading important thinkers to not release their works and thus fail to have the direct influence on their field(s) that they could have had. Historian Eric Temple Bell said of Carl Friedrich Gauss, for example, that if the mathematician had published all his discoveries in a timely manner, he would have advanced mathematics by 50 years.
Perfectionists can suffer from anxiety and low self-esteem. Perfectionism is a risk factor for obsessive compulsive disorder, obsessive compulsive personality disorder, eating disorders, social anxiety, social phobia, body dysmorphic disorder, workaholism, self harm, substance abuse, and clinical depression as well as physical problems like chronic stress, and heart disease. In addition, studies have found that people with perfectionism have a higher mortality rate than those without perfectionism. A possible reason for this is the additional stress and worry that accompanies the irrational belief that everything should be perfect.
Therapists[who?] attempt to tackle the negative thinking that surrounds perfectionism, in particular the "all-or-nothing" thinking in which the client believes that an achievement is either perfect or useless. They encourage clients to set realistic goals and to face their fear of failure.
Since perfectionism is a self-esteem issue based on emotional convictions about what one must do to be acceptable as a person, negative thinking is most successfully addressed in the context of a recovery process which directly addresses these emotional convictions.
According to Arnold Cooper, narcissism can be considered as a self-perceived form of perfectionism – "an insistence on perfection in the idealized self-object and the limitless power of the grandiose self. These are rooted in traumatic injuries to the grandiose self."
Narcissists often are pseudo-perfectionists and require being the center of attention and create situations where they will receive attention. This attempt at being perfect is cohesive with the narcissist's grandiose self-image. If a perceived state of perfection isn't reached it can lead to guilt, shame, anger or anxiety because he/she believes that he/she will lose the imagined love and admiration from other people if he or she is not perfect.[unreliable medical source?]
Perfectionism is one of Raymond Cattell's 16 Personality Factors. According to this construct, people who are organized, compulsive, self-disciplined, socially precise, exacting will power, controlled, and self-sentimental are perfectionists. In the Big Five personality traits, perfectionism is an extreme manifestation of conscientiousness and can provoke increasing neuroticism as the perfectionist's expectations are not met.
Maladaptive perfectionism is more similar to neuroticism while adaptive perfectionism is more similar to conscientiousness. The latter positively corresponds with life satisfaction, self-esteem, secure attachment, and cohesive self-development.
A study found that athletes with a respect and love for themselves ("basic self-esteem") exhibit more positive patterns of perfectionism, whereas individuals who have a self-esteem that is dependent on competence aspects ("earning self-esteem") show more negative perfectionism.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been shown to successfully help perfectionists in reducing social anxiety, public self-consciousness, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) behaviors, and perfectionism. By using this approach, a person can begin to recognize their irrational thinking and find an alternative way to approach situations.
Exposure and response prevention (ERP) is also employed by psychologists in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, including perfectionism. This form of therapy is premised on encouraging individuals to stop their perfectionistic behavior in tasks that they would normally pursue toward perfection. Over time, anxiety may decrease as the person finds that there are no major consequences of completing particular tasks imperfectly.
Acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) was demonstrated to have a major contribution to treat perfectionism from increasing awareness, increasing acceptance, and living a meaningful life. These practices were shown to help reduce anxiety, depression, and social phobia. This approach has been shown to be effective six months post to the therapy.
- Stoeber, Joachim; Childs, Julian H. (2010). "The Assessment of Self-Oriented and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism: Subscales Make a Difference" (PDF). Journal of Personality Assessment. 92 (6): 577–585. doi:10.1080/00223891.2010.513306. PMID 20954059.
- Flett, G. L.; Hewitt, P. L. (2002). Perfectionism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 5–31.
- Yang, Hongfei; Stoeber, Joachim (2012). "The Physical Appearance Perfectionism Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation" (PDF). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 34 (1): 69–83. doi:10.1007/s10862-011-9260-7.
- Curran, Thomas; Hill, Andrew P. (April 2019). "Perfectionism is increasing over time: A meta-analysis of birth cohort differences from 1989 to 2016" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 145 (4): 410–429. doi:10.1037/bul0000138. ISSN 1939-1455. PMID 29283599.
- Parker, W. D.; Adkins, K. K. (1995). "Perfectionism and the gifted". Roeper Review. 17 (3): 173–176. doi:10.1080/02783199509553653.
- Hamachek, D. E. (1978). "Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism". Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior. 15: 27–33.
- Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich (2011). "Classifying adolescent perfectionists". Psychological Assessment. 23 (3): 563–577. doi:10.1037/a0022482. PMID 21319903.
- Stoeber, Joachim; Otto, Kathleen (2006). "Positive Conceptions of Perfectionism: Approaches, Evidence, Challenges" (PDF). Personality and Social Psychology Review. 10 (4): 295–319. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_2. PMID 17201590.
- Greenspon, T. S. (2008). "Making sense of error: A view of the origins and treatment of perfectionism". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 62 (3): 263–282. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2008.62.3.263. PMID 18846972.
- Greenspon, T. S. (2007)What to do when good enough is not good enough: The real deal on perfectionism. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing.
- [self-published source?]Greenspon, T. S. (2002) Freeing Our Families From Perfectionism. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing.
- Greenspon, T. S. (2000). ""Healthy perfectionism" is an oxymoron! Reflections on the psychology of perfectionism and the sociology of science". The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education. XI (4): 197–208. doi:10.4219/jsge-2000-631.
- Frost, R. O.; Heimburg, R. G.; Holt, C. S.; Mattia, J. I.; Neubauer, A. A. (1993). "A comparison of two measures of perfectionism". Personality and Individual Differences. 14: 469–489. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90181-2.
- Frost, Randy O.; Marten, Patricia; Lahart, Cathleen; Rosenblate, Robin (1990). "The dimensions of perfectionism". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 14 (5): 449–468. doi:10.1007/BF01172967.
- Hewitt, P.; Flett, G. (1991). "Dimensions of Perfectionism in Unipolar Depression" (PDF). Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 100 (1): 98–101. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.100.1.98. PMID 2005279. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
- "The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: Reliability, validity, and psychometric properties in psychiatric samples". Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- Toon W. Taris, Ilona van Beek, Wilmar B. Schaufeli: "Why do perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others? The mediational effect of workaholism". Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 1–7.
- Slaney, R.B.; Rice, K.G.; Mobley, M.; Trippi, J.; Ashby, J.S. (2001). "The Revised Almost Perfect Scale". Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 34 (3): 130–145. doi:10.1080/07481756.2002.12069030.
- Daniels, M.D., D.; Price, PhD, V. (2000). "The Essential Enneagram". New York: HarperCollins. Cite journal requires
- Hewitt, P. L.; Flett, G.; Ediger, E. (1995). "Perfectionism traits and perfectionistic self-presentation in eating disorder attitudes, characteristics, and symptoms". International Journal of Eating Disorders. 18 (4): 317–326. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(199512)18:4<317::AID-EAT2260180404>3.0.CO;2-2. PMID 8580917.
- Mallinger, A.; DeWyze, J. (1992). "Too Perfect: When Being in Control Gets Out of Control". New York: Fawcett Columbine. Cite journal requires
- Wielkiewicz, R. M.; Wonderlich, S. J. (2006). "Correlations between perfectionism and coping strategies in response to researcher-selected vignettes or participant-selected events". Psychological Reports. 98 (3): 745–755. doi:10.2466/pr0.98.3.745-755. PMID 16933672.
- Dunkley, David M.; Zuroff, David C.; Blankstein, Kirk R. (2003). "Self-critical perfectionism and daily affect: dispositional and situational influences on stress and coping". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 84 (1): 234–252. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168.
- Silverman, Linda Kreger (1 January 1999). "Perfectionism". Gifted Education International. 13 (3): 216–225. doi:10.1177/026142949901300303.
- Roedell, W. C. (1984). "Vulnerabilities of highly gifted children". Roeper Review. 6 (3): 127–130. doi:10.1080/02783198409552782.
- Neimark, Jill (May 2007). "The Optimism Revolution". Psychology Today. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 1 July 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Noggle, Chad A.; Lapsley, Daniel K. (2007). "Perfectionism and depressive symptoms in early adolescence". Psychology in the Schools. 44 (2): 139–156. doi:10.1002/pits.20212.
- Brett, Bill. "Are They Too Perfect?". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Lemyre, P.-N.; Hall, H. K.; Roberts, G. C. (2007). "A Social Cognitive Approach to Burnout in Elite Athletes" (PDF). Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 18 (2): 221–34. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00671.x. PMID 17617173. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Buchwald, Jed Z.; Cohen, I. Bernard, eds. (2001). Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. MIT Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0262524254.
- Whiteside, D. T., ed. (2008). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0521045919.
- Saalman, Howard (1993). Filippo Brunelleschi: The Buildings. Penn State Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0271010670.
- Hastie, Paul (9 August 2013). "Dissecting Da Vinci: What makes a modern medical artist?". BBC. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Dunne, Aidan (5 November 2011). "Painter, polymath, perfectionist". The Irish Times. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Hawking, Stephen, ed. (2003). On the Shoulders of Giants: The Great Works of Physics and Astronomy. Running Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0762416981. "Copernicus was a perfectionist and considered his observations in constant need of verification and revision."
- Higgins, Charlotte (27 September 2011). "Beethoven string quartet lost for 200 years to get premiere in Manchester". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "British Professor Reconstructs Some Rejected Beethoven". NPR. 2 October 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Willsher, Kim (7 November 2016). "Blots and all: Gustave Flaubert's travel diary among rare books at historic sale". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "The handwritten manuscript is page after page of scratched out notes, smudges, comments and ink blots that reveal just how arduous the French novelist Gustave Flaubert found the writing process."
- Robb, Graham (22 October 2016). "Flaubert – the writer's writer par excellence – is a real challenge to write about". The Spectator. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "Johannes Brahms". La Salle University. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Siepmann, Jeremy (1998). The Piano. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 128. ISBN 978-0793599769. "Brahms was perhaps the most compulsively perfectionist composer who ever lived."
- McNearney, Allison (4 February 2017). "Unraveling a Nazi Mystery: Are Franz Kafka's Missing Love Letters in Berlin?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "When Kafka died, he had only published several stories. Being the perfectionist that he was, he left strict instructions that all of his remaining papers and works were to be burned unread. He allegedly destroyed around 90 percent of his output himself before his death."
- Holden, Stephen (8 March 1999). "Stanley Kubrick, Film Director With a Bleak Vision, Dies at 70". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "[...] an extreme perfectionist who insisted on control over every aspect of his films, from casting and screenwriting to editing, lighting and music. It often took him many months and sometimes years to complete a film. He was known to film up to 100 takes of a scene."
- Freer, Ian (30 July 2016). "'I haven't got it yet!': The relentless, ridiculous perfectionism of Stanley Kubrick". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "Kubrick's renowned uncompromising perfectionism, [...] his methods in pursuing his vision remain legendary..."
- Solis, Jose (1 September 2011). "Andrei Tarkovsky Achieved Sublimity Through 'The Sacrifice'". PopMatters. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Hoberman, J. (2 March 2012). "A Place of Our Deepest Desires". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "Tarkovsky was a perfectionist. The script for "Stalker" went through countless rewrites [...]"
- Slate, Jeff (16 May 2016). "Brian Wilson Remembers Pet Sounds on the Album's 50th Anniversary". Esquire. Retrieved 8 February 2017. The author describes Wilson as "famously perfectionist".
- Slate, Jeff (4 April 2015). "Brian Wilson on the Beach Boys' 'Rivalry' with the Beatles and Flying Solo". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Surowiecki, James (17 October 2011). "How Steve Jobs Changed". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 February 2017. "As seemingly everyone on the planet knows, Steve Jobs’s defining quality was perfectionism. The development of the Macintosh, for instance, took more than three years, because of Jobs’s obsession with detail. [...] And he wanted his engineers to redesign the Mac’s motherboard, just because it looked inelegant."
- "'Steve Jobs': Profiling An Ingenious Perfectionist". NPR. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Garrison, Gary (22 January 2016). "Watch: 75-Minute Video Essay Breaks Down The Making Of Stanley Kubrick's '2001: A Space Odyssey'". IndieWire. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Maheshwari, Laya (18 May 2015). "Perfectionists relax: we're good enough as we are". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Jones, E.E.; Berglas, S. (1978). "Control of attributions about the self through selfhandicapping strategies: The appeal of alcohol and the role of underachievement". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 35 (3): 200–206.
- Kearns, Hugh; Forbes, Angus; Gardiner, Maria; Marshall, Kelly (December 2008). "When a High Distinction Isn't Good Enough: A Review of Perfectionism and Self-Handicapping". Australian Educational Researcher. 35 (3): 21–36.
- Greenspon, Thomas S. "Is There an Antidote to Perfectionism?" Psychology in the Schools, November 2014: 986–998.
- "Suicide Statistics". AFSP. 16 February 2016.
- Hewitt, Paul L.; Flett, Gordon L.; Weber, Cathy (1994). "Dimensions of perfectionism and suicide ideation". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 18 (5): 439–460. doi:10.1007/BF02357753.
- "Products - Data Briefs - Number 303 - February 2018". www.cdc.gov. 7 June 2019.
- DuBois, F.S. (1949). "Compulsion neurosis with cachexia (Anorexia Nervosa)". American Journal of Psychiatry. 106 (2): 107–115. doi:10.1176/ajp.106.2.107. PMID 18135398.
- Anderluh, Marija Brecelj (2009). "Lifetime course of eating disorders: design and validity testing of a new strategy to define the eating disorders phenotype". Psychological Medicine. 39 (1): 105–114. doi:10.1017/S0033291708003292. PMID 18377676.
- Halmi, Katherine A.; et al. (2000). "Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa:Variation by Clinical Subtype, Obsessionality, and Pathological Eating Behavior". Am J Psychiatry. 157 (11): 1799–1805. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.11.1799. PMID 11058477.
- Srinivasagam (1995). "Persistent perfectionism, symmetry, and exactness after long-term recovery from anorexia nervosa". American Journal of Psychiatry. 152 (11): 1630–4. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.457.3479. doi:10.1176/ajp.152.11.1630. PMID 7485626.
- JR Dura; et al. (1989). "Differences between IQ and school achievement in anorexia nervosa". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 45 (3): 433–5. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(198905)45:3<433::aid-jclp2270450313>3.0.co;2-x. PMID 2745732.
- Michael Strober (1981). "The Significance of Bulimia in Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: An Exploration of Possible Etiologic Factors". International Journal of Eating Disorders. 1 (1): 28–43. doi:10.1002/1098-108x(198123)1:1<28::aid-eat2260010104>3.0.co;2-9.
- D. L. Norris (1979). "Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Primary Anorexia Nervosa". South African Medical Journal: 987–93.
- Hilde Bruch (2001). The Golden Cage: The Enigma of Anorexia Nervosa. First Harvard University Press. p. 46.
- Bernard Viallettes (2001). L'anorexie mentale, une déraison philosophique. L'Harmattan. p. 89. ISBN 978-2-7475-0876-6.
...even in the category of young women with low IQs, some had brilliant school records. This probably is the result of the persistence in work that characterizes anorexic patients.
- Sutandar-Pinnock, K., Woodside, D.B., Carter, J.C., Olmsted, M.P., and Kaplan, A.S. (2003). Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa: A 6-24-month follow-up study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33(2). 9-10. DOI: 10.1002/eat.10127.
- Sutandar-Pinnock, K., Woodside, D.B., Carter, J.C., Olmsted, M.P., and Kaplan, A.S. (2003). Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa: A 6-24-month follow-up study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33(2). 1. DOI: 10.1002/eat.10127.
- Antony, PhD, Martin (2009). When Perfect Isn't Good Enough: Strategies for Coping with Perfectionism. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. p. 312. ISBN 978-1572245594.
- Psychology Today (May 1995). "Perfectionism: Impossible Dream". Psychology Today.
- Adderholdt-Elliot, M. (1989). "Perfectionism and underachievement". Gifted Child Today. 12 (1): 19–21. doi:10.1177/107621758901200108.
- Allen, C. (May 2003). "The Perfectionist's Flawed Marriage". Psychology Today.
- "The Downside of Perfectionism in Sports". Sports Psychology Today. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- T., Bell, E. (1965). Men of mathematics. The lives and achievements of the great mathematicians from zeno to poincare. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0671464004. OCLC 493383943.
- "Being a Perfectionist Can take toll on health". Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- Arnold M. Cooper, "Introduction" in Arnold M. Cooper ed., Contemporary Psychoanalysis in America (2006) p. xxxiv
- Sorotzkin, Benzion (18 April 2006). "The Quest for Perfection: Avoiding Guilt or avoiding shame?". Psychology Today. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008.
- Cattell, H.; Mead, A. (2008). "The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)". In Gregory J. Boyle; Gerald Matthews; Donald H. Saklofske (eds.). The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment. 2. pp. 135–159. doi:10.4135/9781849200479.n7. ISBN 9781412946520.
- Koivula, Nathalie; Hassmén, Peter; Fallby, Johan (2002). "Self-esteem and perfectionism in elite athletes: effects on competitive anxiety and self-confidence". Personality and Individual Differences. 32 (5): 865–875. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00092-7.
- Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Ost, Lars-Goran (5 November 2010). "Attentional Bias, Self-consciousness and Perfectionism in Social Phobia Before and After Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy". Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy. 30 (1): 4–16. doi:10.1080/02845710117841.
- "Strategies for Coping with the Need to be Perfect". Beyond OCD. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
- Ashbaugh, A., Antony, M.M., Liss, A., Summerfeldt, L.J., McCabe, R.E., & Swinson, R.P. (2007). Changes in perfectionism following cognitive-behavioral therapy of social phobia. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 169-177.
- Pleva, J., & Wade, T.D. (2006). Guided self-help versus pure self-help for perfectionism: A randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 849-861.
- Castro, J.R.; Rice, K.G. (9 February 2003). "Perfectionism and ethnicity: implications for depressive symptoms and self-reported academic achievement". Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 9 (1): 64–78. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.9.1.64. PMID 12647326.
- Jackson, Melissa (19 June 2004). "Why perfect is not always best". BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Phillipson, PhD, Steven. "The Right Stuff: Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder: A Defect of Philosophy, not Anxiety". Center for Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Shaw, Daniel (2013). Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation. Routledge