Demographics of Romania

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Romania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Romania
Romania demography 1961-2010.svg
The evolution of the population between 1961 and 2010
Population19,317,384 (2020 national population estimate)[1]
Growth rate-0.29% (2014)
Birth rate9.27 births/1,000 population (2014)
Death rate11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2014)
Life expectancy75 years (2015)[2]
 • male71.4 years
 • female78.8 years
Fertility rate1.76 children born/woman (2018)[3]
Infant mortality rate9.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2012)[4]
Net migration rate-0.24 migrants/1,000 population (2015)
Age structure
0–14 years3,189,646 (15.8%)
15–64 years13,684,251 (68.1%)
65 and over3,247,744 (16.1%)
Sex ratio
Total0.95 males/female (2014)
At birth1.06 males/female
Under 151.05 males/female
15–64 years0.99 males/female
65 and over0.69 males/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Romanian(s), adjective: Romanian
Major ethnicRomanian
Minor ethnicHungarian, Romani, Ukrainian, German, Albanian, Russian, Turkish, Serbian, Slovak, Arab, African etc.
Language
OfficialRomanian
SpokenRomanian and other minority languages

About 88.9% of the people of Romania are ethnic Romanians, whose language, Romanian, is a Balkan Romance language, descended from Latin with some German, French, English, Greek, Slavic, and Hungarian borrowings. Romanians are by far the most numerous group of speakers of a Balkan Romance language today. It has been said that they constitute "an island of Latinity"[5] in Eastern Europe, surrounded on all sides either by Slavic peoples or by the Hungarians. The Hungarian minority in Romania constitutes the country's largest minority, 6.1 per cent of the population.[6]

PopulationEdit

Romania's population declined steadily in recent years, from 21.83 million in 2002 to 19.95 million in 2014.[7] More specifically, in the last decade, the population of Romania decreased by 7.5%, the most important moment for the country's demography being 2008, when the number of inhabitants dropped by 6,000 people.[8] Among the causes of population decline are high mortality, low fertility rate after 1989, and emigration.[7]

In 1990, the Romania's population was estimated at 23.21 million inhabitants.[9] For the entire period 1990–2006 estimated population loss tops 1.5 million,[9] but it is likely to be higher, given the explosion of migration for work after 2001 and the tendency of some migrants to settle permanently in the countries where they live.[10]

Population evolutionEdit

 
Birth and death rates in 1950-2008. A huge surge of the birth rate in 1967 is the most prominent feature of these graphs.

Sources give varied estimates for Romania's historical population. The National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (NIRDI) gives the following numbers:

Ethnic groupsEdit

 
Ethnic map (1930 census)
 
Ethnic map (1977 census)
 
Ethnicity in Romania by county (inhabitants) based on the 2002 census data
 
Romanians in Romania based on 2002 census data
 
Ethnic map (2011 census)
 
The Romani minority in Romania by county (2011 census)

Slightly more than 10% of the population of Romania is formed of minorities of Romania. The principal minorities are Hungarians and Roma, although other smaller ethnic groups exist too. Before World War II, minorities represented more than 28% of the total population. During the war that percentage was halved, largely by the loss of the border areas of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina (to the former Soviet Union, now Moldova and Ukraine) and southern Dobrudja (to Bulgaria). Two-thirds of the ethnic German population either left or were deported after World War II, a period that was followed by decades of relatively regular (by communist standards) migration. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000 (according to some sources and estimates dating to 1939),[11][12] a figure which had subsequently fallen to circa 36,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania. One of the reasons for which the number of Germans in Romania fell is because after the Romanian Revolution there has been a mass migration of Transylvania Saxons to Germany, in what was referred by British daily newspaper Guardian to as 'the most astonishing, and little reported, ethnic migration in modern Europe'.[13]

Of a total official population of over three quarter million Jews before World War II, more than half were killed during the Holocaust.[14] Mass emigration, mostly to Israel and United States, has reduced the surviving Jewish community to less than 6,000 in 2002 (it is estimated that the real numbers could be 3-4 times higher).[15]

Hungarians (Magyars; see Hungarians in Romania, especially in Harghita, Covasna, and Mureș counties) and Romani (Roma; see Romani people in Romania) are the principal minorities, with a declining German population (Banat Swabians in Timiș; Transylvanian Saxons in Sibiu, Brașov and elsewhere), and smaller numbers of Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and Banat Bulgarians (in Banat), Ukrainians (especially in Maramureș and Bukovina), Greeks of Romania (especially in Brăila and Constanța), Turks and Tatars (mainly in Constanța), Armenians, Russians (Lipovans, Old Believers in Tulcea), Jews and others. Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Bucharest and other cities have again become increasingly cosmopolitan, including identifiable presences from outside the EU (Chinese, Turks, Moldovans, Syrians, Iraqis, Africans) as well as from the EU (French, Italians, Germans, British, Greeks).[16] In Romania, there are also guest workers from countries such as Vietnam and Nepal.[17][18]

Minority populations are greatest in Transylvania and the Banat, areas in the north and west of the country, which were part of the Kingdom of Hungary (after 1867 the Austria-Hungary) until the end of World War I. Even before the union with Romania, ethnic Romanians comprised the overall majority in Transylvania. However, ethnic Hungarians and Germans were the dominant urban population until relatively recently, while Hungarians still constitute the majority in Harghita and Covasna counties.

Romani people constitute one of Romania's largest minorities. According to the 2011 census, they number 621,573 people or 3.08% of the total population, being the second-largest ethnic minority in Romania after Hungarians,[19] with significant populations in Mureș (8.9%) and Călărași (7,47%) counties. There are different estimates about the size of the total population of people with Romani ancestry in Romania because a lot of people of Romani descent do not declare themselves Romani. The number of Romani people is usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population.[20]

After Hungarians and Romani, Ukrainians of Romania are the third-largest minority. According to the 2011 Romanian census they number 51,703 people, making up 0.3% of the total population.[21] Ukrainians mainly live in northern Romania, in areas close to the Ukrainian border. Over 60% of all Romanian Ukrainians live in Maramureș County (where they make up 6.77% of the population).

OriginsEdit

Population of Romania according to ethnic group in 1930 [22]
Ethnicity number %
Romanians 12,981,324 71.9
Hungarians 1,425,507 7.9
Germans 745,421 4.1
Jews 728,115 4.0
Ruthenians and Ukrainians 582,115 3.2
Russians 409,150 2.3
Bulgarians 366,384 2.0
Romani (Tigani) 262,501 1.5
Turks 154,772 0.9
Gagauzians 105,750 0.6
Czechs and Slovaks 51,842 0.3
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 51,062 0.3
Poles 48,310 0.3
Greeks 26,495 0.2
Tatars 22,141 0.1
Armenians 15,544 <0.1
Hutsuls 12,456 <0.1
Albanians 4,670 <0.1
Others 56,355 0.3
Undeclared 7,114 <0.1
Total 18,057,028 100.0
Population of Romania according to ethnic group 1948–2011
Ethnic
group
census 19481 census 19562 census 19663 census 19774 census 19925 census 20026 census 20117
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Romanians 13,597,613 85.7 14,996,114 85.7 16,746,510 87.7 18,999,565 88.1 20,408,542 89.5 19,399,597 89.5 16,792,868 88.9
Hungarians 1,499,851 9.4 1,587,675 9.1 1,619,592 8.5 1,713,928 7.9 1,624,959 7.1 1,431,807 6.6 1,227,623 6.1
Romani (Tigani) 53,425 0.3 104,216 0.6 64,197 0.3 227,398 1.05 401,087 1.8 535,140 2.5 621,573 3.0
Ukrainians 37,582 0.2 60,479 0.4 54,705 0.3 55,510 0.3 65,764 0.3 61,098 0.3 50,920 0.2
Germans 343,913 2.2 384,708 2.2 382,595 2.0 359,109 1.6 119,462 0.5 59,764 0.3 36,042 0.2
Turks 28,782 0.2 14,329 0.2 18,040 0.1 23,422 0.1 29,832 0.1 32,098 0.2 27,698 0.2
Tatars 20,469 0.2 22,151 0.1 23,369 0.1 24,596 0.1 23,935 0.1 20,282 0.1
Russians 39,332 0.2 38,731 0.2 39,483 0.2 21,206 0.2 7,983 0.1 35,791 0.2 23,864 0.1
Lipovans 11,090 0.1 30,623 0.2
Serbs 45,447 0.3 46,517 0.3 44,236 0.3 34,429 0.2 29,408 0.1 22,561 0.1 18,076 0.1
Croats 7,500 0.0 4,085 0.0 6,807 0.0 5,408 0.0
Slovenes 175 0.0
Slovaks 35,143 0.2 23,331 0.2 22,151 0.1 21,286 0.1 19,594 0.1 17,226 0.2 13,654 0.1
Czechs 11,821 0.0 9,978 0.0 7,683 0.0 5,797 0.0 3,941 0.0 2,477 0.0
Bulgarians 13,408 0.1 12,040 0.1 11,193 0.1 10,372 0.0 9,851 0.1 8,025 0.0 7,336 0.0
Greeks 8,696 0.1 11,166 0.0 9,088 0.0 6,262 0.0 3,940 0.0 6,472 0.0 3,668 0.0
Jews 138,795 0.9 146,264 0.8 42,888 0.2 24,667 0.1 8,955 0.0 5,785 0.0 3,271 0.0
Poles 6,753 0.0 7,627 0.0 5,860 0.0 4,641 0.0 4,232 0.0 3,559 0.0 2,543 0.0
Armenians 6,987 0.0 6,441 0.0 3,436 0.0 2,342 0.0 1,957 0.0 1,780 0.0 1,361 0.0
Macedonians 1,176 0.0 6,867 0.0 731 0.0 1,264 0.0
Csangos 1,266 0.0 1,536 0.0
Aromanians 982 0.0 21,736 0.1
Others/undeclared 15,897 0.1 17,522 0.1 6,990 <0.1 5,731 <0.1 9,368 <0.1 28,303 0.1 23,741 0.1
Undeclared 1,236,810 6.14
Total 15,872,624 17,489,450 19,103,163 21,559,910 22,810,035 21,680,974 20,121,641
1 The results of the 1948 census are according to language. 2 Source:.[23] 3 Source:.[23] 4 Source:.[23] 5 Source:.[23] 6 Source:[24] 7 Source:[25]

Vital statisticsEdit

 
Romania total fertility rate by region (2014)
  1.9 - 2.1
  1.7 - 1.9
  1.5 - 1.7
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3

Total Fertility Rate from 1850 to 1899Edit

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[26]

Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[26]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 5.22 5.08 4.94 4.8 4.66 4.52 4.38 4.24 4.11 3.97 4.23
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[26]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 4.29 4.29 4.07 4.82 4.64 4.19 4.25 4.48 4.56 4.61
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[26]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 4.49 4.29 4.36 4.6 5.2 4.96 4.74 4.22 4.97 5.05
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[26]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 5.56 5.41 5.74 5.55 5.78 5.65 5.49 5.68 5.44 5.16
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[26]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 5.67 5.23 5.43 5.48 5.67 5.45 5.75 4.92 5.63

Before WWIEdit

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[26]
1900 6,050,000 235,000 146,000 89,000 38.8 24.2 14.6 5.20
1901 6,120,000 241,000 160,000 81,000 39.3 26.2 13.1 5.27
1902 6,210,000 242,000 172,000 70,000 39.0 27.7 11.3 5.23
1903 6,290,000 252,000 156,000 96,000 40.1 24.8 15.3 5.37
1904 6,390,000 256,000 156,000 100,000 40.1 24.4 15.7 5.37
1905 6,480,000 248,000 160,000 88,000 38.3 24.7 13.6 5.13
1906 6,570,000 262,000 157,000 105,000 39.9 23.9 16.0 5.35
1907 6,680,000 274,000 176,000 98,000 41.1 26.3 14.8 5.51
1908 6,770,000 273,000 185,000 88,000 40.3 27.4 12.9 5.40
1909 6,860,000 282,000 188,000 94,000 41.1 27.4 13.7 5.51
1910 6,970,000 274,000 173,000 101,000 39.3 24.8 14.5 5.27
1911 7,090,000 300,000 179,000 121,000 42.3 25.3 17.0 5.67
1912 7,240,000 314,000 166,000 148,000 43.4 22.9 20.5 5.82
1913 7,360,000 310,000 192,000 118,000 42.1 26.1 16.0 5.64
1914 7,770,000 327,000 183,000 144,000 42.1 23.5 18.6 5.64
1915 7,910,000 320,000 194,000 126,000 40.5 24.5 16.0 5.43
Years 1916 1917 1918[26]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 4.84 4.25 3.67

Between WWI and WWIIEdit

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[26]
1919 15,920,000 366,000 328,000 38,000 23.0 20.6 2.4 3.08
1920 16,010,000 539,000 415,000 124,000 33.7 25.9 7.8 4.52
1921 16,240,000 620,000 372,000 248,000 38.2 22.9 15.3 5.12
1922 16,500,000 614,000 376,000 238,000 37.2 22.8 14.4 4.98
1923 16,770,000 609,000 372,000 237,000 36.4 22.1 14.3 4.88
1924 16,990,000 623,000 383,000 240,000 36.7 22.5 14.2 4.92
1925 17,190,000 606,000 362,000 244,000 35.2 21.1 14.1 4.72
1926 17,460,000 608,000 373,000 235,000 34.8 21.4 13.4 4.66
1927 17,690,000 603,000 393,000 210,000 34.1 22.2 11.9 4.57
1928 17,970,000 624,000 352,000 272,000 34.7 19.6 15.1 4.65
1929 17,640,000 601,000 378,000 223,000 34.1 21.4 12.7 4.57
1930 17,870,000 625,000 347,000 278,000 35.0 19.4 15.6 4.69
1931 18,190,000 605,000 379,000 226,000 33.3 20.8 12.5 4.46
1932 18,427,000 662,000 399,000 263,000 35.9 21.7 14.2 4.81
1933 18,653,000 598,000 348,000 250,000 32.1 18.7 13.4 4.30
1934 18,914,000 612,416 390,668 221,748 32.4 20.7 11.7 4.34
1935 19,088,000 585,503 402,720 182,783 30.7 21.1 9.6 4.11
1936 19,319,000 608,906 382,179 226,727 31.5 19.8 11.7 4.22
1937 19,535,000 601,310 377,954 223,356 30.8 19.3 11.4 4.13
1938 19,750,000 585,423 379,445 205,978 29.6 19.2 10.4 3.97
1939 19,934,000 563,817 370,348 193,469 28.3 18.6 9.7 3.79
Years 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[26]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 3.55 3.08 2.87 3.14 2.91 2.63

After WWIIEdit

[26][27][28]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1]
1946 15,760,000 391,273 296,439 94,834 24.8 18.8 6.0 3.32
1947 15,860,000 370,562 349,331 21,231 23.4 22.0 1.3 3.14
1948 15,893,000 379,868 248,238 131,630 23.9 15.6 8.3 3.20
1949 16,084,000 444,065 219,881 224,184 27.6 13.7 13.9 3.70
1950 16,311,000 426,820 202,010 224,810 26.2 12.4 13.8 3.14
1951 16,464,000 412,534 210,021 202,513 25.1 12.8 12.3 3.01
1952 16,630,000 413,217 195,287 217,930 24.8 11.7 13.1 2.97
1953 16,847,000 401,717 194,752 206,965 23.8 11.6 12.3 2.76
1954 17,040,000 422,346 195,091 227,255 24.8 11.4 13.3 2.98
1955 17,325,000 442,864 167,535 275,329 25.6 9.7 15.9 3.07
1956 17,583,000 425,704 174,847 250,857 24.2 9.9 14.3 2.89
1957 17,829,000 407,819 181,923 225,896 22.9 10.2 12.7 2.73
1958 18,056,000 390,500 156,493 234,007 21.6 8.7 13.0 2.58
1959 18,226,000 368,007 186,767 181,240 20.2 10.2 9.9 2.43
1960 18,403,414 352,241 160,720 191,521 19.1 8.7 10.4 2.34
1961 18,566,932 324,859 161,936 162,923 17.5 8.7 8.8 2.18
1962 18,680,721 301,985 172,429 129,556 16.2 9.2 6.9 2.04
1963 18,813,131 294,886 155,767 139,119 15.7 8.3 7.4 2.01
1964 18,927,081 287,383 152,476 134,907 15.2 8.1 7.1 1.96
1965 19,027,367 278,362 163,393 114,969 14.6 8.6 6.0 1.91
1966 19,140,783 273,678 157,445 116,233 14.3 8.2 6.1 1.90
1967 19,284,814 527,764 179,129 348,635 27.4 9.3 18.1 3.68
1968 19,720,984 526,091 188,509 337,582 26.7 9.6 17.1 3.64
1969 20,010,178 465,764 201,225 264,539 23.3 10.1 13.2 3.20
1970 20,252,541 427,034 193,255 233,779 21.1 9.5 11.5 2.89
1971 20,469,658 400,146 194,306 205,840 19.5 9.5 10.1 2.67
1972 20,662,648 389,153 189,793 199,360 18.8 9.2 9.6 2.55
1973 20,827,525 378,696 203,559 175,137 18.2 9.8 8.4 2.44
1974 21,028,841 427,732 191,286 236,446 20.3 9.1 11.2 2.71
1975 21,245,103 418,185 197,538 220,647 19.7 9.3 10.4 2.60
1976 21,445,698 417,353 204,873 212,480 19.5 9.6 9.9 2.55
1977 21,657,569 423,958 208,685 215,273 19.6 9.6 9.9 2.57
1978 21,854,622 416,598 211,846 204,752 19.1 9.7 9.4 2.52
1979 22,048,305 410,603 217,509 193,094 18.6 9.9 8.8 2.48
1980 22,201,387 398,904 231,876 167,028 18.0 10.4 7.5 2.43
1981 22,352,635 381,101 224,635 156,466 17.0 10.0 7.0 2.36
1982 22,477,703 344,369 224,120 120,249 15.3 10.0 5.3 2.17
1983 22,553,074 321,498 233,892 87,606 14.3 10.4 3.9 2.07
1984 22,624,505 350,741 233,699 117,042 15.5 10.3 5.2 2.27
1985 22,724,836 358,797 246,670 112,127 15.8 10.9 4.9 2.31
1986 22,823,479 376,896 242,330 134,566 16.5 10.6 5.9 2.40
1987 22,940,430 383,199 254,286 128,913 16.7 11.1 5.6 2.39
1988 23,053,552 380,043 253,370 126,673 16.5 11.0 5.5 2.31
1989 23,151,564 369,544 247,306 122,238 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.20
1990 23,206,720 314,746 247,086 67,660 13.6 10.6 2.9 1.83
1991 23,185,084 275,275 251,760 23,515 11.9 10.9 1.0 1.59
1992 22,788,969 260,393 263,855 -3,462 11.4 11.6 -0.2 1.51
1993 22,755,260 249,994 263,323 -13,329 11.0 11.6 -0.6 1.43
1994 22,730,622 246,736 266,101 -19,365 10.9 11.7 -0.9 1.40
1995 22,680,951 236,640 271,672 -35,032 10.4 12.0 -1.5 1.33
1996 22,607,620 231,348 286,158 -54,810 10.2 12.7 -2.4 1.30
1997 22,545,925 236,891 279,316 -42,425 10.5 12.4 -1.9 1.32
1998 22,502,803 237,297 269,166 -31,869 10.5 12.0 -1.4 1.32
1999 22,458,022 234,600 265,194 -30,594 10.4 11.8 -1.4 1.30
2000 22,435,205 234,521 255,820 -21,299 10.5 11.4 -0.9 1.31
2001 22,408,393 220,368 259,603 -39,235 10.0 11.7 -1.8 1.27
2002 21,675,775 210,529 269,666 -59,137 9.7 12.4 -2.7 1.25
2003 21,574,365 212,459 266,575 -54,116 9.8 12.3 -2.5 1.30
2004 21,451,845 216,261 258,890 -42,629 10.0 11.9 -2.0 1.33
2005 21,319,673 221,020 262,101 -41,081 10.2 12.1 -1.9 1.40
2006 21,193,749 219,483 258,094 -38,611 10.2 12.0 -1.8 1.42
2007 20,882,980 213,625 252,097 -38,472 10.0 11.7 -1.7 1.45
2008 20,537,848 222,749 253,177 -30,428 10.3 11.8 -1.5 1.60
2009 20,367,437 222,925 257,083 -34,158 10.4 12.0 -1.6 1.66
2010 20,246,798 211,922 259,747 -47,825 9.9 12.1 -2.2 1.59
2011 20,147,657 196,373 251,370 -54,997 9.7 12.5 -2.8 1.47
2012 20,060,182 201,202 255,458 -54,256 10.0 12.7 -2.7 1.52
2013 19,988,694 198,216 249,264 -51,048 9.9 12.5 -2.6 1.46
2014 19,916,451 195,612 254,791 -59,179 9.8 12.8 -2.6 1.56
2015 19,822,250 187,372 260,997 -73,625 9.8 13.6 -3.8 1.62
2016 19,706,424 190,238 256,501 -66,263 9.6 13.0 -3.4 1.69[29]
2017 19,591,668 191,496 256,761 -65,265 9.7 13.0 -3.3 1.71
2018 19,472,072 188,755 263,316 -74,561 9.6 13.4 -3.8 1.76
2019 19,366,221 188,189 259,936 -71,747 9.7 13.4 -3.7

Note: The 2011 Romanian Census gave a figure of 20,121,641.

Current vital statisticsEdit

  • Number of births January-July 2019 =   114,476
  • Number of births January-July 2020 =   97,127
  • Number of deaths January-July 2019 =   156,846
  • Number of deaths January-July 2020 =   153,193
  • Natural Decrease January-July 2019 =   -42,370
  • Natural Decrease January-July 2020 =   -56,066

[30]

Life expectancy 1950–2015Edit

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.[31]

Period Life expectancy in

Years

1950–1955 61.15
1955–1960   63.287
1960–1965   67.78
1965–1970   67.34
1970–1975   69.02
1975–1980   69.59
1980–1985   69.73
1985–1990   69.52
1990–1995   69.60
1995–2000   69.71
2000–2005   71.47
2005–2010   73.08
2010–2015   74.85

Birth rates by countiesEdit

Romania has 41 counties and one city with a special status, namely Bucharest. Ilfov county has the highest crude birth rate (12.0‰), while Vâlcea County has the lowest crude birth rate (6.6‰). Birth rates are generally higher in rural areas compared to urban areas.

Crude birth rate by province in 2016 (insse) [32]
Județ Total CBR (‰) Urban (‰) Rural (‰)
Romania 8.6 8.3 8.9
Alba County 8.0 7.5 8.8
Arad County 8.5 8.1 8.9
Argeș County 8.3 8.2 8.3
Bacău County 8.0 7.5 8.5
Bihor County 9.2 8.6 9.8
Bistriţa-Năsăud County 9.7 9.8 9.7
Botoşani County 8.3 8.1 8.4
Brașov County 9.6 8.6 12.6
Brăila County 6.9 6.2 8.4
Bucharest city 8.8 8.8 -
Buzău County 7.6 7.7 7.6
Caraș-Severin County 6.9 6.7 7.3
Călărași County 8.7 8.5 8.9
Cluj County 9.5 9.2 9.9
Constanța County 9.3 8.8 10.4
Covasna County 9.6 8.1 11.2
Dâmbovița County 8.3 7.7 8.6
Dolj County 7.9 7.9 7.9
Galați County 7.4 6.7 8.3
Giurgiu County 8.3 7.2 8.8
Gorj County 7.5 7.9 7.1
Harghita County 9.4 8.4 10.2
Hunedoara County 7.2 7.4 6.7
Ialomița County 8.2 7.8 8.7
Iași County 9.4 9.1 9.7
Ilfov County 12.0 12.3 11.8
Maramureș County 8.7 8.3 9.2
Mehedinți County 7.8 7.6 8.1
Mureș County 9.4 8.2 10.7
Neamț County 7.5 7.0 7.9
Olt County 7.0 7.8 6.5
Prahova County 7.9 7.6 8.2
Satu-Mare County 8.6 7.6 9.5
Sălaj County 10.0 10.2 9.9
Sibiu County 9.3 8.4 11.3
Suceava County 10.3 9.6 10.8
Teleorman County 6.8 6.5 6.9
Timiș County 9.4 9.0 10.0
Tulcea County 7.3 7.8 6.8
Vaslui County 8.2 7.5 8.8
Vâlcea County 6.6 7.2 5.9
Vrancea County 8.3 7.9 8.5

Largest urban agglomerationsEdit

1. Bucharest 2. Iași 3. Cluj-Napoca 4. Timișoara 5. Constanța 6. Craiova 7. Brașov 8. Galați

Demographics statisticsEdit

 
Live births and deaths between 1930 and 2006

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[34]

  • One birth every 3 minutes
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • Net loss of one person every 5 minutes
  • One net migrant every 19 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[35]

PopulationEdit

21,457,116 (July 2018 est.)

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid of Romania in 2017
0-14 years: 14.31% (male 1,576,621 /female 1,493,082)
15-24 years: 10.45% (male 1,151,312 /female 1,091,956)
25-54 years: 46.11% (male 5,010,272 /female 4,883,090)
55-64 years: 12.37% (male 1,244,669 /female 1,409,854)
65 years and over: 16.76% (male 1,454,320 /female 2,141,940) (2018 est.)

The following demographic statistics are from National Institute of Statistic on 1 July 2016.

  • 0-14 years: 14.7% (male 1,678,542/female 1,586,709)
  • 15–64 years: 69.5% (male 7,744,863/female 7,687,078)
  • 65 years and over: 15.8% (male 1,420,144/female 2,097,659) (2016 est.)

As a consequence of the pro-natalist policies of the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime (see Decree 770), Romania has a higher proportion of people born in the late 1960s and 1970s its population than any other Western country except Slovenia. The generations born in 1967 and 1968 were the largest, although fertility remained relatively high until 1990. 8.55% of the Romanian population was born in the period from 1976 to 1980, compared with 6.82% of Americans and 6.33% of Britons.[36]

Median ageEdit

total: 41.6 years. Country comparison to the world: 38th
male: 40.2 years
female: 43 years (2018 est.)

Birth rateEdit

8.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 211st

Death rateEdit

12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17th

Total fertility rateEdit

1.71 children born/woman (2017) Country comparison to the world: 154th

Net migration rateEdit

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 113rd
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)[37]

Mother's mean age at first birthEdit

26.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rateEdit

-0.35% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 219th
-0.127% (2007 estimate).[37]

Urban-rural ratioEdit

Romania is one of the least urbanised countries in Europe. Just a slight majority, 56.4 percent, lives in urban areas (12,546,212 people in total). The remainder, 43.6 percent, lives in rural areas (9,695,506 people in total).[38]

urban population: 54% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female
total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rateEdit

9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (May 2010);[39] down from 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births in 2002.[40]

Life expectancy at birthEdit

  • total population: 75.6 years (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 106th
    • male: 72.1 years (2018 est.)
    • female: 79.2 years (2018 est.)
  • Total population: 75 years
    • male: 71.4 years
    • female: 78.8 years (2015 est.)[41]

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)Edit

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24Edit

total: 20.6%. Country comparison to the world: 62nd
male: 19.9%
female: 21.8% (2016 est.)

NationalityEdit

The noun form is Romanian(s), and the adjectival form is Romanian.

ImmigrationEdit

Foreign-born population (according to Eurostat):[42]

2013 2015 2017
Population total 19,724,074 19,720,647 19,644,350
Total 182,939 281,048 421,801
  Moldova 59,670 114,654 161,846
   Italy 22,486 38,580 56,515
   Spain 18,827 29,937 42,165
  Ukraine 8,743 11,900 16,729
  United Kingdom 2,604 5,208 15,346
   Germany 3,759 6,552 15,121
   France 3,780 6,471 12,589
   Bulgaria 11,163 10,465 10,646
   Hungary 5,795 6,420 8,184
  Turkey 5,057 3 7,986
   Greece 4,085 4,653 6,494
  Russia 4,952 5,269 6,063
  China 2,978 3,722 5,068
  United States 2,360 2,876 4,428
  Syria 2,295 2,576 3,492
  Israel 1,665 1,837 2,936
   Belgium 54 1,102 2,650
  Iraq 1,136 1,419 2,338
  Serbia 1,529 5,783 2,296
   Austria 121 509 1,934
   Ireland 22 657 1,876
  Tunisia 1,034 1,062 1,627
  Iran 1,114 1,261 1,464
   Portugal 81 364 1,377
  Republic of the Congo 102 301 1,189
  Somalia 90 329 978
  Nigeria 103 298 932

ReligionEdit

 
Distribution of religions in Romania
 
Distribution of Orthodox in Romania

Religious affiliation tends to follow ethnic lines, with most ethnic Romanians identifying with the Romanian Orthodox Church. The Greek Catholic or Uniate church, reunified with the Orthodox Church by fiat in 1948, was restored after the 1989 revolution. The 2002 census indicates that 0.9% of the population is Greek Catholic, as opposed to about 10% prior to 1948. Roman Catholics, largely ethnic Hungarians and Germans, constitute 4.7% of the population; Calvinists, Baptists (see Baptist Union of Romania and Convention of the Hungarian Baptist Churches of Romania), Pentecostals, and Lutherans make up another 5%. There are smaller numbers of Unitarians, Muslims, and other religions.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Populaţia rezidentă la 1 ianuarie 2020" [The usually resident population on 1 January 2020] (PDF). insse.ro (in Romanian). Institutul Național de Statistică. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Life expectancy". World Health Organization.
  3. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  4. ^ "European health for all database (HFA-DB)". World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
  5. ^ See, for example, Fabio Bordignon, "Italian Decentralisation in Romania", SEF 2003, Warsaw. Abstract available online. Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "COMUNICAT DE PRESĂ : 2 februarie 2012 privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor" (PDF). Recensamantromania.ro. 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Populația României, creșterea alarmantă: Suntem la nivelul Germaniei. Anual cresc 17 orașe mici". Ziare.com (in Romanian). 10 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Evoluția populației României (milioane de locuitori)". Ziarul Financiar (in Romanian). 3 August 2015.
  9. ^ a b World Population Prospects. The 2010 Revision (PDF) (Report). Volume I: Comprehensive Tables. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York. 2011. p. 162.
  10. ^ Vasile Ghețău (2007). Declinul demografic și viitorul populației României. O perspectivă din anul 2007 asupra populației României în secolul 21 (PDF). Institutul Național de Cercetări Economice al Academiei Române (in Romanian). Editura Alpha MDN. ISBN 978-973-7871-88-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2016-08-04.
  11. ^ Dr. Gerhard Reichning, Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Teil 1, Bonn 1995, Page 17
  12. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Verlag, 1958 Page 46
  13. ^ Jenkins, Simon (2009-10-01). "A forgotten Saxon world shows how ancient and modern can co-exist". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-09-25.
  14. ^ "Estimated Number of Jews Killed in the Final Solution". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
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  17. ^ "Firmele caută angajaţi în Asia. Pe un şantier din Bucureşti, lucrează zeci de vietnamezi".
  18. ^ "Nepalezii, soluția de criză a angajatorilor din România. Cei mai mulți lucrează în industria alimentară".
  19. ^ "Romanian 2011 census" (PDF) (in Romanian). www.edrc.ro. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
  20. ^ "Europe :: Romania — the World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  21. ^ (in Romanian) "Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populației și Locuințelor – 2011", at the 2011 census site; accessed February 2, 2012.
  22. ^ Populația pe Neamuri (in Romanian). Institutul Central de Statistică. pp. XXIV. Retrieved 2008-07-20.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ a b c d Varga E. Árpád. "Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995. Supplementary Tables". Kia.hu. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  24. ^ "Population data" (PDF). www.insse.ro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-09. Retrieved 2014-07-15.
  25. ^ "Microsoft Word - REZULTATE DEFINITIVE RPL2011.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 2019-02-09, retrieved 2019-02-07
  27. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  28. ^ "Bun venit la Institutul National de Statistica - Institutul National de Statistica". Insse.ro. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  29. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". ec.europa.eu.
  30. ^ "Vital statistics". National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  31. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  32. ^ "Demographic evenements in 2016" (PDF). Insse.ro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Romania Population 2019", World Population Review
  35. ^ "World Factbook EUROPE : Romania", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  36. ^ "Countries Compared by People > Total population > Age 25-29 > % of the total. International Statistics". NationMaster.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  37. ^ a b "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
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  39. ^ Populatia Romaniei, in continua scadere, July 12, 2010, Wall-street.ro, Accessed online on August 2, 2012
  40. ^ "UNDP Romania" (PDF). Undp.ro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  41. ^ "GHO - By category - Life expectancy and Healthy life expecancy - Data by country". apps.who.int.
  42. ^ "Population on 1 January by age group, sex and country of birth". Eurostat.

External linksEdit