Sibiu County

Sibiu County (Romanian pronunciation: [siˈbiw]) is a county (Romanian: județ) of Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania. Its county seat (Romanian: reședință de județ) is the namesake town of Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt).

Sibiu County
Județul Sibiu
Coat of arms of Sibiu County
Administrative map of Romania with Sibiu county highlighted
Coordinates: 45°52′N 24°14′E / 45.87°N 24.23°E / 45.87; 24.23Coordinates: 45°52′N 24°14′E / 45.87°N 24.23°E / 45.87; 24.23
CountryRomania
Development regionCentru
Historical regionTransylvania
CapitalSibiu
Area
 • Total5,432 km2 (2,097 sq mi)
 • Rank24th
Population
 (2011)
 • Total397,322
 • Rank25th
 • Density73/km2 (190/sq mi)
Telephone code(+40) 269 or (+40) 369[1]
ISO 3166 codeRO-SB
GDP (nominal)US$ 3.876 billion (2015)
GDP per capitaUS$ 10,310 (2015)
WebsiteCounty Council
Prefecture
Sibiu County

NameEdit

In Hungarian, it is known as Szeben megye, and in German as Kreis Hermannstadt. Under the Kingdom of Hungary, a county with an identical name (Szeben County, Romanian: Comitatul Sibiu) was created in 1876.

DemographicsEdit

 
Romanian-German bilingual sign at the entrance in Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt)
 
Romanian-German bilingual sign at the entrance in Cisnădioara (German: Michelsberg
 
Romanian-German bilingual sign at the entrance in Cisnădie (German: Heltau

In 2011, Sibiu County had a population of 397,322 and the population density was 73.1/km2 (189.4/sq mi).

At the 2011 census the county has the following population indices:

Religion:

Urbanisation – 5th most urbanised county in Romania:

  • Urban dwellers: 277,574 (or 65.8%)
  • Rural dwellers: 144,150 (or 34.2%)

Traditionally, the biggest minority in the county were Germans, but their numbers have decreased since World War II and especially after the Romanian Revolution of 1989.

The south side of the county, closer to the mountains was mainly inhabited by Romanians (Mărginimea Sibiului), and the north side of the country – the Transylvanian Plateau was inhabited evenly by Germans and Romanians, but most Saxon villages are now deserted by their original ethnic German population. The Roma population, mainly from southern Romania, was placed close to the villages in the Communist period and have since increased their numbers, especially in the Hârtibaci valley.

Most of the population is concentrated in the Sibiu metro area which has over 240 thousand inhabitants, with settlements like Șelimbăr, Cisnădie (especially the Arhitecților neighbourhood), Șura Mare, Șura Mica, Cristian and Roșia having grown in population in the last 15 years, both from internal migration from the county and from other areas, mainly Vâlcea county. Tălmaciu and Avrig are other towns in the area.

Another population centre is the second largest city, Mediaș, with a population of over 40 thousands, which forms a relatively higher density area than the sorrounding northern part of the county, with nearby towns Copșa Mică and Dumbrăveni and also communes like Bazna or Târnava.

Year County population[3][1]
1948 335,116  
1956 372,687  
1966 414,756  
1977 481,645  
1992 452,820  
2002 421,724  
2004 423,535  
2007 424,855  
2011 397,322  
2022 388,325 (provisional)

GeographyEdit

This county has a total area of 5,432 km2 (2,097 sq mi).

In the South side there are the Carpathian Mountains (Southern Carpathians) – the Făgăraș Mountains with heights over 2,500 m (8,200 ft), the Lotru Mountains, and the Cindrel Mountains – which make up to 30% of the county's surface. The Olt River crosses the mountains over to the South of Romania in Sibiu County, forming one of the most accessible links between Transylvania and Wallachia. In the North side there is the Transylvanian Plateau.

The most important rivers crossing the county are the Olt in the South with the Cibin as its main effluent, and the Târnava in the North.

NeighboursEdit

EconomyEdit

Sibiu County has one of the most dynamic economies in Romania, and is one of the regions with the highest level of foreign investment.

The predominant industries in the county are:

The biggest natural resource in the county is natural gas, especially in the north side, having one of the largest sources in the country.

In Copșa Mică during the communist period there were two chemical industrial complexes which polluted the environment heavily with carbon black, heavy metals, and other chemical substances. The area is still considered one of the most polluted communities in Europe. After 1989 many of the industrial complexes were shut down and the area is slowly recovering.

PoliticsEdit

The regional legislature is the County Council. Its president was Martin Bottesch (FDGR/DFDR) from 2004 to 2012. The Sibiu County Council, renewed at the 2020 local elections, consists of 32 counsellors, with the following party composition:[4]

    Party Seats Current County Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 18                                    
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 5                                    
  Democratic Forum of Germans (FDGR/DFDR) 5                                    
  Save Romania Union (USR) 4                                    

TourismEdit

 
Collage depicting the main sights of Sibiu County
 
Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt, Hungarian: Nagyszeben)
 
Mediaș (German: Mediasch, Hungarian: Medgyes)

The main tourist attractions in the county are:

NativesEdit

Administrative divisionsEdit

 
Administrative map of the county.

Sibiu County has 2 municipalities, 9 towns, and 53 communes

Municipalities
  • Mediaș
  • Sibiu - capital city; population: 137,026 (as of 2011)
Towns
Communes

Historical countyEdit

Județul Sibiu
County (Județ)
 
Panoramic view of Sibiu in 1928.
 
 
Country  Romania
Historic regionTransylvania and Crişana
Capital city (Reședință de județ)Sibiu
Established1925
Area
 • Total3,531 km2 (1,363 sq mi)
Population
 (1930)
 • Total194,619
 • Density55/km2 (140/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)

Historically, the county was located in the central part of Greater Romania, in the southern part of the historical region of Transylvania. The capital was Sibiu.

The interwar county's territory included most of the southwestern portion of today's Sibiu County, excluding the area around Vizocna that belonged to former Hungarian subdivision of Alsó-Fehér County, and the communes of Agârbiciu, Buia, Frâua, Hașag, Șelca Mare, and Șelca Mică, which all belonged to Târnava Mare County. Sibiu County once contained the district around Sebeș, which passed in 1925 to Alba County.

It was bordered to the west by the counties of Hunedoara and Alba, to the north by the counties of Târnava-Mică and Târnava Mare, to the east by Făgăraș County, and to the south by the counties of Gorj and Vâlcea.

AdministrationEdit

 
Map of Sibiu County as constituted in 1938.

The county originally consisted of the city of Sibiu and four districts (plăși):[5]

  1. Plasa Mercurea, headquartered at Mercurea
  2. Plasa Ocna Sibiului, headquartered at Ocna Sibiului
  3. Plasa Săliște, headquartered at Săliște
  4. Plasa Sibiu, headquartered at Sibiu

A subsequent administrative division in 1937 had the county divided into the city of Sibiu and six districts:

  1. Plasa Avrig, headquartered at Avrig
  2. Plasa Mercurea, headquartered at Mercurea
  3. Plasa Nocrich, headquartered at Nocrich
  4. Plasa Ocna Sibiului, headquartered at Ocna Sibiului
  5. Plasa Săliște, headquartered at Săliște
  6. Plasa Sibiu, headquartered at Sibiu

PopulationEdit

According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 194,619, of which 62.0% were Romanians, 29.3% Germans, 4.7% Hungarians, as well as other minorities.[6] In the religious aspect, the population consisted of 52.0% Eastern Orthodox, 27.8% Lutheran, 12.7% Greek Catholic, 4.0% Roman Catholic, 2.2% Reformed (Calvinist), as well as other minorities.[7]

Urban populationEdit

In 1930, the urban population was ethnically divided as follows: 43.8% Germans, 37.7% Romanians, 13.2% Hungarians, 2.7% Jews, as well as other minorities. As a mother tongue in the urban population, German was spoken by 44.7% of the population, followed by Romanian (38.5%), Hungarian (13.7%), Yiddish (1.4%), as well as other minority languages. From the religious point of view, the urban population was made up of 38.8% Lutheran, 31.5% Eastern Orthodox, 12.9% Roman Catholic, 7.5% Greek Catholic, 5.2% Reformed, 2.9% Jewish, as well as other minorities.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The number used depends on the numbering system employed by the phone companies on the market.
  2. ^ National Institute of Statistics, "Populația după etnie" Archived 2009-08-16 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ National Institute of Statistics, "Populația la recensămintele din anii 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 și 2002"
  4. ^ "Rezultatele finale ale alegerilor locale din 2020" (Json) (in Romanian). Autoritatea Electorală Permanentă. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  5. ^ Portretul României Interbelice - Județul Sibiu
  6. ^ Recensământul general al populației României din 29 decemvrie 1930, Vol. II, pag. 410-413
  7. ^ Recensământul general al populației României din 29 decemvrie 1930, Vol. II, pag. 726-727

External linksEdit