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Mureș County (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈmureʃ], Romanian: Județul Mures, Hungarian: Maros megye) is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, with the administrative centre in Târgu Mureș. The county was established in 1968, after the administrative reorganization that re-introduced the historical judeţ (county) system, still used today. This reform eliminated the previous Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region, which had been created in 1952 within the People's Republic of Romania. Mureș county has a vibrant multicultural fabric that includes Hungarian-speaking Székelys and Transylvanian Saxons, with a rich heritage of fortified churches and towns.

Mureș County
Județul Mures
Maros megye
County
The Saschiz fortified church
Coat of arms of Mureș County
Coat of arms
Location of Mureș County
Coordinates: 46°35′N 24°37′E / 46.59°N 24.61°E / 46.59; 24.61Coordinates: 46°35′N 24°37′E / 46.59°N 24.61°E / 46.59; 24.61
Country  Romania
Development region1 Centru
Historic region Transylvania
County seat Târgu Mureș
Government
 • Type County Board
 • President of the County Board Ferenc Péter
 • Prefect2 Mircea Dușa
Area
 • Total 6,714 km2 (2,592 sq mi)
Area rank 11th in Romania
Population (2011)
 • Total 550,846 [1]
 • Rank 12th in Romania
 • Density 82/km2 (210/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal Code 54wxyz3
Area code(s) +40 x2654
Car plates MS5
Website County Board
County Prefecture
1The developing regions of Romania have no administrative role.
2 as of 2007, the Prefect is not a politician, but a public functionary. He (or she) is not allowed to be a member of a political party, and is banned to have any political activity in the first six months after the resignation (or exclusion) from the public functionary corps
3w, x, y, and z are digits that indicate the city, the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address
4x is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks
5used on both the plates of the vehicles that operate only in the county limits (like utility vehicles, ATVs, etc.), and the ones used outside the county

Contents

NameEdit

In Hungarian, it is known as Maros megye ([ˈmɒroʃ ˈmɛɟɛ]), and in German as Kreis Mieresch. Under Kingdom of Hungary, a county with an similar name (Maros-Torda County, Romanian: Comitatul Mureş-Turda) was created in 1876. There was a county with the same name under the Kingdom of Romania, and a Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region (1960–1968) under the Socialist Republic of Romania.

GeographyEdit

The county has a total area of 6,714 km².

The northeastern side of the county consists of the Călimani and Gurghiu Mountains and the sub-Carpathian hills, members of the Inner Eastern Carpathians. The rest of the county is part of the Transylvanian Plateau, with deep but wide valleys.

The main river crossing in the county is the Mureș River. The Târnava Mare River and the Târnava Mică River also cross the county.

NeighboursEdit

DemographicsEdit

 
The ethnic map of Mures county in 2002
 
The ethnic map of Mures county in 2011

In 2011, Mureș had a population of 550,846 and the population density was 82/km².[1][2]

Ethnic structure (2002)
Total Romanians Hungarians Roma Germans Other
580,851 309,375 228,275 40,425 2,045 731
100% 53.26% 39.30% 6.96% 0.35% 0.12%
Ethnic structure (2011)
Total Romanians Hungarians Roma Germans Other
550,846 277,372 200,858 46,947 1,478 792
100% 52.60% 38.09% 8.90% 0.28% 0.13%

In terms of religion:

 
 

TourismEdit

Some of the main tourist attractions in the county are:

EconomyEdit

The predominant industries in the county are:

  • Wood industry.
  • Food industry.
  • Textile industry.
  • Glass and ceramics industry.
  • Construction materials.
  • Musical instruments (Reghin).

Mureș County and Sibiu County together produce about 50% of the natural gas developed in Romania. Salt is also extracted in the county.

PoliticsEdit

The Mureș County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 35 counselors, with the following party composition:[3]

    Party Seats Current Council
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians 15                              
  National Liberal Party 10                              
  Social Democratic Party 10                              

Administrative divisionsEdit

Historical countyEdit

Județul Mureș
County (Județ)
 
The Mureș County Prefecture building of the interwar period.
 
Coat of arms
 
Country   Romania
Historic region Transylvania
Capital city (Reședință de județ) Târgu Mureș
Established 1925
Area
 • Total 4,856 km2 (1,875 sq mi)
Population (1930)
 • Total 289,456
 • Density 60/km2 (150/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)

Historically, Mureş-Turda County was located in the central-northern part of Greater Romania, in the central part of Transylvania. The capital was Târgu Mureș. After the administrative unification law in 1925, it was renamed to Mureş County, and the territory was reorganized. It was bordered on the south by Târnava-Mică County, on the southwest by Turda County, on the west by Cluj County, on the north by Năsăud County, on the northeast with the counties of Câmpulung and Neamț, and on the southeast with the counties of Ciuc and Odorhei. Most of the territory of the historical county is found in the present Mureş County, except for the northeastern area, which is located in Harghita County, and the northwestern area in Bistrița-Năsăud County today.


HistoryEdit

Prior to World War I, the territory of the county belonged to Austria-Hungary and identical with the Maros-Torda County of the Kingdom of Hungary. The territory of Mureș County was transferred to Romania from Hungary as successor state to Austria-Hungary in 1920 under the Treaty of Trianon.

In 1938, King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, and subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed. 10 ținuturi (approximate translation: "lands") were created (by merging the counties) to be ruled by rezidenți regali (approximate translation: "Royal Residents") - appointed directly by the King - instead of the prefects. Mureș County became part of Ținutul Mureș.

In 1940, the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award. Beginning in 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated it into Romania, re-establishing the county. Romanian jurisdiction over the entire county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947. The county was disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950, and re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system.

AdministrationEdit

 
Map of Mureș County as constituted in 1938.

The county originally consisted of seven districts (plăṣi):[4]

  1. Plasa Band, headquartered at Band
  2. Plasa Miercurea Nirajului, headquartered at Miercurea Nirajului
  3. Plasa Râciu, headquartered at Râciu
  4. Plasa Reghin, headquartered at Reghin
  5. Plasa Târgu Mureș (also called Plasa Mureș), headquartered at Târgu Mureș
  6. Plasa Teaca, headquartered at Teaca
  7. Plasa Toplița, headquartered at Toplița

A subsequent administrative adjustment added one district, divided Plasa Mureș into two, and divided Plasa Reghin into two, leaving ten districts:

  1. Plasa Band, headquartered at Band
  2. Plasa Gurhiu, headquartered at Gurghiu
  3. Plasa Miercurea Nirajului, headquartered at Miercurea Nirajului
  4. Plasa Mureș de Jos, headquartered at Mureșeni
  5. Plasa Mureș de Sus, headquartered at Târgu Mureș
  6. Plasa Râciu, headquartered at Râciu
  7. Plasa Reghin de Jos, headquartered at Reghin
  8. Plasa Reghin de Sus, headquartered at Suseni
  9. Plasa Teaca, headquartered at Teaca
  10. Plasa Toplița, headquartered at Toplița

The county had two urban localities: Târgu Mureş (a city) and Reghin (urban commune).

PopulationEdit

According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 289,546, of which 45.8% were Romanians, 42.6% Hungarians, 3.9% Germans, 3.9% Romanies, 3.4 % Jews, as well as other minorities. By mother tongue, the county population consisted of 45.9% Hungarian speakers, 45.5% Romanian speakers, 3.9% German speakers, 2.2% Yiddish speakers, and 2.1% Romany speakers.[5] In the religious aspect, the population consisted of 32.4% Greek Catholic, 30.3% Reformed, 14.5% Eastern Orthodox, 12.1% Roman Catholic, 3.9% Lutheran, 3.6% Jewish, 2.6% Unitarian, as well as other minorities.[6]

Urban populationEdit

In 1930, the urban population of the county was 47,807, of which 54.3% were Hungarians, 24.3% Romanians, 13.4% Jews, 6.0% Germans, 1.1% Romanies, as well as other minorities. As a mother tongue in the urban population, Hungarian was spoken by 61.2% of the population, followed by Romanian, spoken by 23.6% of the population as mother tongue, Yiddish (7.4%) and German (6.2%). From the religious point of view, the urban population was made up of 32.6% Reformed, 20.1% Roman Catholic, 14.2% Greek Catholic, 14.2% Jewish, 10% Eastern Orthodox, 5.9% Lutheran, 2.3% Unitarian, as well as other minorities.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  2. ^ National Institute of Statistics, "Populaţia după etnie" Archived 2009-08-16 at the Wayback Machine. ("Population by ethnicity")
  3. ^ "Mandate de CJ pe judete si competitori" (in Romanian). Biroul Electoral Central. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  4. ^ Portretul României Interbelice - Județul Mureș
  5. ^ Recensământul general al populației României din 29 decemvrie 1930, Vol. II, pag. 290-297
  6. ^ a b Recensământul general al populației României din 29 decemvrie 1930, Vol. II, pag. 666-669

External linksEdit