Historical regions of Romania
The historical regions of Romania are located in Central, Southeastern, and Eastern Europe. Romania came into being through the unification of two principalities, Wallachia and Moldavia in 1862. The new unitary state extended over further regions at various times during the late 19th and 20th centuries, including Dobruja in 1878, and Transylvania in 1918.
These regions are part of Romania today:
- Muntenia (Greater Wallachia): part of Wallachia (which united with Moldavia in 1859 to create modern Romania);
- Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia): the territory between the rivers Danube and Olt and the Southern Carpathian became part of the Principality of Wallachia in the early 14th century.
- Western Moldavia: part of Moldavia (which united with Wallachia in 1859 to create modern Romania);
- Bukovina: in Romania between 1918 and World War II, today divided between Romania and Ukraine;
- Northern Dobruja: in Romania since 1878 (excepting some Danubian islands and the Snake Island which were incorporated in the USSR in 1948, and became part of Ukraine since 1991);
Transylvania (the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also part of the historical regions of Crișana, Maramureș, and Banat. The new borders were set by the Treaty of Trianon in 1920 between the respective states):
- Transylvania proper: following the declaration of the union with Romania in 1918, Transylvania is divided into several ethnographic regions;
- Banat: since 1918 divided between Romania, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (today Serbia) and Hungary;
- Crișana: the region bordered by the rivers Mureș and Someș and the Apuseni Mountains following the declaration of the union in 1918.
- Maramureș: the mountainous northwestern region following the declaration of the union in 1918.
Between 1918-1920, during the Revolutions and interventions in Hungary the Hungarian–Romanian War effected also part of these territories until the final resolution of state affairs by the Paris Peace Conference.
These regions were part of Romania in the past:
- Bessarabia: This territory was part (as the eastern half) of Moldavia until 1812 (when it was incorporated into the Russian Empire). The entire region became part of Romania from 1918 to 1940 when it got occupied by the Soviets. Romania managed to annex it again, but lost it after World War II.
- Southern Bessarabia (including a part of Budjak): In 1856, the southern part of Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which united with Wallachia in 1859 to create modern Romania. In 1878, Romania was pressured into exchanging this territory for the Dobruja, and the Russian rule was restored over it.
- Northern Bukovina: The region was part of Romania from 1918 to 1940 when it got occupied by the Soviets. Romania managed to annex it again, but lost it after World War II.
- Hertza region: A territory of Moldavia, it was part of Romania from 1859 to 1940, when it was occupied by the Soviets. Romania managed to annex it again, but lost it after the World War II.
- Southern Dobruja: Was annexed from Bulgaria in 1913, after the Second Balkan War. It became Bulgarian again after 1940.
- History of Romania
- Foundation of Wallachia
- Founding of Moldavia
- History of Maramureș
- Treaty of Bucharest (1916)
- Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
- Development regions of Romania
- Counties of Romania
- Movement for the unification of Romania and Moldova
- Romanians in Bulgaria
- Romanians in Hungary
- Romanians of Serbia
- Romanians in Ukraine
- Treptow & Popa 1996, p. 1, Map 2.
- Treptow & Popa 1996, p. 13.
- Treptow & Popa 1996, pp. 14-15.
- Treptow & Popa 1996, p. 151.
- Treptow & Popa 1996, pp. 80-81.
- Treptow & Popa 1996, pp. 125-126.
- "Bessarabia - region, Eastern Europe".
- "The Soviet Occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina".
- "Ţinutul Herţa. Povestea colţului uitat de Românie furat de sovietici - PSIHOLOGIE - ISTORIE - TEATRU". www.hetel.ro.
- "1940: Treaty of Craiova and the return of Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria".
- "ROMÂNIA ȘI GUVERNĂMÎNTUL TRANSNISTRIEI (1941-1944)". 30 November 2015.