Maramureș County (Romanian pronunciation: [maraˈmureʃ] ) is a county (județ) in Romania, in the Maramureș region. The county seat is Baia Mare.

Maramureș County
Județul Maramureș
Flag of Maramureș County
Coat of arms of Maramureș County
Administrative map of Romania with Maramureș county highlighted
Development regionNord-Vest
Historical regionMaramureș
CapitalBaia Mare
 • Total6,304 km2 (2,434 sq mi)
 • Rank15th
 • Total452,475
 • Rank17th
 • Density72/km2 (190/sq mi)
Telephone code(+40) 262 or (+40) 362[2]
ISO 3166 codeRO-MM
GDP (nominal)US$ 3.018 billion (2015)
GDP per capitaUS$ 5,844 (2015)
WebsiteCounty Council
Văleni, overlooking Valea Izei
The historical city centre of Baia Mare (German: Frauenbach), the largest municipality and the county seat.

Name edit

In Hungarian it is known as Máramaros megye, in Ukrainian as Мараморо́щина, in German as Kreis Marmarosch, and in Yiddish as מארמאראש.

Geography edit

Maramureș County is situated in the northern part of Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, and has a border with Ukraine. This county has a total area of 6,304 square kilometres (2,434 sq mi), of which 43% is covered by the Rodna Mountains, with its tallest peak, Pietrosul [ro], at 2,303 metres (7,556 ft) altitude.

Together with the Gutâi and Țibleș mountain ranges, the Rodna mountains are part of the Eastern Carpathians. The rest of the county are hills, plateaus, and valleys. The county is crossed by Tisa River and its main tributaries: the Iza, Vișeu, and Mara rivers.

Neighbours edit

The neighbouring territorial units, both Romanian and foreign, to Maramureș County are listed below:

Administrative divisions edit

Sighetu Marmației
Târgu Lăpuș
Vișeu de Sus

Maramureș County has 2 municipalities, 11 towns and 63 communes.

Economy edit

Maramureș is known for its pastoral and agricultural traditions, largely unscathed by the industrialisation campaign carried out during Romania's communist period. Ploughing, planting, harvesting, and hay making and handling are mostly done through manual labour. The county is also home to a strong mining industry of extraction of metals other than iron. The industrial plants built around Baia Mare during the communist period heavily polluted the area in the past, but recently, due to the decline of the city's industrial activity, the area has become less polluted.

Tourism edit

Typical Wooden Church in Maramureș

The region is known for its beautiful rural scenery, local small woodwork and craftwork industry as well as for its churches and original rural architecture. There are not many paved roads in the rural areas, but most of them are usually accessible.

The county's main tourist attractions are:

Demographics edit

Ethnic composition of Maramureș County (2021)

  Romanians (84.65%)
  Ukrainians (including Hutsuls and other Rusyns) (6.36%)
  Hungarians (5.73%)
  Romani (2.94%)
  Others (0.19%)

According to the 2021 census, the county had a population of 452,475 and the population density was 71.8/km2 (185.9/sq mi).[3]

Year County population[4]
1948 321,287  
1956 367,114  
1966 427,645  
1977 492,860  
1992 538,534  
2002 510,110  
2011 461,290  
2021 452,475  

Politics edit

The Maramureș County Council, elected at the 2020 local elections, consists of 34 councillors, with the following party composition:[5]

    Party Seats Current County Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 13                          
  Coalition for Maramureș (PSD) 10                          
  People's Movement Party (PMP) 5                          
  PRO Romania (PRO) 3                          
  Save Romania Union (USR) 3                          

Historical county edit

Județul Maramureș
County (Județ)
The Maramureș County Prefect's building from the interwar period.
Country  Romania
Historic regionMaramureș
Capital city (Reședință de județ)Sighet
 • Total3,381 km2 (1,305 sq mi)
 • Total194,619
 • Density58/km2 (150/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)

History edit

  • In 1199, the region is first attested.
  • In 1241 the Tatar invasion decimated about half of the local population.
  • In the 14th century, Duke (knyaz) Bogdan of Maramureș crossed the Carpathians and founded the Principality of Moldavia. In 1343, the Voivodeship of Maramureș, led by a Romanian nobility, is established, and it lasts until 1402.
  • In the Middle Ages, the historical region of Máramaros (Maramureș) was known for its salt mines and later for its lumber.

In 1920, under the Treaty of Trianon, the northern part of the county became part of newly-formed Czechoslovakia, while the southern part (including Sighetu Marmației) became part of the Kingdom of Romania.

After the administrative unification law in 1925, the county remained as it was, with an identical name and territory.

In 1938, King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, and subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed. Ten ținuturi (approximate translation: "lands") were created (by merging the counties) to be ruled by rezidenți regali (approximate translation: "Royal Residents") – appointed directly by the king – instead of the prefects. Maramureș County became part of Ținutul Crișuri.

In August 1940, under the auspices of Nazi Germany, which imposed the Second Vienna Award, the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania. In October 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated it into Romania, re-establishing the county. Romanian jurisdiction over the county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947. The counties of Romania, including Maramureș, were disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950 in favour of regions, and re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system.

Administration edit

Map of Maramureș County as constituted in 1938.

In 1930, the county was originally divided into three districts (plăși):[6]

  1. Plasa Iza
  2. Plasa Sighet (headquartered at Sighet)
  3. Plasa Vișeu (headquartered at Vișeu de Sus)

Subsequently, the Iza and Sighet districts were reorganized into three districts, adding one:

  1. Plasa Șugatag (headquartered at Ocna Șugatag)

Population edit

According to the 1930 census, the county's population was 194,619, 57.9% Romanian, 20.9% Jews, 11.9% Ruthenians (including Ukrainians), 6.9% Hungarians, 2.0% Germans, as well as other minorities.[7] The following composition was recorded from the religious point of view: 64.4% Greek Catholic, 21.0% Jewish, 6.4% Roman Catholic, 5.3% Eastern Orthodox, 1.8% Reformed, as well as other minorities.[7]

Urban population edit

In 1930 the county's urban population ethnically consisted of 38.6% Jews, 35.4% Romanians, 19.9% Hungarians, 4.5% Ruthenians (including Ukrainians), as well as other minorities. Yiddish was spoken by 36.6% of the urban population, followed by Romanian (33.7%), Hungarian (25.7%), Ukrainian (2.3%), as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban inhabitants were Jewish (38.9%), Greek Catholics (38.0%), Roman Catholics (12.8%), Reformed (5.7%), Eastern Orthodox (3.5%), as well as other minorities.[7]

People edit

Natives of the county include:

References edit

  1. ^ "Populaţia rezidentă după grupa de vârstă, pe județe și municipii, orașe, comune, la 1 decembrie 2021" (XLS). National Institute of Statistics.
  2. ^ The number used depends on the numbering system employed by the phone companies on the market.
  3. ^ "Rezultate definitive: Caracteristici etno-culturale demografice". Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  4. ^ National Institute of Statistics, "Populația la recensămintele din anii 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 și 2002" Archived 2006-09-22 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Rezultatele finale ale alegerilor locale din 2020" (Json) (in Romanian). Autoritatea Electorală Permanentă. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  6. ^ Portretul României Interbelice - Județul Maramureș
  7. ^ a b c Recensământul general al populației României din 29 decemvrie 1930, Vol. II, pag. 276-277

External links edit

47°40′22″N 24°00′18″E / 47.67278°N 24.00500°E / 47.67278; 24.00500