|• Total||6,304 km2 (2,434 sq mi)|
|• Density||82/km2 (210/sq mi)|
|Telephone code||(+40) 262 or (+40) 362|
|ISO 3166 code||RO-MM|
Maramureș County as an administrative division within Romania was formed following the union of Transylvania with Romania. During World War II, it was ceded to Hungary, and after the war returned to Romania (see History of Maramureș).
- The 10th century frontier county of Borsova was founded by Stephen I of Hungary. Since then Máramaros served as the north-eastern border of the Hungarian Kingdom until 1920, the Trianon Peace Treaty.
- 11th century historical Maramureș counties separation from Borsova (Rom. Borșa)
- 1241 Tartar invasion decimated about half of the local population
- 14th century Duke (knyaz) Bogdan of Maramureș said to be founder of Moldova
- In the Middle Ages, the historical region of Maramureș was known for its salt mines and later for its lumber
- In 1920 after the Treaty of Trianon, the northern part of the county became part of newly formed Czechoslovakia. The southern part (including Sighetu Marmației) became part of Romania.
- For more information regarding the history see Máramaros, referring the historical Hungarian name of the county.
In 2011, the county had a population of 461,290 and a population density of 73.17 inhabitants per square kilometre (189.5/sq mi).
- Romanians - 82.38% (or 380,018)
- Hungarians - 7.53% (or 34,781)
- Ukrainians (including Hutsuls and other Rusyns) - 6.77% (or 31,234)
- Romani - 2.73% (or 12,638)
- Germans (Zipser Germans) - 0.27% (or 1,243), and others.
In 1910, 18.4% of the county were Jewish.
Maramureș County is situated in the northern part of Romania, and has a border with Ukraine. This county has a total area of 6,304 square kilometres (2,434 sq mi), of which 43% is covered by the Rodna Mountains, with its tallest peak, Pietrosul, at 2,303 metres (7,556 ft) altitude. Together with Gutâi and Țibleș mountain ranges, the Rodna mountains are part of the Eastern Carpathians. The rest of the county are hills, plateaus, and valleys. The county is crossed by Tisa River and its main tributaries: Iza, Vișeu, and Mara rivers.
Maramureș is known for its pastoral and agricultural traditions, largely unscathed by the industrialisation campaign that had been carried on during Romania's communist period. Ploughing, planting, harvesting, and hay making and handling are mostly done through manual labour. The county is also home to a strong mining industry of extraction of metals other than iron. The industrial plants built around Baia Mare during the communist period heavily polluted the area in the past, but recently, due to the decline of the city's industrial activity, the area is less polluted.
The region is known for its beautiful rural scenery, local small woodwork and craftwork industry as well as for its churches and original rural architecture. There are not many paved roads in rural areas, and most of them are usually accessible.
The county's main tourist attractions:
|Party||Seats||Current County Council|
|Social Democratic Party||14|
|National Liberal Party||9|
|Coalition for Baia Mare
(FDGR, PNȚCD, UNPR, PSRO)
|People's Movement Party||3|
|Democratic Alliance of Hungarians||2|
Maramureș County has 2 municipalities, 11 towns and 63 communes.
- Asuaju de Sus
- Băița de sub Codru
- Bocicoiu Mare
- Bogdan Vodă
- Boiu Mare
- Câmpulung la Tisa
- Groșii Țibleșului
- Mireșu Mare
- Oarța de Jos
- Ocna Șugatag
- Poienile de sub Munte
- Poienile Izei
- Remetea Chioarului
- Rona de Jos
- Rona de Sus
- Suciu de Sus
- Vadu Izei
- Valea Chioarului
- Vima Mică
- Vișeu de Jos
The Maramureş County Prefect's building from the interwar period.
|Capital city (Reședință de județ)||Sighet|
|• Total||3,381 km2 (1,305 sq mi)|
|• Density||58/km2 (150/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Prior to World War I, the territory of the county belonged to Austria-Hungary and mostly was contained in the Máramaros County of Hungary. The territory of Maramureș County was transferred to Romania from Hungary as successor state to Austria-Hungary in 1920 under the Treaty of Trianon. It was organized by Romanian officials as a county in 1925.
In 1938, King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, and subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed. 10 ținuturi (approximate translation: "lands") were created (by merging the counties) to be ruled by rezidenți regali (approximate translation: "Royal Residents") - appointed directly by the King - instead of the prefects. Maramureș County became part of Ținutul Crișuri.
In 1940, the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award. Beginning in 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated it into Romania, re-establishing the county. Romanian jurisdiction over the county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947. The county was disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950, and re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system.
Subsequently the Iza and Sighet districts were reorganized into three districts, adding one:
- Plasa Şugatag (headquarted at Ocna Şugatag)
According to the 1930 census, the county's population was 194,619, 57.9% Romanian, 20.9% Jews, 11.9% Ruthenians (including Ukrainians), 6.9% Hungarians, 2.0% Germans, as well as other minorities. The following composition was recorded from the religious point of view: 64.4% Greek Catholic, 21.0% Jewish, 6.4% Roman Catholic, 5.3% Eastern Orthodox, 1.8% Reformed, as well as other minorities.
In 1930, the county's urban population ethnically consisted of 38.6% Jews, 35.4% Romanians, 19.9% Hungarians, 4.5% Ruthenians (including Ukrainians), as well as other minorities. Yiddish was spoken by 36.6% of the urban population, followed by Romanian (33.7%), Hungarian (25.7%), Ukrainian (2.3%), as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban inhabitants were Jewish (38.9%), Greek Catholics (38.0%), Roman Catholics (12.8%), Reformed (5.7%), Eastern Orthodox (3.5%), as well as other minorities.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Maramureș.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maramureș County.|
- INSSE Statistic Archived 2010-08-07 at the Wayback Machine.
- The number used depends on the numbering system employed by the phone companies on the market.
- National Institute of Statistics, "Populația după etnie" Archived 2009-08-16 at the Wayback Machine.
- National Institute of Statistics, "Populația la recensămintele din anii 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 și 2002" Archived 2006-09-22 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Mandate de CJ pe judete si competitori" (in Romanian). Biroul Electoral Central. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- Portretul României Interbelice - Județul Maramureș
- Recensământul general al populației României din 29 decemvrie 1930, Vol. II, pag. 276-277