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The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000 (according to some sources and estimates dating to 1939),[2][3] a figure which had subsequently fallen to circa 36,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania.

Germans in Romania
Rumäniendeutsche
Germanii din Romania (2002).png
Distribution of Germans in Romania (2002 census)
Total population
(36,042[1])
Regions with significant populations
Transylvania, Banat, and Bukovina
Languages

Mainly German (Standard German) but also Romanian and Hungarian

Religion
Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups

Mainly Germans and Austrians; see also below

Contents

ClassificationEdit

The Germans of Romania are not a single, homogenous group. That is because of the fact that they came in different waves of settlement as early as the High Middle Ages, firstly to southern and northeastern Transylvania (some of them even crossing the outer Carpathians to neighbouring Moldavia and Wallachia), and subsequently during the Modern Age in other Habsburg-ruled lands (such as Bukovina, at the time part of Cisleithania, or Banat), as well as in other areas of present-day Romania (such as Dobruja).

Thus, given their rather complex geographic background, in order to understand their language, culture, customs, and history, one must regard them as the following independent groups:

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in RomaniaEdit

Members of the German House of Hohenzollern (Romanian branch, more specifically) who ruled over the Principality of Romania/Kingdom of Romania for a period:

  Denotes Regent
King Reign Claim
Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Reign start Reign end Duration
1   Carol I
(1839–1914)
15 March 1881 10 October 1914 33 years, 209 days Previously ruled as Domnitor (Prince) between 1866-1881
2   Ferdinand I
(1865–1927)
10 October 1914 20 July 1927 12 years, 283 days Nephew of Carol I
3   Michael I
(1921– )
20 July 1927 8 June 1930
(Deposed)
2 years, 323 days Grandson of Ferdinand I
  Prince Nicholas
(1903–1978)
20 July 1927 8 June 1930
(Deposed)
2 years, 323 days Son of Ferdinand I
4   Carol II
(1893–1953)
8 June 1930 6 September 1940
(Abdicated)
10 years, 90 days Son of Ferdinand I
(3)   Michael I
(1921– )
6 September 1940 30 December 1947
(Abdicated)
7 years, 115 days Son of Carol II

Pretenders to the throne of Romania (after 1947, when King Michael I was forced to abdicate):

Portrait Pretender Pretending from Pretending until
1   Michael I 30 December 1947 1 March 2016
2   Margareta 1 March 2016 Incumbent

DemographicsEdit

Year Pop. ±%
1887 50,000 —    
1930 745,421 +1390.8%
1939 786,000 +5.4%
1948 343,913 −56.2%
1956 384,708 +11.9%
1966 382,595 −0.5%
1977 359,109 −6.1%
1992 119,462 −66.7%
2002 59,764 −50.0%
2011 36,042 −39.7%
Starting with the 1930 figures, the reference is to all German-speaking groups in Romania.

German minority population by settlementEdit

The data displayed in the table below highlights notable settlements (of at least 1%) of the German minority in Romania according to the 2011 Romanian census. Note that some particular figures might be estimative.

Romanian name German name Percent (%) of total population County
Brebu Nou Weidenthal 30.2 Caraș-Severin
Petrești Petrifeld 27.8 Satu Mare
Urziceni Schinal 23.9 Satu Mare
Cămin Kalmandi 22.5 Satu Mare
Beltiug Bildegg 11.4 Satu Mare
Tiream Terem 10.9 Satu Mare
Laslea Grosslasseln 7.5 Sibiu
Anina Steierdorf 5.6 Caraș-Severin
Ațel Hatzeldorf 5.3 Sibiu
Cârlibaba Mariensee 5.1 Suceava
Saschiz Keisd 5 Mureș
Biertan Birthälm 4.6 Sibiu
Ardud Erdeed 4.5 Satu Mare
Vișeu de Sus Oberwischau 4 Maramureș
Deta Detta 4 Timiș
Tomnatic Triebswetter 3.9 Timiș
Semlac Semlak 3.6 Arad
Peregu Mare Deutschpereg 3.5 Arad
Sântana Sanktanna 2.9 Arad
Jimbolia Hatzfeld 2.9 Timiș
Jibert Seiburg 2.8 Brașov
Măieruş Nussbach 2.6 Brașov
Căpleni Kaplau 2.4 Satu Mare
Lovrin Lowrin 2.3 Timiș
Carei Grosskarol 2.3 Satu Mare
Parța Paratz 2.1 Timiș
Buziaș Busiasch 2.1 Timiș
Periam Perjamosch 2.1 Timiș
Sânnicolau Mare Grosssanktnikolaus 2.1 Timiș
Pâncota Pankota 2.1 Arad
Cristian Neustadt 1.9 Brașov
Lenauheim Schadat 1.9 Timiș
Lugoj Logosch 1.9 Timiș
Miercurea Sibiului Reussmarkt 1.8 Sibiu
Rupea Reps 1.7 Brașov
Sânpetru Petersberg 1.7 Brașov
Ungra Galt 1.7 Brașov
Reșița Reschitz 1.7 Caraș-Severin
Ciacova Tschakowa 1.6 Timiș
Cisnădie Heltau 1.5 Sibiu
Mediaș Mediasch 1.5 Sibiu
Moșna Meschen 1.5 Sibiu
Sighișoara Schässburg 1.5 Mureș
Oțelu Roșu Ferdinandsberg 1.4 Caraș-Severin
Timișoara Temeschburg 1.4 Timiș
Nițchidorf Nitzkydorf 1.4 Timiș
Hălchiu Heldsdorf 1.4 Sibiu
Merghindeal Mergeln 1.3 Sibiu
Beba Veche Altbeba 1.3 Timiș
Iacobeni Jakobsdorf 1.3 Sibiu
Lipova Lippa 1.3 Arad County
Homorod Hamruden 1.2 Brașov
Hărman Honigberg 1.2 Brașov
Matei Mathesdorf 1.2 Bistrița-Năsăud
Sebeș Mühlbach 1.1 Alba
Becicherecu Mic Kleinbetschkerek 1.1 Timiș
Caransebeș Karansebesch 1.1 Caraș-Severin
Bod Brenndorf 1.1 Brașov
Brateiu Pretai 1 Brașov
Bocșa Neuwerk 1 Caraș-Severin
Satu Mare Sathmar 1 Satu Mare
Sibiu Hermannstadt 1 Sibiu
Mănăstirea Humorului Humora Kloster 1 Suceava
Agnita Agnetheln 1 Sibiu
Hoghilag Halvelagen 1 Sibiu
Dumbrăveni Elisabethstadt 1 Sibiu
Șeica Mare Marktschelken 1 Sibiu
Codlea Zeiden 1 Brașov
Gătaia Gattaja 1 Timiș
Măureni Moritzfeld 1 Caraș-Severin

German minority population by countyEdit

Below is represented the notable German minority population (of at least 1%) for some counties, according to the 2011 census.

County Percent (%) of total population
Satu Mare 1.5
Timiș 1.3
Caraș-Severin 1.1
Sibiu 1.1

Administration, official representation, and politicsEdit

 
Lutsch house, the seat of the DFDR/FDGR in Sibiu (Hermannstadt)

The entire German-speaking community in contemporary Romania is represented at official level by the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (German: Demokratisches Forum der Deutschen in Rumänien). It has a centrist ideology and supports the rights of the German minority from Romania.

Since 1989, the DFDR/FDGR has competed in both local and legislative elections and has also been cooperating with two historical parties of the Romanian politics, namely the National Liberal Party and the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party, most notably at local administration level in cities such as Sibiu or Timișoara. The party also adheres to a pro-monarchic stance regarding the restoration of monarchy in Romania.

Until 1 January 2007 (i.e. the date of accession of Romania to the European Union), the DFDR/FDGR was also an observing member of the European Parliament, briefly affiliated with the European People's Party Group (between January and November of the same year).

EducationEdit

 
Samuel von Brukenthal National College in Sibiu (Hermannstadt)

In Bucharest there are two German schools, namely Deutsche Schule Bukarest and Deutsches Goethe-Kolleg Bukarest. The Deutsche Schule Bukarest serves Kinderkrippe, Kindergarten, Grundschule, and Gymnasium (high school).[12]

In Timișoara, the Nikolaus Lenau High School was founded during the late 19th century. It was named this way in reference to Nikolaus Lenau, a Banat Swabian Romantic poet. Nowadays, the Nikolaus Lenau High School is considered the most important of its kind from Banat.[13]

In Sibiu, the Samuel von Brukenthal National College is the oldest German-language school from Romania (recorded as early as the 14th century), being also classified as a historical monument. It was subsequently renamed this way in reference to baron Samuel von Brukenthal, a Transylvanian Saxon aristocrat.

Additionally, there are two Goethe Institut cultural associations in Romania: one based in Bucharest and another one in Iași.

MediaEdit

Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung für Rumänien (ADZ) is the daily German-language newspaper in Romania. It is currently the only German-language newspaper from Eastern Europe.[14] Regional German-language publications also include Banater Zeitung (for Banat) and Hermannstädter Zeitung (for Sibiu).

Notable German-RomaniansEdit

Below are represented several lists comprising selected notable German-Romanians by historical region.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Official Romanian census from 2011
  2. ^ Dr. Gerhard Reichning, Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Teil 1, Bonn 1995, Page 17
  3. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 Page 46
  4. ^ Monica Barcan, Adalbert Millitz, The German Nationality in Romania (1978), page 42: "The Satu Mare Swabians are true Swabians, their place of origin being Wurttemberg. They were colonized between 1712 and 1815. Their most important settlements are Satu Mare/Sathmar and Petresti/Petrifeld in North- West Romania."
  5. ^ Oskar Hadbawnik, Die Zipser in der Bukowina (1968) discusses the Zipserfest held in Jakobeny in 1936 to commemorate 150 years since the Zipsers migrated to Jakobeny in 1786.
  6. ^ І. Я. Яцюк, Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет ім. Володимира Гнатюка, Наукові записки. Серія “Філологічна”, УДК 81’282.4:811.112.2(477): Lexikalische Besonderheiten Deutscher Dialekte in Galizien- und der Bukowina: “Die Siedler in den ursprünglichen Bergwerksgemeinden im Südwesten der Bukowina sprachen Zipserisch und zwar Gründlerisch, wie es in der Unterzips gesprochen wurde. Dabei wurde [v] im Anlaut wie [b] ausgesprochen: Werke – berka, weh – be, Schwester – schbesta. Anlautendes [b] wurde zu [p]: Brot – prot, Brücke – prik.”
  7. ^ Identity and multiculturalism in the Romanian Banat, Remus Creţan, David Turnock and Jaco Woudstra, p. 17-26
  8. ^ Perjamosch, Banat/List of Families Connected to Hubert Family
  9. ^ Association pour la promotion de l'Alsace en Roumanie: L’étonnante histoire des alsaciens et lorrains du Banat. (in French)
  10. ^ The French in Banat: Story on Tomnatic/Triebswetter
  11. ^ De l'Ouest à l'Est et de l'Est à l'Ouest : les avatars identitaires des Français du Banat, Smaranda Vultur (in French)
  12. ^ "Entstehung." Deutsche Schule Bukarest. Retrieved on 20 February 2015.
  13. ^ (in German) Geschichte Temeswars Schulwesen
  14. ^ Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung für Rumänien, Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (in German)