Germans in Romania
Rumäniendeutsche
Germanii din Romania (2002).png
Distribution of Germans in Romania (2002 census)
Total population
(36,884[1])
Regions with significant populations
Transylvania, Banat, and Bukovina
Languages
mainly German (that is Standard German including the dialects of Swabian German, Sathmar Swabian, Zipser German, and Transylvanian Saxon)
also Romanian and Hungarian
Religion
Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Austrians, Luxembourgers, Walloons, other Germanic-speaking peoples, as well as other German-speaking minorities from Central and Southeastern Europe (including Carpathian Germans, Germans of Hungary, Germans of Poland, Germans of Croatia, or Germans of Serbia)

The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000 (according to some sources and estimates dating to 1939),[2][3] a figure which had subsequently fallen to circa 37,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania. They are not a single group; thus, in order to understand their language, culture, and history, one must regard them as the following independent groups:

See Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania for their official representation.

Contents

House of Hohenzollern in RomaniaEdit

Members of the German family of Hohenzollern who ruled over Romania for a period:

DemographicsEdit

Year Pop. ±%
1887 50,000 —    
1930 745,421 +1390.8%
1948 343,913 −53.9%
1956 384,708 +11.9%
1966 382,595 −0.5%
1977 359,109 −6.1%
1992 119,462 −66.7%
2002 59,764 −50.0%
2011 36,042 −39.7%
Starting with the 1930 figures, the reference is to all German-speaking groups in Romania.

German minority population by settlementEdit

The data displayed in the table below highlights notable settlements (of at least 1%) of the German minority in Romania according to the 2011 Romanian census. Note that some particular figures might be estimative.

Romanian name German name Percent (%) of total population County
Brebu Nou Weidenthal 30.2 Caraș-Severin
Petrești Petrifeld 27.8 Satu Mare
Urziceni Schinal 23.9 Satu Mare
Cămin Kalmandi 22.5 Satu Mare
Beltiug Bildegg 11.4 Satu Mare
Tiream Terem 10.9 Satu Mare
Laslea Grosslasseln 7.5 Sibiu
Anina Steierdorf 5.6 Caraș-Severin
Ațel Hatzeldorf 5.3 Sibiu
Cârlibaba Mariensee 5.1 Suceava
Saschiz Keisd 5 Mureș
Biertan Birthälm 4.6 Sibiu
Ardud Erdeed 4.5 Satu Mare
Vișeu de Sus Oberwischau 4 Maramureș
Deta Detta 4 Timiș
Tomnatic Triebswetter 3.9 Timiș
Semlac Semlak 3.6 Arad
Peregu Mare Deutschpereg 3.5 Arad
Sântana Sanktanna 2.9 Arad
Jimbolia Hatzfeld 2.9 Timiș
Jibert Seiburg 2.8 Brașov
Măieruş Nussbach 2.6 Brașov
Căpleni Kaplau 2.4 Satu Mare
Lovrin Lowrin 2.3 Timiș
Carei Grosskarol 2.3 Satu Mare
Parța Paratz 2.1 Timiș
Buziaș Busiasch 2.1 Timiș
Periam Perjamosch 2.1 Timiș
Sânnicolau Mare Grosssanktnikolaus 2.1 Timiș
Pâncota Pankota 2.1 Arad
Cristian Neustadt 1.9 Brașov
Lenauheim Schadat 1.9 Timiș
Lugoj Logosch 1.9 Timiș
Miercurea Sibiului Reussmarkt 1.8 Sibiu
Rupea Reps 1.7 Brașov
Sânpetru Petersberg 1.7 Brașov
Ungra Galt 1.7 Brașov
Reșița Reschitz 1.7 Caraș-Severin
Ciacova Tschakowa 1.6 Timiș
Cisnădie Heltau 1.5 Sibiu
Mediaș Mediasch 1.5 Sibiu
Moșna Meschen 1.5 Sibiu
Sighișoara Schässburg 1.5 Mureș
Oțelu Roșu Ferdinandsberg 1.4 Caraș-Severin
Timișoara Temeschburg 1.4 Timiș
Nițchidorf Nitzkydorf 1.4 Timiș
Hălchiu Heldsdorf 1.4 Sibiu
Merghindeal Mergeln 1.3 Sibiu
Beba Veche Altbeba 1.3 Timiș
Iacobeni Jakobsdorf 1.3 Sibiu
Lipova Lippa 1.3 Arad County
Homorod Hamruden 1.2 Brașov
Hărman Honigberg 1.2 Brașov
Matei Mathesdorf 1.2 Bistrița-Năsăud
Sebeș Mühlbach 1.1 Alba
Becicherecu Mic Kleinbetschkerek 1.1 Timiș
Caransebeș Karansebesch 1.1 Caraș-Severin
Bod Brenndorf 1.1 Brașov
Brateiu Pretai 1 Brașov
Bocșa Neuwerk 1 Caraș-Severin
Satu Mare Sathmar 1 Satu Mare
Sibiu Hermannstadt 1 Sibiu
Mănăstirea Humorului Humora Kloster 1 Suceava
Agnita Agnetheln 1 Sibiu
Hoghilag Halvelagen 1 Sibiu
Dumbrăveni Elisabethstadt 1 Sibiu
Șeica Mare Marktschelken 1 Sibiu
Codlea Zeiden 1 Brașov
Gătaia Gattaja 1 Timiș
Măureni Moritzfeld 1 Caraș-Severin

German minority population by countyEdit

Below is represented the notable German minority population (of at least 1%) for some counties, according to the 2011 census.

County Percent (%) of total population
Satu Mare 1.5
Timiș 1.3
Caraș-Severin 1.1
Sibiu 1.1

EducationEdit

 
Samuel von Brukenthal National College in Sibiu (Hermannstadt)

In Bucharest there are two German schools, namely Deutsche Schule Bukarest and Deutsches Goethe-Kolleg Bukarest. The Deutsche Schule Bukarest serves Kinderkrippe, Kindergarten, Grundschule, and Gymnasium (high school).[7]

In Timișoara, the Nikolaus Lenau High School was founded during the late 19th century. It was named this way in reference to Nikolaus Lenau, a Banat Swabian Romantic poet. Nowadays, the Nikolaus Lenau High School is considered the most important of its kind from Banat.[8]

In Sibiu, the Samuel von Brukenthal National College is the oldest German-language school from Romania (recorded as early as the 14th century), being also classified as a historical monument. It was subsequently renamed this way in reference to baron Samuel von Brukenthal, a Transylvanian Saxon aristocrat.

Additionally, there are two Goethe Institut cultural associations in Romania: one based in Bucharest and another one in Iași.

MediaEdit

Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung für Rumänien (ADZ) is the daily German-language newspaper in Romania. It is currently the only German-language newspaper from Eastern Europe.[9] Regional German-language publications also include Banater Zeitung (for Banat) and Hermannstädter Zeitung (for Sibiu).

Notable German-RomaniansEdit

Below are represented several lists comprising selected notable German-Romanians by historical region.

Expulsion of Germans from Romania after World War IIEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Official Romanian census from 2011
  2. ^ Dr. Gerhard Reichning, Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Teil 1, Bonn 1995, Page 17
  3. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 Page 46
  4. ^ Monica Barcan, Adalbert Millitz, The German Nationality in Romania (1978), page 42: "The Satu Mare Swabians are true Swabians, their place of origin being Wurttemberg. They were colonized between 1712 and 1815. Their most important settlements are Satu Mare/Sathmar and Petresti/Petrifeld in North- West Romania."
  5. ^ Oskar Hadbawnik, Die Zipser in der Bukowina (1968) discusses the Zipserfest held in Jakobeny in 1936 to commemorate 150 years since the Zipsers migrated to Jakobeny in 1786.
  6. ^ І. Я. Яцюк, Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет ім. Володимира Гнатюка, Наукові записки. Серія “Філологічна”, УДК 81’282.4:811.112.2(477): Lexikalische Besonderheiten Deutscher Dialekte in Galizien- und der Bukowina: “Die Siedler in den ursprünglichen Bergwerksgemeinden im Südwesten der Bukowina sprachen Zipserisch und zwar Gründlerisch, wie es in der Unterzips gesprochen wurde. Dabei wurde [v] im Anlaut wie [b] ausgesprochen: Werke – berka, weh – be, Schwester – schbesta. Anlautendes [b] wurde zu [p]: Brot – prot, Brücke – prik.”
  7. ^ "Entstehung." Deutsche Schule Bukarest. Retrieved on 20 February 2015.
  8. ^ (German) Geschichte Temeswars Schulwesen
  9. ^ Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung für Rumänien, Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (in German)