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Eastern Romance languages

The Eastern Romance languages[2] are a group of Romance languages. Today, the group consists of the Balkan Romance (also known as Daco-Romance[2]) subgroup which comprises the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), Aromanian language (Macedo-Romanian) and two other related minor languages, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian; and the Castelmezzano dialect, in southern Italy.[3][4][5]

Eastern Romance
Geographic
distribution
Balkans and part of Eastern Europe, western Basilicata (Italy)
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
Glottologeast2714[1]

Considered a bridge between Italian and Romanian,[6][7] some classifications also include the extinct Dalmatian language as part of the Balkan Romance subgroup (otherwise included in the Italo-Dalmatian group).[8][9][10]

Samples of Eastern Romance languages

Note: the lexicon used below is not universally recognized

Istro-Romanian[11][12][13] Aromanian[14][15] Megleno-Romanian[16] Romanian Italian French English
pićor cicior picior picior gamba jambe leg
kľeptu cheptu kľeptu piept petto poitrine chest
bire ghine bini bine bene bien well, good
bľerå azghirari zber zbiera ruggire rugir to roar
fiľu hilj iľu fiu figlio fils son
fiľa hilje iľe fiică figlia fille daughter
ficåt hicat ficat fegato foie liver
fi hire ire fi essere être to be
fľer heru ieru fier ferro fer iron
vițelu yitsãl vițål vițel vitello veau calf
(g)ľerm iermu ghiarmi vierme verme ver worm
viu yiu ghiu viu vivo vivant alive
vipt yiptu vipt cibo (vitto) victuaille (archaic) food, grain, victuals
mľe(lu) njel m'iel miel agnello agneau lamb
mľåre njare m'ari miere miele miel honey

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Romance". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Schulte 2009, p. 230.
  3. ^ Hammarström 2019, [1].
  4. ^ Agard 1984, p. 250.
  5. ^ Hall 1950, p. 16.
  6. ^ Posner 1996, p. 195.
  7. ^ Harris 1997, p. 22.
  8. ^ Swiggers 2011, p. 272.
  9. ^ Sampson 1999, p. 298.
  10. ^ Hall 1950, p. 24.
  11. ^ Lexicul Istroromân Moștenit din Latină
  12. ^ Istroromâna în viziunea lui Traian Cantemir
  13. ^ Istro-romanians: The Legacy of a Culture
  14. ^ Dialectul Aromân
  15. ^ Atlasul Lingvistic al Dialectului Aromân
  16. ^ Dialectul Meglenoromân

Sources

  • Agard, Frederick Browning (1984). A Course in Romance Linguistics Volume 2: A Diachronic View. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-074-5.
  • Hall, Robert A., Jr. (1950). "The Reconstruction of Proto-Romance". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 26 (1): 6–27. doi:10.2307/410406.
  • Harris, Martin (1997). "The Romance Languages". In Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1–25. ISBN 978-0-415-16417-7.
  • Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin (2019). "Catalogue of languages and families". Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  • Posner, Rebecca (1996). The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-128139-3.
  • Sampson, Rodney (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-823848-5.
  • Schulte, Kim (2009). "Loanwords in Romanian". In Haspelmath, Martin; Tadmor, Uri (eds.). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 230–259. ISBN 978-3-11-021843-5.
  • Swiggers, Pierre (2011). "Mapping the Romance Languages of Europe". In Lameli, Alfred; Kehrein, Roland; Rabanus, Stefan (eds.). Language Mapping: Part I. Part II: Maps. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 269–301. ISBN 978-3-11-021916-6.