Eastern Romance languages

The Eastern Romance languages[1] are a group of Romance languages. The group, also called the Balkan Romance or Daco-Romance languages,[1] comprises the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), the Aromanian language and two other related minor languages, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian.[2][3][4]

Eastern Romance
Geographic
distribution
Southeast Europe
Eastern Europe
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Early forms
Subdivisions
Glottologeast2714  (Eastern Romance)
Regions inhabited nowadays by Eastern Romance-speakers

Some classifications also include the extinct Dalmatian language (otherwise included in the Italo-Dalmatian group) as part of the Eastern Romance subgroup,[5][6][7] considering Dalmatian a bridge between Italian and Romanian.[8][9]

Languages edit

Eastern Romance comprises Romanian (or Daco-Romanian), Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian, according to the most widely accepted classification of the Romance languages.[1][10][11][12][13] The four languages sometimes labelled as dialects of Romanian[1]—developed from a common ancestor[13] mostly referred as Common Romanian.[14] They are surrounded by non-Romance languages.[15] Judaeo-Spanish (or Ladino) is also spoken in the Balkan Peninsula, but it is rarely listed among the other Romance languages of the region because it is rather an Iberian Romance language that developed as a Jewish dialect of Old Spanish in the far west of Europe, and it only began to be spoken widely in the Balkans after the influx of Ladino-speaking refugees into the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.[12]

Internal classification edit

Within the Glottolog database, the languages are classified as follows:[16]

Peter R. Petrucci, by contrast, states that Common Romanian had developed into two major dialects by the 10th century, and that Daco-Romanian and Istro-Romanian are descended from the northern dialect, while Megleno-Romanian and Aromanian are descended from the southern dialect.[17]

Samples of Eastern Romance languages edit

Note: the lexicon used below is not universally recognized

Istro-Romanian[18][19][20] Aromanian[21][22] Megleno-Romanian[23] Romanian Italian Spanish Portuguese French Latin source English
pićor cicior picior picior gamba (pierna) perna jambe petiolus/gamba leg
kľeptu cheptu kľeptu piept petto pecho peito poitrine pectus chest
bire ghine bini bine bene bien bem bien bene well, good
bľerå azghirari zber zbiera/a rage ruggire rugir rugir rugir bēlāre/rugīre to roar
fiľu hilj iľu fiu figlio hijo filho fils filius son
fiľa hilje iľe fiică figlia hija filha fille fīlia daughter
ficåt hicat ficat fegato hígado fígado foie fīcātum liver
fi hire ire a fi essere ser ser être fuī/esse/sum to be
fľer heru ieru fier ferro hierro ferro fer ferrum iron
vițelu yitsãl vițål vițel vitello (ternero) vitelo veau vitellus calf
(g)ľerm iermu ghiarmi vierme verme verme (gusano) verme ver vermis worm
viu yiu ghiu viu vivo vivo vivo vivant vīvus/vīvēns alive
vipt yiptu vipt cibo (vitto) comida (victo) comida (vitualha) victuaille (archaic) victus food, grain, victuals
mľe(lu) njel m'iel miel agnello (cordero), añal (archaic) cordeiro agneau agnellus lamb
mľåre njare m'ari miere miele miel mel miel mel honey

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d Schulte 2009, p. 230.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Forkel & Haspelmath 2019, [1].
  3. ^ Agard 1984, p. 250.
  4. ^ Hall 1950, p. 16.
  5. ^ Swiggers 2011, p. 272.
  6. ^ Sampson 1999, p. 298.
  7. ^ Hall 1950, p. 24.
  8. ^ Posner 1996, p. 195.
  9. ^ Harris 1997, p. 22.
  10. ^ Mallinson 1988, p. 23.
  11. ^ Posner 1996, pp. 217–218.
  12. ^ a b Lindstedt 2014, p. 168.
  13. ^ a b Maiden 2016, p. 91.
  14. ^ Sala, Marius (2012). De la Latină la Română] [From Latin to Romanian]. Editura Pro Universitaria. p. 33. ISBN 978-606-647-435-1.
  15. ^ Posner 1996, p. 217.
  16. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (2023-07-10). "Glottolog 4.8 - Eastern Romance". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. doi:10.5281/zenodo.7398962. Retrieved 2023-11-20.
  17. ^ Petrucci 1999, p. 4.
  18. ^ Bărdășan, Gabriel (2011), Lexicul Istroromân Moștenit din Latină. Suprapuneri și Diferențieri Interdialectale [Istro-Romanian vocabulary inherited from Latin. Interdialectal Overlaps and Differentiations] (in Romanian), archived from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01 – via diacronia.ro
  19. ^ Dănilă, Ioan (2007), "Istroromâna în viziunea lui Traian Cantemir", The Proceedings of the "European Integration – Between Tradition and Modernity" Congress [Istro-Romanian in the vision of Traian Cantemir] (in Romanian), vol. 2, pp. 224–231, archived from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01 – via diacronia.ro
  20. ^ Burlacu, Mihai (2010). "Istro-Romanians: The Legacy of a Culture". The IstroRomanian in Croatia.
  21. ^ Caragiu Marioțeanu, Matilda, "Dialectul Aromân" [The Aromanian Dialect] (PDF), Avdhela Project – Library of Aromanian Culture (in Romanian), archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-10-24, retrieved 2019-09-01
  22. ^ Vătășescu, Cătălina (2017), "Atlasul lingvistic al dialectului aromân, bază pentru cercetarea raporturilor aromâno-albaneze" [The linguistic atlas of the Aromanian dialect as a ground for a comparative research with the Albanian language], Fonetică și dialectologie (in Romanian), vol. XXXVI, pp. 215–221, archived from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01 – via diacronia.ro
  23. ^ Dialectul Meglenoromân (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-07-25, retrieved 2019-09-01

Sources edit

  • Agard, Frederick Browning (1984). A Course in Romance Linguistics Volume 2: A Diachronic View. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-074-5.
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1950). "The Reconstruction of Proto-Romance". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 26 (1): 6–27. doi:10.2307/410406. JSTOR 410406.
  • Harris, Martin (1997). Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1–25. ISBN 978-0-415-16417-7.
  • Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin (2019). "Catalogue of languages and families". Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Archived from the original on 2020-05-02. Retrieved 2019-07-15.
  • Posner, Rebecca (1996). The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-128139-3.
  • Sampson, Rodney (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-823848-5.
  • Schulte, Kim (2009). "Loanwords in Romanian". In Haspelmath, Martin; Tadmor, Uri (eds.). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 230–259. ISBN 978-3-11-021843-5.
  • Swiggers, Pierre (2011). "Mapping the Romance Languages of Europe". In Lameli, Alfred; Kehrein, Roland; Rabanus, Stefan (eds.). Language Mapping: Part I. Part II: Maps. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 269–301. ISBN 978-3-11-021916-6.
  • Harris, Martin (1988). Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–25. ISBN 978-0-19-520829-0.
  • Lindstedt, Jouko (2014). "Balkan Slavic and Balkan Romance: from congruence to convergence". In Besters-Dilger, Juliane; Dermarkar, Cynthia; Pfänder, Stefan; Rabus, Achim (eds.). Congruence in Contact-Induced Language Change: Language Families, Typological Resemblance, and Perceived Similarity. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 168–183. ISBN 978-3-11-033834-8.
  • Maiden, Martin (2016). "Romanian, Istro–Romanian, Megleno–Romanian, and Arumanian". In Ledgeway, Adam; Maiden, Martin (eds.). The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 91–125. ISBN 978-0-19-967710-8.
  • Mallinson, Graham (1988). "Rumanian". In Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 391–419. ISBN 978-0-19-520829-0.
  • Sala, Marius (2012). De la Latină la Română] [From Latin to Romanian]. Editura Pro Universitaria. p. 33. ISBN 978-606-647-435-1.
  • Petrucci, Peter R. (1999). Slavic Features in the History of Rumanian. München: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 38-9586-599-0.