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The Eastern Romance languages[2] are a group of Romance languages. Today, the group consists of the Balkan Romance (also known as Daco-Romance[2]) subgroup (which comprises Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), Aromanian language (Macedo-Romanian) and two other related minor languages Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian), and the Castelmezzano dialect, in southern Italy.[3][4][5]

Eastern Romance
Balkans and part of Eastern Europe, western Basilicata (Italy)
Linguistic classificationIndo-European

Considered a bridge between Italian and Romanian,[6][7] some classifications also include the extinct Dalmatian language as part of the Balkan Romance subgroup (otherwise included in the Italo-Dalmatian group).[8][9][10]


Samples of Eastern Romance languagesEdit

Note: the lexicon used below is not universally recognized

Istro-Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian Italian English
pićor cicior picior picior gamba leg
kľeptu cheptu kľeptu piept petto chest
bire ghine bini bine bene well, good
bľerå azghirari zber zbiera ruggire to roar
fiľu hilj iľu fiu figlio son
fiľa hilje iľe fiică figlia daughter
ficåt hicat ficat fegato liver
fi hire ire fi essere to be
fľer heru ieru fier ferro iron
vițelu yitsãl vițål vițel vitello calf
(g)ľerm iermu ghiarmi vierme verme worm
viu yiu ghiu viu vivo alive
vipt yiptu vipt cibo (vitto) food, grain
mľe(lu) njel m'iel miel agnello lamb
mľåre njare m'ari miere miele honey

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Romance". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Schulte 2009, p. 230.
  3. ^ Hammarström 2019, [1].
  4. ^ Agard 1984, p. 250.
  5. ^ Hall 1950, p. 16.
  6. ^ Posner 1996, p. 195.
  7. ^ Harris 1997, p. 22.
  8. ^ Swiggers 2011, p. 272.
  9. ^ Sampson 1999, p. 298.
  10. ^ Hall 1950, p. 24.


  • Agard, Frederick Browning (1984). A Course in Romance Linguistics Volume 2: A Diachronic View. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-074-5.
  • Hall, Robert A., Jr. (1950). "The Reconstruction of Proto-Romance". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 26 (1): 6–27. doi:10.2307/410406.
  • Harris, Martin (1997). "The Romance Languages". In Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1–25. ISBN 978-0-415-16417-7.
  • Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin (2019). "Catalogue of languages and families". Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  • Posner, Rebecca (1996). The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-128139-3.
  • Sampson, Rodney (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-823848-5.
  • Schulte, Kim (2009). "Loanwords in Romanian". In Haspelmath, Martin; Tadmor, Uri (eds.). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 230–259. ISBN 978-3-11-021843-5.
  • Swiggers, Pierre (2011). "Mapping the Romance Languages of Europe". In Lameli, Alfred; Kehrein, Roland; Rabanus, Stefan (eds.). Language Mapping: Part I. Part II: Maps. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 269–301. ISBN 978-3-11-021916-6.