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The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France) and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).

Italo-Dalmatian
Central Romance languages
Geographic
distribution
Italy, France, Croatia
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Glottologital1286[1]
Italian Dialects.png
The Italo-Dalmatian languages in yellow, brown, orange, blue and green.

Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:[2]

  • Italo-Romance, which includes most central and southern Italian languages.
  • Dalmatian Romance, which includes Dalmatian and Istriot.

The generally accepted four branches of the Romance languages are Western Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, Sardinian and Eastern Romance. But there are other ways that the languages of Italo-Dalmatian can be classified in these branches:

  • Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Eastern Romance (which includes Romanian), leading to: Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Western Romance (which includes the Gallic and Iberian languages) as Italo-Western, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Italo-Romance is sometimes included in Italo-Western, with Dalmatian Romance included in Eastern Romance, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Corsican (from Italo-Dalmatian) and Sardinian are sometimes included together as Southern Romance, or Island Romance, leading to: Western, Italo-Dalmatian, Southern, and Eastern branches.

Contents

LanguagesEdit

Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby lists four languages: Corsican, Tuscan and Italian, NeapolitanSicilian, and Dalmatian.[3]

Dalmatian RomanceEdit

TuscanEdit

 
The Tuscan varieties.
  • Tuscan-Corsican: group of dialects spoken in the Italian region of Tuscany, and the French island of Corsica.
    • Northern Tuscan dialects:
      • Florentine is spoken in the city of Florence, and was the basis for Standard Italian.
      • Other dialects: Pistoiese; Pesciatino or Valdinievolese; Lucchese; Versiliese; Viareggino; Pisano-Livornese.
    • Southern Tuscan dialects:
      • Dialects of Aretino-Chianaiolo, Senese, Grossetano.
    • Corsican, spoken on Corsica, is thought to be descended from Tuscan.[4]
      • Gallurese and Sassarese, spoken on the northern tip of Sardinia, can be considered either dialects of Corsican or Corso-Sardinian transitional varieties.

ItalianEdit

Middle ItalianEdit

 
The Middle Italian varieties.

Intermediate Southern ItalianEdit

 
The Southern Italian varieties.

Extreme Southern ItalianEdit

 
The Extreme Southern Italian varieties.
  • Sicilian language, or known in Italian linguistics as the "extreme southern dialect group", is spoken on the island of Sicily; and in the south of both Calabria and Apulia; and some of Campania.
    • Sicilian proper, spoken on the island of Sicily: Western Sicilian; Central Metafonetica; Southeast Metafonetica; Ennese; Eastern Nonmetafonetica; Messinese.
    • Sicilian dialects on other islands: Isole Eolie, on the Aeolian Islands; Pantesco, on the island of Pantelleria.
    • Calabro,[6] or Central-Southern Calabrian:[6] dialects are spoken in the central and southern areas of the region of Calabria.
    • Salentino, spoken in the Salento region of southern Apulia.
    • Southern Cilentan: spoken in Roccagloriosa and Rofrano in southern tip of Cilento, which is southern Province of Salerno, in the Campania region.
  • Cilentan: spoken in Cilento, influenced by both Neapolitan language and Sicilian language.

In addition, some Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in Central-Southern Italy.

VenetianEdit

The Venetian language is sometimes added to Italo-Dalmatian when it is excluded from Gallo-Italic, and then usually grouped with Istriot.

Judeo-ItalianEdit

Judeo-Italian languages are varieties of Italian used by Jewish communities, between the 10th and the 20th centuries, in Italy, Corfu and Zakinthos.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Italo-Dalmatian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  3. ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.[1][2][3]
  4. ^ Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
  5. ^ La pronuncia italiana (Italian). treccani.it
  6. ^ a b c Calabrian in Italian: Calabrese (pl. Calebresi). Synonyms: Calabro, Calabra, Calabri, calabre (m., f., m.pl., f.pl.). Sicilian: calabbrìsi, calavrìsi.