The demographics of Israel, monitored by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, encompass various attributes that define the nation's populace. Since its establishment in 1948, Israel has witnessed significant changes in its demographics. Formed as a homeland for the Jewish people, Israel has attracted Jewish immigrants from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.

Demographics of Israel (including Israelis in West Bank)
Population pyramid of Israel, 2023 (numbers by age group)
Population9,842,000 (ca. 95th)
 • YearDecember 2023
 • SourceIsraeli CBS[1]
Density431/km2 (6th)
Growth rate1.9%
Birth rate21.5 births/1,000 (101st)
Death rate5.2 deaths/1,000 population (174th)
Life expectancy82.7 years (8th)
 • male80.7 years
 • female84.6 years
Fertility rate3.01 children born/woman (59th)
Infant mortality rate4.03 deaths/1,000 live births (25th)
Age structure
0–14 years28%
15–64 years60%
65 and over12%
Sex ratio
Total1.01 males/female
At birth1.05 males/female
Under 151.05 males/female
15–64 years1.03 males/female
65 and over0.78 males/female
Nationality
NationalityIsraelis
Major ethnicJews (7,208,000, 73.6%)[1]
Minor ethnicArabs (2,080,000, 21.1%)
Other (non-Jewish, non-Arab) 554,000 (5.7%)[1]
Language
OfficialHebrew
SpokenArabic, Russian, Yiddish

The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics defines the population of Israel as including Jews living in all of the West Bank and Palestinians in East Jerusalem but excluding Palestinians anywhere in the rest of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and foreign workers anywhere in Israel. As of December 2023, this calculation stands at approximately 9,842,000 million, of whom:

  • 73.2% (about 7,208,000 people) are Jews, including about 503,000 living outside the self-defined borders of the State of Israel in the West Bank
  • 21.1% (around 2,080,000 people) are Israeli citizens classified as Arab, some identifying as Palestinian, and including Druze, Circassians, all other Muslims, Christian Arabs, Armenians (which Israel considers "Arab")[2]
  • An additional 5.7% (roughly 554,000 people) are classified as "others". This diverse group comprises those with Jewish ancestry but not recognized as Jewish by religious law, non-Jewish family members of Jewish immigrants, Christians other than Arabs and Armenians, and residents without a distinct ethnic or religious categorization.[2][1]

Israel's annual population growth rate stood at 2.0% in 2015, more than three times faster than the OECD average of around 0.6%.[3] With an average of three children per woman, Israel also has the highest fertility rate in the OECD by a considerable margin and much higher than the OECD average of 1.7.[4]

Overview and definitions

counted by Palestinian Authority counted by Israel
Israel counts Palestinians only in East Jerusalem + all Israelis; Palestinian Authority counts all residents counted by both
Demographics of Israeli and Palestinian Territories
Region &
Status
By nationality Total
Population
Year
Source
By ethnoreligious group Area (km2)
Israelis Year
Source
Palestinian
Non-Israeli
Citizens
Year
Source
Jewish Palestinian Other
West Bank Areas A & B (Occupied, partial Palestinian control) 0 1,828,115 2023
[5]
1,828,115 2023
[5]
0 1,828,115 0
West Bank Area C (Occupied, full Israeli control) including Seam Zone[6] 517,407 1/2024
[7][8]
300,000 2019
[9][10]
817,407 2019/
/-24
[11]
517,407 300,000 not specified separately
East Jerusalem (Occupied/Annexed)[12][13][14] 240,832
incl. Israeli Arab ~18,982
2021
[15]
370,552 2021
[15]
611,384 2021
[15]
221,850 389,534
incl. Israeli Arab ~18,982
not specified separately
Total West Bank incl. East Jerusalem 758,239 2,498,667 3,256,906 [16] 739,257 2,517,649 not specified separately 5,880
[17]
Gaza Strip 0 2,226,544 2023
[5]
2,226,544 2023
[5]
0 2,226,544 0 365
Total Area of the Region of Palestine outside the Green Line 7,087
Green Line

De facto 1949–1967 borders[18]

8,289,657 2019/
-21/-3

[19]
0 8,289,657 2019/
-21/-3

[18]
6,787,743
74%
1,299,484
20%
554,000
6%
20,582
[18]
Golan Heights (Occupied/Annexed)
[12][13][14][20]

53,000
Jews 27,000
Druze 24,000
Alawite 2,000

2021
[21]

0

2021
[21]

53,000

2021
[21]

27,000 26,000 0 1,154
Total Area of the State of Israel as defined by the Israeli CBS 22,072
CBS Total Population of Israel 9,471,448 370,552

(i.e. East Jerusalem Palestinians)

9,842,000

Dec. 2023
[22]

7,554,000 Israeli cit. 1,734,000
Non-Israeli ~370,552
554,000
Total Israel + Palestine combined 9,471,448 derived 4,725,211 derived 14,833,110 Sum 7,554,000 (50.7%) 6,778,193 (45.5%)
Israeli 1,734,000 (11.6%),
Non-Israeli 5,044,193 (33.9%)
554,000 (3.7%) 25,650

Note: Israeli definitions

The definition of what constitutes the population of Israel varies depending on which territories are counted and which population groups are counted in each territory.

The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics ("CBS") definition of the Area of the State of Israel:[23]

  • includes East Jerusalem since 1967, which Israel unilaterally annexed
  • includes the Golan Heights since 1982, which Israel unilaterally annexed
  • excludes the West Bank other than East Jerusalem

The CBS' definition of the Population of Israel, however:[24]

  • includes non-Israeli Palestinians (as well as Israeli Arabs/Palestinians) in East Jerusalem who have permission to live there
  • includes Israeli settlers and others with Israeli residency permits living in the Area C of West Bank
  • excludes Palestinian/Arab/other residents of Area C and East Jerusalem who do not have Israeli citizenship or residence
  • excludes persons who are not registered (from 2008 on) and/or entered illegally, and foreign workers

Population

 
Israeli population growth since 1949
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1950 1,370,100—    
1960 2,150,400+4.61%
1970 3,022,100+3.46%
1980 3,921,700+2.64%
1990 4,821,700+2.09%
2000 6,369,300+2.82%
2010 7,695,100+1.91%
2019 9,098,700+1.88%
20239,727,000+1.68%
Source: [25][26][27] (2019 data)[28]

Total population

9,884,480[29] (most current update from the Israeli Central Bureau for Statistics, via live feed)

Note: includes over 200,000 Israelis and 250,000 Arabs in East Jerusalem, about 421,400 Jewish settlers on the West Bank, and about 42,000 in the Golan Heights (July 2007 estimate). Does not include Arab populations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Does not include 222,000 foreigners living in the country.[30]

Density

 
Population density per square kilometer, by district, sub-district and geographical area

Geographic deployment, as of 2018:

Population growth rate

  • 2.0% (2016)

During the 1990s, the Jewish population growth rate was about 3% per year, as a result of massive immigration to Israel, primarily from the republics of the former Soviet Union. There is also a very high population growth rate among certain Jewish groups, especially adherents of Orthodox Judaism. The growth rate of the Arab population in Israel is 2.2%, while the growth rate of the Jewish population in Israel is 1.8%. The growth rate of the Arab population has slowed from 3.8% in 1999 to 2.2% in 2013, and for the Jewish population, the growth rate declined from 2.7% to its lowest rate of 1.4% in 2005. Due to a rise in fertility of the Jewish population since 1995 and immigration, the growth rate has since risen to 1.8%.[31]

Fertility

The total fertility rate (TFR) of a population is the average number of children that an average woman would have, in her lifetime.

  • 3.01 children born/woman (2019)

Jewish total fertility rate increased by 10.2% during 1998–2009, and was recorded at 2.90 during 2009. During the same time period, Arab TFR decreased by 20.5%. Muslim TFR was measured at 3.73 for 2009. During 2000, the Arab TFR in Jerusalem (4.43) was higher than that of the Jews residing there (3.79). But as of 2009, Jewish TFR in Jerusalem was measured higher than the Arab TFR (2010: 4.26 vs 3.85, 2009: 4.16 vs 3.87). TFR for Arab residents in the West Bank was measured at 2.91 in 2013,[32] while that for the Jewish residents was reported at 5.10 children per woman.[33]

The ethnic group with highest recorded TFR is the Bedouin of Negev. Their TFR was reported at 10.06 in 1998, and 5.73 in 2009. TFR is also very high among Haredi Jews. For Ashkenazi Haredim, the TFR rose from 6.91 in 1980 to 8.51 in 1996. The figure for 2008 is estimated to be even higher. TFR for Sephardi/Mizrahi Haredim rose from 4.57 in 1980 to 6.57 in 1996.[34] In 2020 the overall Jewish TFR in Israel (3.00) was for the first time measured higher than Arab Muslim TFR (2.99).

Year Jews Muslims Christians Druze Others Total
2000 2.66 4.74 2.55 3.07 2.95
2001 2.59 4.71 2.46 3.02 2.89
2002 2.64 4.58 2.29 2.77 2.89
2003 2.73 4.50 2.31 2.85 2.95
2004 2.71 4.36 2.13 2.66 1.47 2.90
2005 2.69 4.03 2.15 2.59 1.49 2.84
2006 2.75 3.97 2.14 2.64 1.55 2.88
2007 2.80 3.90 2.13 2.49 1.49 2.90
2008 2.88 3.84 2.11 2.49 1.57 2.96
2009 2.90 3.73 2.15 2.49 1.56 2.96
2010 2.97 3.75 2.14 2.48 1.64 3.03
2011 2.98 3.51 2.19 2.33 1.75 3.00
2012 3.04 3.54 2.17 2.26 1.68 3.05
2013 3.05 3.35 2.13 2.21 1.68 3.03
2014 3.11 3.35 2.27 2.20 1.72 3.08
2015 3.13 3.32 2.12 2.19 1.72 3.09
2016 3.16 3.29 2.05 2.21 1.64 3.11
2017 3.16 3.37 1.93 2.10 1.58 3.11
2018 3.17 3.20 2.06 2.16 1.54 3.09
2019 3.09 3.16 1.80 2.02 1.45 3.01
2020 3.00 2.99 1.85 1.94 1.35 2.90
2021 3.13 3.01 1.77 2.00 1.39 3.00
2022 3.03 2.91 1.68 1.85 1.26 2.89
Year Jews Muslims Christians Druze Others Total

Birth rate

 
TFR of Israel to 2016

2021 :

  • Total: 19.7 births/1,000 population
  • Jews and others: 19.1 births/1,000 population
  • Muslims: 23.4 births/1,000 population
  • Christians: 13.3 births/1,000 population
  • Druze: 15.8 births/1,000 population

Births, in absolute numbers, by mother's religion[35]

Birth rates of various Israeli peoples[36]
Year Jewish Muslim Christ. Druze others Total % Jewish % Muslim % Christ. % Druze % others
1996 83,710 30,802 2,678 2,682 1,461 121,333 69.0% 25.4% 2.2% 2.2% 1.2%
2000 91,936 35,740 2,789 2,708 3,217 136,390 67.4% 26.2% 2.0% 2.0% 2.4%
2005 100,657 34,217 2,487 2,533 4,019 143,913 69.9% 23.8% 1.7% 1.8% 2.8%
2006 104,513 34,337 2,500 2,601 4,219 148,170 70.5% 23.2% 1.7% 1.8% 2.9%
2007 107,986 34,572 2,521 2,510 4,090 151,679 71.2% 22.8% 1.7% 1.7% 2.7%
2008 112,803 34,860 2,511 2,534 4,215 156,923 71.9% 22.2% 1.6% 1.6% 2.7%
2009 116,599 35,253 2,514 2,517 4,159 161,042 72.4% 21.9% 1.6% 1.6% 2.6%
2010 120,673 36,221 2,511 2,535 4,306 166,255 72.58% 21.79% 1.51% 1.52% 2.59%
2011 121,520 35,247 2,596 2,469 4,457 166,296 73.07% 21.19% 1.56% 1.48% 2.68%
2012 125,409 36,041 2,610 2,371 4,492 170,940 73.36% 21.08% 1.53% 1.39% 2.63%
2013 126,999 34,927 2,602 2,350 4,561 171,444 74.07% 20.37% 1.52% 1.37% 2.66%
2014 130,576 35,965 2,814 2,366 4,697 176,427 74.01% 20.38% 1.59% 1.34% 2.66%
2015 132,220 36,659 2,669 2,376 4,792 178,723 73.98% 20.51% 1.49% 1.33% 2.68%
2016 134,100 37,592 2,613 2,446 4,652 181,405 73.92% 20.72% 1.44% 1.35% 2.56%
2017 134,630 39,550 2,504 2,350 4,609 183,648 73.31% 21.53% 1.36% 1.28% 2.51%
2018 135,809 38,757 2,721 2,434 4,639 184,370 73.66% 21.02% 1.47% 1.32% 2.52%
2019 133,243 39,525 2,409 2,298 4,532 182,016 73.20% 21.71% 1.32% 1.26% 2.49%
2020 129,884 38,388 2,497 2,239 4,290 177,307 73.25% 21.65% 1.41% 1.26% 2.42%
2021 136,120 39,703 2,434 2,339 4,432 185,040 73.56% 21.46% 1.32% 1.26% 2.39%
2022 132,771 39,717 2,331 2,186 4,257 181,269 73.24% 21.91% 1.29% 1.21% 2.35%
2023 131,024 39,114 2,189 2,088 4,032 178,454 73.42% 21.92% 1.23% 1.17% 2.25%
  • Births by mother's religion January - February 2023: Jewish 21,877 (74.52%); Muslim 6,106 (20.80%); Christian 359 (1.22%); Druze 324 (1.10%); others 692 (2.36%); Total 29,359
  • Births by mother's religion January - February 2024: Jewish 22,465 (76.31%); Muslim 5,782 (19.64%); Christian 343 (1.17%); Druze 286 (0.97%); others 563 (1.91%); Total 29,440

Between the mid-1980s and 2000, the fertility rate in the Muslim sector was stable at 4.6–4.7 children per woman; after 2001, a gradual decline became evident, reaching 3.51 children per woman in 2011. By point of comparison, in 2011, there was a rising fertility rate of 2.98 children among the Jewish population.

Life expectancy

 
Life expectancy in Israel since 1950
 
Life expectancy in Israel since 1961 by gender

As of 2019:

  • Total population: 82.8 years
  • Male: 81 years
  • Female: 84.7 years[37]
Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.[38]
Period Life expectancy Period Life expectancy
1950–1955 68.9 1985–1990 75.9
1955–1960 70.0 1990–1995 77.2
1960–1965 71.0 1995–2000 78.3
1965–1970 71.8 2000–2005 79.6
1970–1975 72.6 2005–2010 80.9
1975–1980 73.5 2010–2015 81.9
1980–1985 74.6

Infant mortality rate

  • Total: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Male: 4.20 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Female: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Age structure

The table shows population estimates by sex and age group, as of July 1, 2019. It includes data for East Jerusalem and Israeli residents in certain other territories under occupation by Israeli military forces since June 1967. Data refer to Israeli citizens and permanent residents who are listed in the Population Register.[39]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 4,494,051 4,559,975 9,054,026 100
0–4 469 807 444 266 914 073 10.10
5–9 441 977 419 861 861 838 9.52
10–14 396 165 376 914 773 079 8.54
15–19 365 754 349 118 714 872 7.90
20–24 331 474 319 040 650 514 7.18
25–29 312 165 304 844 617 009 6.81
30–34 299 747 298 768 598 515 6.61
35–39 289 123 292 026 581 149 6.42
40–44 277 424 282 277 559 701 6.18
45–49 251 526 257 539 509 065 5.62
50–54 210 803 217 399 428 202 4.73
55–59 191 364 204 826 396 191 4.38
60–64 178 062 196 878 374 940 4.14
65–69 166 374 188 225 354 598 3.92
70–74 131 622 154 117 285 739 3.16
75–79 73 046 91 752 164 798 1.82
80–84 58 830 81 606 140 436 1.55
85–89 31 038 48 194 79 233 0.88
90–94 12 882 23 779 36 661 0.40
95–99 3 434 6 783 10 216 0.11
100+ 1 432 1 765 3 197 0.04
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 1,307,949 1,241,041 2,548,990 28.15
15–64 2,707,444 2,722,713 5,430,157 59.98
65+ 478 658 596 221 1,074,879 11.87
Population by Age Group (2010 est.)
Group 0–14 years 15–64 years 65+ years
Total 28.0% 62.1% 9.9%
Jews 25.5% 63.1% 11.4%
Israeli Arabs 37.5% 58.6% 3.9%

Median age

Overall Jewish Israeli Arab
29.7 31.6 21.1

The Jewish median age in Jerusalem district and the West Bank are 24.9 and 19.7, respectively, and both account for 16% of the Jewish population, but 24% of 0- to 4-year-olds. The lowest median age in Israel, and one of the lowest in the world, is found in two of the West Bank's biggest Jewish cities: Modi'in Illit (11), Beitar Illit (11)[40] followed by Bedouin towns in the Negev (15.2).[41]

Cities

Within Israel's system of local government, an urban municipality can be granted a city council by the Israeli Interior Ministry when its population exceeds 20,000.[42] The term "city" does not generally refer to local councils or urban agglomerations, even though a defined city often contains only a small portion of an urban area or metropolitan area's population.

 
Rank Name District Pop. Rank Name District Pop.
 
Jerusalem
 
Tel Aviv
1 Jerusalem Jerusalem 981,711a 11 Ramat Gan Tel Aviv 172,486  
Haifa
 
Rishon LeZion
2 Tel Aviv Tel Aviv 474,530 12 Ashkelon Southern 153,138
3 Haifa Haifa 290,306 13 Rehovot Central 150,748
4 Rishon LeZion Central 260,453 14 Beit Shemesh Jerusalem 154,694
5 Petah Tikva Central 255,387 15 Bat Yam Tel Aviv 128,465
6 Ashdod Southern 226,827 16 Herzliya Tel Aviv 106,741
7 Netanya Central 233,104 17 Kfar Saba Central 101,556
8 Bnei Brak Tel Aviv 218,357 18 Hadera Haifa 103,041
9 Beersheba Southern 214,162 19 Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut Central 99,171
10 Holon Tel Aviv 197,957 20 Lod Central 85,351

^a This number includes East Jerusalem and West Bank areas, which had a total population of 573,330 inhabitants in 2019.[44] Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is internationally unrecognized.

Ethnic and religious groups

Statistics

 
Ethnic map of Israel and Palestine, with the Golan Heights
 
Population pyramid of Israel by ethnic group in 2021
Population demography (2023)[45]
Group Population Proportion of total
Jews 7,181,000 73%
Arabs 2,065,000 21%
Other 549,000 6%
Total 9,795,000 100%
Population of Arabs and Jews and Others, by natural region (2018)[46]
Natural region Total population Jews and Others Jews and Others (%) Arabs Arabs (%)
Judean Mountains 991,503 629,659 63.5 361,844 36.5
Judean Foothills 142,152 141,704 99.7 448 0.3
Hula Valley 41,076 40,173 97.8 903 2.2
Eastern Upper Galilee 54,327 48,364 89 5,963 11
Hazor Region 24,097 17,362 72.1 6,735 27.9
Central Lower Galilee 1,716 1,715 99.9 1 0.1
Kinerot 61,247 58,783 96 2,464 4
Eastern Lower Galilee 51,660 19,600 37.9 32,060 62.1
Bet She'an Valley 31,641 31,467 99.4 174 0.5
Harod Valley 11,741 9,835 83.8 1,906 16.2
Kokhav Plateau 13,765 3,511 25.5 10,254 74.5
Yizre'el Valley 83,632 75,771 90.6 7,861 9.4
Yoqne'am Region 36,964 36,936 99.9 28 0.1
Menashe Plateau 5,998 5,994 99.9 4 0.1
Nazareth-Tir'an Mountains 336,405 75,033 22.3 261,372 77.7
Shefar'am Region 221,921 12,247 5.5 209,674 94.5
Karmi'el Region 119,002 50,840 42.7 68,162 57.3
Yehi'am Region 101,383 34,352 33.9 67,031 66.1
Elon Region 20,616 9,357 45.4 11,259 54.6
Nahariyya Region 104,177 74,904 71.9 29,273 28.1
Akko Region 76,186 39,736 52.2 36,450 47.8
Hermon Region 13,239 131 1 13,108 99
Northern Golan 16,520 3,735 22.6 12,785 77.4
Middle Golan 11,167 11,089 99.3 78 0.7
Southern Golan 9,636 9,627 99.9 9 0.1
Haifa Region 583,443 516,228 88.5 67,215 11.5
Karmel Coast 32,356 19,061 58.9 13,295 41.1
Zikhron Ya'aqov Region 28,488 28,071 98.5 417 1.5
Alexander Mountain 139,820 13,163 9.4 126,657 90.6
Hadera Region 248,666 191,627 77.1 57,039 22.9
Western Sharon 362,045 360,729 99.6 1,316 0.4
Eastern Sharon 115,401 16,552 14.3 98,849 85.7
Southern Sharon 283,513 273,306 96.4 10,207 3.6
Petah Tiqwa Region 470,779 443,527 94.2 27,252 5.8
Modi'in Region 102,151 102,124 100 27 0
Ramla Region 249,540 208,404 83.5 41,136 16.5
Rehovot Region 304,397 303,638 99.8 759 0.2
Rishon LeZiyyon Region 308,234 307,989 99.9 245 0.1
Tel Aviv Region 595,797 575,204 96.5 20,593 3.5
Ramat Gan Region 495,084 494,432 99.9 652 0.1
Holon Region 336,286 335,175 99.7 1,111 0.3
Mal'akhi Region 62,064 61,800 99.6 264 0.4
Lakhish Region 71,416 71,345 99.9 71 0.1
Ashdod Region 224,629 224,328 99.9 301 0.1
Ashqelon Region 193,136 192,594 99.7 542 0.3
Gerar Region 56,110 56,065 99.9 45 0.1
Besor Region 52,014 51,737 99.5 277 0.5
Be'er Sheva Region 518,798 258,777 49.9 260,021 50.1
Dead Sea Region 1,283 1,254 97.7 29 2.3
Arava Region 58,916 56,543 96 2,373 4
Northern Negev Mountain 62,673 55,710 88.9 6,963 11.1
Southern Negev Mountain 937 920 98.1 17 1.8
Judea and Samaria Area 427,847 426,925 99.8 922 0.2

The most prominent ethnic and religious groups that live in Israel at present and that are Israeli citizens or nationals are as follows:

Jews

According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2008, of Israel's 7.3 million people, 75.6 percent were Jews of any background.[47] Among them, 70.3 percent were Sabras (born in Israel), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)—20.5 percent from Europe and the Americas, and 9.2 percent from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.[48]

According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, in April 2023, of Israel's 9.7 million people, 73.5 percent, or 7.145 million, were Jews of any background.[49]

There are no government statistics categorizing Israeli Jews as "Ashkenazi", "Mizrahi", etc, but studies and estimates have been conducted.[50][51] In a 2019 study, in a sample meant to be representative of the Israeli Jewish population, about 44.9% percent of Israel's Jewish population were categorized as Mizrahi (defined as having grandparents born in North Africa or Asia), 31.8% were categorized as Ashkenazi (defined as having grandparents born in Europe, the Americas, Oceania and South Africa), 12.4% as "Soviet" (defined as having progenitors who came from the ex-USSR in 1989 or later), about 3% as Beta Israel (Ethiopia) and 7.9% as a mix of these, or other Jewish groups.[52] Note that this methodology isn't exact: See, for example, Bulgarian or Greek Jews, who would be categorized as Ashkenazi according to this definition, although they are overwhelmingly Sephardic.

The paternal lineage of the Jewish population of Israel as of 2015 is as follows:

Recent paternal ancestral background of Israeli Jews
Countries of Origin Population Percentage
Share 2015[53] 2008[48] Share 2015 2008
Total
 
6,276,800 5,523,700
-
100% 100%
From Israel by paternal country of origin:
 
2,765,500 2,043,800
 
44.06% 37%
From Europe by own or paternal country of origin:
 
1,648,000 1,662,800
 
26.26% 30.1%
Russia and former USSR
 
891,700 923,600
 
14.21% 16.83%
Romania
 
199,400 213,100
 
3.18% 3.86%
Poland
 
185,400 198,500
 
2.95% 3.59%
France
 
87,500 63,200
 
1.39% 1.14%
Germany and Austria
 
70,800 49,700
 
1.13% 0.9%
Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia
 
59,800 64,900
 
0.95% 1.17%
United Kingdom
 
46,000 39,800
 
0.73% 0.72%
Bulgaria and Greece
 
45,500 48,900
 
0.72% 0.89%
Other European
 
61,900 61,100
 
0.99% 1.11%
From Africa by own or paternal country of origin:
 
897,300 859,100
 
14.3% 15.53%
Morocco
 
484,500 486,600
 
7.72% 8.81%
Algeria and Tunisia
 
133,500 120,600
 
2.13% 2.18%
Ethiopia
 
133,200 106,900
 
2.12% 1.94%
Libya
 
66,800 67,400
 
1.06% 1.22%
Egypt
 
54,600 55,800
 
0.87% 1.01%
Other African
 
24,700 17,200
 
0.39% 0.31%
From Asia by own or paternal country of origin:
 
674,500 681,400
 
10.75% 12.33%
Iraq
 
225,800 233,500
 
3.6% 4.23%
Iran (Persia)
 
140,100 134,700
 
2.23% 2.44%
Yemen
 
134,100 138,300
 
2.14% 2.5%
Turkey
 
74,600 76,900
 
1.19% 1.39%
India and Pakistan
 
47,600 45,600
 
0.76% 0.83%
Syria and Lebanon
 
34,500 35,300
 
0.55% 0.64%
Other Asian
 
18,000 17,200
 
0.29% 0.31%
From the Americas and Oceania by own or paternal country of origin:
 
291,500 249,800
 
4.64% 4.52%
United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
 
181,000 149,200
 
2.88% 2.7%
Argentina
 
62,600 59,400
 
1% 1.08%
Other Latin American
 
47,900 41,200
 
0.76% 0.75%

Arabs

 
Arabs in Israel, by natural region, 2018

Arab citizens of Israel are those Arab residents of Mandatory Palestine that remained within Israel's borders following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and the establishment of the State of Israel. It is including those born within the state borders subsequent to this time, as well as those who had left during the establishment of the state (or their descendants), who have since re-entered by means accepted as lawful residence by the Israeli state (primarily family reunifications).

In 2019, the official number of Arab residents in Israel was 1,890,000 people, representing 21% of Israel's population.[54] This figure includes 209,000 Arabs (14% of the Israeli Arab population) in East Jerusalem, also counted in the Palestinian statistics, although 98 percent of East Jerusalem Palestinians have either Israeli residency or Israeli citizenship.[55]

Arab Muslims

Most Arab citizens of Israel are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. A small minority are Ahmadiyya sect and there are also some Alawites (affiliated with Shia Islam) in the northernmost village of Ghajar with Israeli citizenship. As of 2019, Arab citizens of Israel composed 21 percent of the country's total population.[54] About 82 percent of the Arab population in Israel are Sunni Muslims, a very small minority are Shia Muslims, another 9 percent are Druze, and around 9 percent are Christian (mostly Eastern Orthodox and Catholic denominations).

Bedouin

The Arab Muslim citizens of Israel include also the Bedouins, who are divided into two main groups: the Bedouin in the north of Israel, who live in villages and towns for the most part, and the Bedouin in the Negev, who include half-nomadic and inhabitants of towns and Unrecognized villages. According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as of 1999, 110,000 Bedouins live in the Negev, 50,000 in the Galilee and 10,000 in the central region of Israel.[56] The vast majority of Arab Bedouins of Israel practice Sunni Islam.

Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadiyya community was first established in the region in the 1920s, in what was then Mandatory Palestine. There is a large community in Kababir, a neighborhood on Mount Carmel in Haifa.[57][58] It is unknown how many Israeli Ahmadis there are, although it is estimated there are about 2,200 Ahmadis in Kababir alone.[59]

Arab Christians

As of December 2013, about 161,000 Israeli citizens practiced Christianity, together comprising about 2% of the total population.[60] The largest group consists of Melkites (about 60% of Israel's Christians), followed by the Greek Orthodox (about 30%), with the remaining ca. 10% spread between the Roman Catholic (Latin), Maronite, Anglican, Lutheran, Armenian, Syriac, Ethiopian, Coptic and other denominations.[60]

Druze

The Arab citizens of Israel include also the Druze, who numbered at an estimated 143,000 in April 2019.[61] All of the Druze living in what was then British Mandate Palestine became Israeli citizens after the declaration of the State of Israel. Druze serve prominently in the Israel Defense Forces, and are represented in mainstream Israeli politics and business as well, unlike Muslim or Christian Arabs who are not required to and generally choose not to serve in the Israeli army. Though a few individuals identify themselves as "Palestinian Druze",[62] the vast majority of Druze do not consider themselves to be 'Palestinian', and consider their Israeli identity stronger than their Arab identity. A 2017 Pew Research Center poll reported that the majority of the Israeli Druze identified as ethnically Arab.[63]

Syriac Christians

Arameans

In 2014, Israel decided to recognize the Aramaic community within its borders as a national minority, allowing some of the Christians in Israel to be registered as "Aramean" instead of "Arab".[64] As of October 2014, some 600 Israelis requested to be registered as Arameans, with several thousand eligible for the status – mostly members of the Maronite community.

The Maronite Christian community in Israel of around 7,000 resides mostly in the Galilee, with a presence in Haifa, Nazareth and Jerusalem. It is largely composed of families that lived in Upper Galilee in villages such as Jish long before the establishment of Israel in 1948. In the year 2000, the community was joined by a group of Lebanese SLA militia members and their families, who fled Lebanon after 2000 withdrawal of IDF from South Lebanon.

Assyrians

There are around 1,000 Assyrians living in Israel, mostly in Jerusalem and Nazareth. Assyrians are an Aramaic speaking, Eastern Rite Christian minority who are descended from the ancient Mesopotamians. The old Syriac Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark lies in Jerusalem. Other than followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, there are also followers of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church living in Israel.

Other citizens

Copts

Some 1,000 Israeli citizens belong to the Coptic community, originating in Egypt.

Samaritans

The Samaritans are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant. Ancestrally, they claim descent from a group of Israelite inhabitants who have connections to ancient Samaria from the beginning of the Babylonian Exile up to the beginning of the Common Era. 2007 population estimates show that 712 Samaritans live half in Holon, Israel and half at Mount Gerizim in the West Bank. The Holon community holds Israeli citizenship, while the Gerizim community resides at an Israeli-controlled enclave, holding dual Israeli-Palestinian citizenship.

Armenians

About 4,000 Armenians reside in Israel mostly in Jerusalem (including in the Armenian Quarter), but also in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jaffa. Armenians have a Patriarchate in Jerusalem and churches in Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa. Although Armenians of Old Jerusalem have Israeli identity cards, they are officially holders of Jordanian passports.[65]

Circassians

 
Circassians in Kfar Kama

In Israel, there are also a few thousand Circassians, living mostly in Kfar Kama (2,000) and Reyhaniye (1,000).[66] These two villages were a part of a greater group of Circassian villages around the Golan Heights. The Circassians in Israel enjoy, like Druzes, a status aparte. Male Circassians (at their leader's request) are mandated for military service, while females are not.

People from post-Soviet states

 
Russophone shop in Haifa

Ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians, immigrants from the former Soviet Union, who were eligible to emigrate due to having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent and thus qualified for Israeli citizenship under the revised Law of Return. A number of these immigrants also belong to various ethnic groups from the Former Soviet Union such as Armenians, Georgians, Azeris, Uzbeks, Moldovans, Tatars, among others. Some of them, having a Jewish father or grandfather, identify as Jews, but being non-Jewish by Orthodox Halakha (religious law), they are not recognized formally as Jews by the state. Most of them are in the mainstream of Israel culture and are called "expanded Jewish population". In addition, a certain number of former Soviet citizens, primarily women of Russian and Ukrainian ethnicity, emigrated to Israel, after marrying Muslim or Christian Arab citizens of Israel, who went to study in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s. 1,557,698 people from the current Russia and Ukraine live in Israel.[67]

Finns

Although most people of Finnish origin in Israel are Finnish Jews who immigrated to Israel, and their descendants, a small number of Finnish Christians moved to Israel in the 1940s before independence and gained citizenship following independence. For the most part, many of the original Finnish settlers intermarried with the other communities in the country, and therefore remain very small in number. A Moshav shitufi near Jerusalem named Yad HaShmona, meaning the "Memorial for the Eight", was established in 1971 by a group of Finnish Christian-Israelis, although today, most members are Israeli, and are predominantly Hebrew speakers, and the moshav has become a center of Messianic Jews.[68][69]

Baháʼís

The population of followers of the Baháʼí Faith in Israel is almost entirely made up of volunteers serving at the Baháʼí World Centre. Bahá'u'lláh (1817–1892), the Faith's founder, was banished to Akka and died nearby where his shrine is located. During his lifetime he instructed his followers not to teach or convert those living in the area, and the Baháʼís descending from those original immigrants were later asked to leave and teach elsewhere. For nearly a century there has been a policy by Baháʼí leaders to not accept converts living in Israel. The 650 or so foreign national Baháʼís living in Israel are almost all on temporary duty serving at the shrines and administrative offices.[70][71][72]

Vietnamese

The number of Vietnamese people in Israel and their descendants is estimated at 150 to 200.[73] Most of them came to Israel in between 1976 and 1979, after prime minister Menachem Begin authorized their admission to Israel and granted them political asylum. The Vietnamese people living in Israel are Israeli citizens who also serve in the Israel Defense Forces. Today, the majority of the community lives in the Gush Dan area in the center of Tel Aviv, but also a few dozen Vietnamese-Israelis or Israelis of Vietnamese origin live in Haifa, Jerusalem, and Ofakim.

African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem

The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of Jerusalem is a religious sect[74] of Black Americans, founded in 1960 by Ben Carter[75][76] a metal worker in Chicago. The members of this sect believe they are descended from the tribes of Judah driven from the Holy Land by the Romans during the First Jewish War (70 AD), and who reportedly emigrated to West Africa before being taken as slaves to the United States.[75][77] With a population of over 5,000, most members live in their own community in Dimona, Israel, with additional families in Arad, Mitzpe Ramon, and the Tiberias area. The group believes that the ancient Israelites are the ancestors of Black Americans and that the actual Jews are "impostors".[78] Some scholarship does consider them to be of subsaharan African origin, rather than Levantine.[79] Their ancestors were Black Americans who, after being expelled from Liberia, illegally immigrated to Israel in the late 1960s using tourist visas, requesting that Israel provide them legal citizenship status. Israel granted their requests.[80] The African Hebrew Israelites, like the Haredim and most Israeli Arabs, are not required to serve in the military; however, some do.

Naturalized foreign workers

Some naturalized foreign workers and their children born in Israel, predominantly from the Philippines, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal, Romania, China, Cyprus, Thailand, and South America (mainly Colombia).

Non-citizens

African migrants

 
Meeting between Sudanese refugees and Israeli students, 2007.

The number and status of African migrants in Israel is disputed and controversial, but it is estimated that at least 70,000 refugees mainly from Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, and the Ivory Coast reside and work in Israel. A count in late 2011 published in Ynet pointed out the number only in Tel Aviv is 40,000, which represents 10 percent of the city's population. The vast majority live in the southern parts of the city. There is a significant population in the southern Israeli cities of Eilat, Arad, and Beersheba.

Foreign workers

There are around 300,000 foreign workers, residing in Israel under temporary work visas, including Palestinians. Most of those foreign workers engage in agriculture and construction. The main groups of those foreign workers include the Chinese, Thai, Filipinos,[81] Nigerians, Romanians, and Latin Americans.

Other refugees

Approximately 100–200 refugees from Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraqi Kurdistan, and North Korea were absorbed in Israel as refugees. Most of them were also given Israeli resident status, and currently reside in Israel.[82] As of 2006, some 200 ethnic Kurdish refugees from Turkey resided in Israel as illegal immigrants, fleeing the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.[83]

Languages

Due to its immigrant nature, Israel is one of the most multicultural and multilingual societies in the world. Hebrew is the official language of the country, and Arabic is given special status, while English and Russian are the two most widely spoken non-official languages. A certain degree of English is spoken widely, and is the language of choice for many Israeli businesses. Hebrew and English language are mandatory subjects in the Israeli school system, and most schools offer either Arabic, French, Spanish, German, Italian, or Russian.

Religion

     Jewish,      Muslim,      Christian,      Druze,      Other.
Until 1995, figures for Christians also included Others.[84]

According to a 2010 Israel Central Bureau of Statistics study[85] of Israelis aged over 18:

  • 8% of Israeli Jews define themselves as Haredim (or ultra-Orthodox);
  • 12% are "religious" (non-Haredi Orthodox, also known as: dati leumi/national-religious or religious Zionist);
  • 13% consider themselves "religious-traditionalists" (mostly adhering to Jewish Halakha);
  • 25% are "non-religious traditionalists" (only partly respecting the Jewish Halakha), and
  • 43% are "secular".

While the ultra-Orthodox, or Haredim, represented only 5% of Israel's population in 1990,[86] they are expected to represent more than one-fifth of Israel's Jewish population by 2028.[87] By 2022, Haredim were 13.3% of the population and enumerated 1,280,000.[88][89]

Religious makeup, 2019[90][91][54]
Group Population %
Jews 6,697,000 74.2%
Muslims 1,605,700 17.8%
Christians 180,400 2.0%
Druze 143,000 1.6%
Other/unknown 394,900 4.4%

Education

Education between ages 5 and 15 is compulsory. It is not free, but it is subsidized by the government, individual organizations (such as the Beit Yaakov System), or a combination. Parents are expected to participate in courses as well. The school system is organized into kindergartens, 6-year primary schools, and either 6-year secondary schools or 3-year junior secondary schools + 3-year senior secondary schools (depending on region), after which a comprehensive examination is offered for university admissions.

Literacy

Age 15 and over can read and write (2011 estimate):[92]

  • Total population: 97.8%
  • Male: 98.7%
  • Female: 96.8%

Policy

Israel is the thirtieth-most-densely-crowded country in the world. In an academic article, Jewish National Fund Board member Daniel Orenstein, argues that, as elsewhere, overpopulation is a stressor on the environment in Israel; he shows that environmentalists have conspicuously failed to consider the impact of population on the environment, and argues that overpopulation in Israel has not been appropriately addressed for ideological reasons.[93][94]

Citizenship and Entry Law

The Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Order) 5763 was first passed on 31 July 2003, and has since been extended until 31 July 2008. The law places age restrictions for the automatic granting of Israeli citizenship and residency permits to spouses of Israeli citizens, such that spouses who are inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza Strip are ineligible. On 8 May 2005, the Israeli ministerial committee for issues of legislation once again amended the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law, to restrict citizenship and residence in Israel only to Palestinian men over the age of 35, and Palestinian women over the age of 25. Those in favor of the law say the law not only limits the possibility of the entrance of terrorists into Israel, but, as Ze'ev Boim asserts, allows Israel "to maintain the state's democratic nature, but also its Jewish nature" (i. e., its Jewish demographic majority).[95] Critics, including the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination,[96] say the law disproportionately affects Arab citizens of Israel, since Arabs in Israel are far more likely to have spouses from the West Bank and Gaza Strip than other Israeli citizens.[97]

In the constitutional challenges to the Citizenship and Entry to Israel Law, the state, represented by the Attorney General, insisted that security was the only objective behind the law. The state also added that even if the law was intended to achieve demographic objectives, it is still in conformity with Israel's Jewish and democratic definition, and thus constitutional. In a 2012 ruling by the Supreme Court on the issue, some of the judges on the panel discussed demography, and were inclined to accept that demography is a legitimate consideration in devising family reunification policies that violate the right to family life.[98]

Vital statistics

Birth and death rates in Israel[99][100][101][102]
Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
1950 1,370,000 43,431 8,700 34,731 34.1 6.8 27.3
1951 1,578,000 50,542 9,866 40,676 34.3 6.7 27.6
1952 1,630,000 52,556 11,666 40,890 32.8 7.3 25.5
1953 1,669,000 52,552 10,916 41,636 31.9 6.6 25.3
1954 1,718,000 48,951 11,328 37,623 28.9 6.7 22.2
1955 1,789,000 50,686 10,532 40,154 28.9 6.0 22.9 4.03
1956 1,872,000 52,287 12,025 40,262 28.6 6.6 22.0
1957 1,976,000 53,940 12,487 41,453 28.0 6.5 21.5
1958 2,032,000 52,649 11,615 41,034 26.3 5.8 20.5
1959 2,089,000 54,604 12,056 42,548 26.5 5.9 20.6
1960 2,150,000 56,002 12,053 43,949 26.4 5.7 20.7
1961 2,234,000 54,869 12,663 42,206 25.0 5.8 19.2
1962 2,332,000 56,356 13,701 42,655 24.7 6.0 18.7
1963 2,430,000 59,491 14,425 45,066 25.0 6.1 18.9
1964 2,526,000 63,544 15,491 48,053 25.6 6.3 19.3
1965 2,598,000 66,146 16,261 49,885 25.8 6.3 19.5 3.99
1966 2,657,000 67,148 16,582 50,566 25.6 6.3 19.3
1967 2,776,000 64,980 17,463 47,517 23.9 6.4 17.5
1968 2,841,000 69,911 18,689 51,222 24.9 6.7 18.2
1969 2,930,000 73,666 19,767 53,899 25.5 6.9 18.6
1970 3,022,000 80,843 21,234 59,609 27.2 7.1 20.1
1971 3,121,000 85,899 21,415 64,484 28.0 7.0 21.0
1972 3,225,000 85,544 22,719 62,825 27.0 7.2 19.8
1973 3,338,000 88,545 23,054 65,491 27.0 7.0 20.0
1974 3,422,000 93,166 24,135 69,031 27.6 7.1 20.5
1975 3,493,000 95,628 24,600 71,028 27.7 7.1 20.6 3.68
1976 3,575,000 98,763 24,012 74,751 27.9 6.8 21.1
1977 3,653,000 95,315 24,951 70,364 26.4 6.9 19.5
1978 3,738,000 92,602 25,153 67,449 25.1 6.8 18.3 3.28
1979 3,836,000 93,710 25,700 68,010 24.7 6.8 17.9 3.21
1980 3,922,000 94,321 26,364 67,957 24.3 6.8 17.5 3.14
1981 3,978,000 93,308 26,085 67,223 23.6 6.6 17.0 3.06
1982 4,064,000 96,695 27,780 68,915 24.0 6.9 17.1 3.12
1983 4,119,000 98,724 27,731 70,993 24.0 6.7 17.3 3.14
1984 4,200,000 98,478 27,805 70,673 23.3 6.6 16.7 3.13
1985 4,266,000 99,376 28,093 71,283 23.1 6.5 16.6 3.12
1986 4,331,000 99,341 29,415 69,926 22.7 6.7 16.0 3.09
1987 4,407,000 99,022 29,244 69,778 22.2 6.6 15.6 3.05
1988 4,477,000 100,454 29,176 71,278 22.2 6.4 15.8 3.06
1989 4,560,000 100,757 28,580 72,177 22.1 6.3 15.8 3.03
1990 4,822,000 103,349 28,734 74,615 22.0 6.1 15.9 3.02
1991 5,059,000 105,725 31,266 74,459 21.4 6.3 15.1 2.91
1992 5,196,000 110,062 33,327 76,735 21.5 6.5 15.0 2.93
1993 5,328,000 112,330 33,000 79,330 21.3 6.3 15.0 2.92
1994 5,472,000 114,543 33,535 81,008 21.2 6.2 15.0 2.90
1995 5,612,000 116,886 35,348 81,538 21.1 6.4 14.7 2.88
1996 5,758,000 121,333 34,664 86,669 21.3 6.1 15.2 2.94
1997 5,900,000 124,478 36,124 88,354 21.4 6.2 15.2 2.93
1998 6,041,000 130,080 36,955 93,125 21.8 6.2 15.6 2.98
1999 6,209,000 131,936 37,291 94,645 21.6 6.1 15.5 2.94
2000 6,369,000 136,390 37,688 98,702 21.7 6.0 15.7 2.95
2001 6,509,000 136,636 37,186 99,450 21.2 5.8 15.4 2.89
2002 6,631,000 139,535 38,415 101,120 21.2 5.8 15.4 2.89
2003 6,748,000 144,936 38,499 106,437 21.7 5.8 15.9 2.95
2004 6,870,000 145,207 37,938 107,269 21.3 5.6 15.7 2.90
2005 6,991,000 143,913 39,038 104,875 20.8 5.6 15.2 2.84
2006 7,117,000 148,170 38,765 109,405 21.0 5.5 15.5 2.88
2007 7,244,000 151,679 40,081 111,598 21.1 5.5 15.6 2.90
2008 7,419,000 156,923 39,484 117,439 21.5 5.4 16.1 2.96
2009 7,552,000 161,042 38,812 122,230 21.5 5.2 16.3 2.96
2010 7,695,000 166,255 39,613 126,642 21.8 5.2 16.6 3.03
2011 7,837,000 166,296 40,889 125,407 21.4 5.3 16.1 3.00
2012 7,984,000 170,940 42,100 128,840 21.6 5.3 16.3 3.05
2013 8,134,000 171,444 41,683 129,761 21.3 5.2 16.1 3.03
2014 8,297,000 176,427 42,457 133,970 21.5 5.2 16.3 3.08
2015 8,463,000 178,723 44,507 134,216 21.3 5.3 16.0 3.09
2016 8,629,000 181,405 44,244 137,161 21.2 5.2 16.0 3.11
2017 8,798,000 183,648 44,923 138,725 21.1 5.2 15.9 3.11
2018 8,883,000 184,370 44,850 139,520 20.8 5.0 15.7 3.09
2019 9,054,000 182,016 46,328 135,688 20.1 5.1 15.0 3.01
2020 9,215,000 177,307 49,006 128,301 19.2 5.3 13.9 2.90
2021 9,400,000 185,040 50,984 134,056 19.7 5.4 14.3 3.00
2022 9,661,400 181,193 52,054 129,139 19.0 5.4 13.6 2.89
2023 178,454 49,461 128,993 18.3 5.1 13.2

Current vital statistics

[103]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January 2023 15,618 4,804 10,814
January 2024 15,502 4,870 10,632
Difference   −116 (−0.74%)   +66 (+1.37%)   -182

Migration

Immigration

In 2013 Israel had an estimated net migration rate of 1.81 migrant(s) per 1,000 population.[citation needed]

Immigrants by last country of residence in recent years (according to CBS and the Jewish Agency):[104][105][106]

Country 2019 2020 2021
  Russia 15,821 6,644 7,500
  Ukraine 6,190 2,937 3,000
  France 2,227 2,407 3,500
  United States 2,481 2,296 4,000
  Ethiopia 1,636
  Argentina 411 551 900
  Brazil 589 512 550
  United Kingdom 498 459 650
  South Africa 343 269 550
  Canada 217 236 400
  Mexico 127 290
  Belarus 924 625
  Georgia 229
  Venezuela 174
  Uzbekistan 147
  Kazakhstan 139
  Moldova 130
Others 1,921
Total 33,247 21,820 27,050

Immigration from the USSR

During the 1970s about 163,000 people of Jewish descent immigrated to Israel from the USSR.

Later Ariel Sharon, in his capacity as Minister of Housing & Construction and member of the Ministerial Committee for Immigration & Absorption, launched an unprecedented large-scale construction effort to accommodate the new Russian population in Israel so as to facilitate their smooth integration and encourage further Jewish immigration as an ongoing means of increasing the Jewish population of Israel.[107] Between 1989 and 2006, about 979,000 Jews emigrated from the former Soviet Union to Israel.

Emigration

For many years definitive data on Israeli emigration was unavailable.[108] In The Israeli Diaspora sociologist Stephen J. Gold maintains that calculation of Jewish emigration has been a contentious issue, explaining, "Since Zionism, the philosophy that underlies the existence of the Jewish state, calls for return home of the world's Jews, the opposite movement—Israelis leaving the Jewish state to reside elsewhere—clearly presents an ideological and demographic problem."[109]

In the past several decades, emigration (yerida) has seen a considerable increase. From 1990 to 2005, 230,000 Israelis left the country; a large proportion of these departures included people who initially immigrated to Israel and then reversed their course (48% of all post-1990 departures and even 60% of 2003 and 2004 departures were former immigrants to Israel). 8% of Jewish immigrants in the post-1990 period left Israel, while 15% of non-Jewish immigrants did. In 2005 alone, 21,500 Israelis left the country and had not yet returned at the end of 2006; among them 73% were Jews, 5% Arabs, and 22% "Others" (mostly non-Jewish immigrants, with Jewish ancestry, from USSR). At the same time, 10,500 Israelis came back to Israel after over one year abroad; 84% were Jews, 9% Others, and 7% Arabs.[110]

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, as of 2005, 650,000 Israelis had left the country for over one year and not returned. Of them, 530,000 are still alive today. This number does not include the children born overseas. It should also be noted that Israeli law grants citizenship only to the first generation of children born to Israeli emigrants.

Health

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

  • 0.2% (2009 est.)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

  • 26% of women and 40% of men are overweight. In both genders, obesity rate is 15% (as of 2011).[111]
 
Graph of Total Fertility Rate vs. GDP (PPP) per capita of each country, including Israel.[112][113]

Future projections

In June 2013, the Central Bureau of Statistics released a demographic report, projecting that Israel's population would grow to 11.4 million by 2035, with the Jewish population numbering 8.3 million, or 73% of the population, and the Arab population at 2.6 million, or 23%. This includes some 2.3 million Muslims (20% of the population), 185,000 Druze, and 152,000 Christians. The report predicts that the Israeli population growth rate will decline to 1.4% annually, with growth in the Muslim population remaining higher than the Jewish population until 2035, at which point the Jewish population will begin growing the fastest.[114]

In 2017, the Central Bureau of Statistics projected that Israel's population would rise to about 18 million by 2059, including 14.4 million Jews and 3.6 million Arabs. Of the Jewish population, about 5.25 million would be Haredi. Overall, the forecast projected that 49% of the population would be either Haredi Jews (29%) or Arabs (20%).[115] It also projected a population of 20 million in 2065.[116] Jews and other non-Arabs are expected to compose 81% of the population in 2065, and Arabs 19%. About 32% of the population is expected to be Haredi.[117]

Other forecasts project that Israel could have a population as high as 23 million, or even 36 million, by 2050.[118]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Population of Israel on the Eve of 2024" (PDF) (in Hebrew). Central Bureau of Statistics, State of Israel. 28 December 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  2. ^ a b "Demographic characteristics - definitions and explanations (translation from Hebrerw into English)". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  3. ^ "Population growth, OECD". OECD. 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  4. ^ "Society at a Glance 2014 Highlights: ISRAEL, OECD" (PDF). OECD. 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d Gaza Strip and West Bank (except Jerusalem) estimate for mid-2023 as per "Estimated Population in the Palestine Mid-Year by Governorate,1997-2026". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, State of Palestine. Retrieved 1 January 2024. Subtract 817,407 (Area C), 611,284 (East Jerusalem).
  6. ^ "The Separation Barrier – Statistics". B'Tselem. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013. Data source: Israel 's Central Bureau of Statistics, The PA Central Bureau of Statistics and OCHA. All data on population updated to the end of 2005.
  7. ^ Katz, Yaakov (1 January 2024). "WEST BANK Jewish Population Stats (not including eastern Jerusalem) UPDATED TO: JANUARY 1, 2024" (PDF). WestBankJewishPopulationStats.com. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  8. ^ TIA GOLDENBERG (2 February 2023). "Jewish settler population in the West Bank surpasses half a million". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  9. ^ Biard, Michel (26 June 2019). "Addressing the Needs of Palestinian Households in Area C of the West Bank - Findings of the First Comprehensive Household Survey (January 2019) - occupied Palestinian territory | ReliefWeb". ReliefWeb. Oxfam. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  10. ^ "Occupied Palestinian Territory Area C of the West Bank" (PDF). UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. August 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  11. ^ Sum of Israeli and Palestinian estimates
  12. ^ a b BBC News. Regions and territories: The Golan Heights.
  13. ^ a b United Nations. Security Council Resolutions, 1981.
  14. ^ a b Council on Foreign Relations. UN Security Council Resolution 497.
  15. ^ a b c "Total" and "Jewish/Other" figures from "III/5 Population of Jerusalem by Population Group, Religious Identification, Quarter and Sub-Quarter, 2021 in Jerusalem Statistical Yearbook". Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research. 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2023.. From this number subtract 18,982 Arabs who have Israeli citizenship, viz. "Just 5 Percent of E. Jerusalem Palestinians Have Received Israeli Citizenship Since 1967". Haaretz. Retrieved 31 December 2023. East Jerusalem consists of Areas 2111–2911, all of Quarters 1, 4, and 16; in Quarter 5 Giv'at Shapira (French Hill), Ramat Eshkol, Giv'at Hamivtar and Ma'alot Dafna (but not Shmuel Hanavi), and in Quarter 13 East Talpiot.
  16. ^ "Estimated Population in the Palestine Mid-Year by Governorate,1997-2026". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, State of Palestine. Retrieved 13 February 2024.
  17. ^ "The Legal Status of the West Bank and Gaza". Question of Palestine, United Nations. 1982. The West Bank has an extension of 2,270 square miles
  18. ^ a b c Figure calculated from other sourced figures in table
  19. ^ Derived from total CBS Population of Israel 31-Dec-2023 minus estimates for East Jerusalem Israelis and non-Israeli Palestinians, minus Golan Heights, minus 1/1/24 estimate of settlers in Area C
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Further reading

External links