Nigerians or the Nigerian people are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria.[19] The name Nigeria was derived from the Niger River running through the country. This name was allegedly coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who later married Baron Frederick Lugard, a British colonial administrator.[20] Nigeria is composed of various ethnic groups and cultures and the term Nigerian refers to a citizenship-based civic nationality.[19] Nigerians are derived from over 250 ethno-linguistic groups.[21] Though there are multiple ethnic groups in Nigeria, economic factors result in significant mobility of Nigerians of multiple ethnic and religious backgrounds to reside in territories in Nigeria that are outside their ethnic or religious background, resulting in the mixing of the various ethnic and religious groups, especially in Nigeria's cities.[22] The English language is the lingua franca of Nigerians.[23] Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Muslims, who live mostly in the north, and Christians, who live mostly in the south; indigenous religions, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities, are in the minority.[24]

Regions with significant populations
 Nigeria227,062,427 (2024 est.)[1]
 United States461,895[4]
 United Kingdom312,000 (2021)[5]
 Central African Republic60,000
 Ivory Coast44,791[12]
 South Africa36,500+[13]
 Burkina Faso5,000[6]
Nigerian English, regional languages
Islam, Christianity, Traditional African religions

Ethnicity edit

Nigerians come from multiple ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds as the founding of Nigeria was the outcome of a colonial creation by the British Empire.[23]

History edit

There have been several major historical kingdoms and states in Nigeria that have influenced Nigerian society through their kings and their legal and taxation systems, and the use of religion to legitimize the power of the king and to unite the people.[25] Northern Nigeria has been culturally influenced by Islam, including several major historic Islamic states in the region.[25] The Songhai Empire, Kanem-Bornu Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate were major historical Islamic states in northern Nigeria.[25] Southern Nigeria historically held several powerful states, including the Benin Empire and Oyo Empire, and Aro Confederacy.[25]

Culture edit

Nigerian culture was profoundly affected by the British colonial rule.[26] Such as British colonial authority's denouncement and attacks upon polygamy, trial by ordeal, and certain types of sacrifices.[26] At the same time, British colonial authorities maintained and promoted traditional Nigerian culture that strengthened colonial administration.[26] The British spread Christianity throughout southern Nigeria and Christian missionaries assisted British authorities in establishing a Western-style education system in Nigeria that resulted in the teaching of English language in Nigeria and its subsequent adoption as Nigeria's main language.[26] The British replaced unpaid household labor with wage labour.[26] Prior to colonisation in the twentieth century, Nigeria's tribes usually possessed the land as a community, such that land could not be bought or sold.[21] Colonisation brought the notion of individuals owning land and the commercialisation of land began.[21]

In Nigeria, more than fifty percent of Nigerians live in villages of two different types: the first type used by the Igbo, Ibibio and Tiv involves a collection of dispersed compounds while the second type used amongst the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Kanuri involves nuclei of compounds.[27] These villages compose members of the ethnicity-related through ancestry as well as strangers who have been assimilated into the ethnicity.[27] Since the time prior to colonisation to the present it has been a common practice of Nigeria's tribes to adopt strangers into the tribes.[21] A male elder in the community commonly serves as a village chief or Baale.[27]

In the large cities of Nigeria, there is a substantial intermingling of Nigerians with foreigners, especially Europeans, Lebanese, and Indians.[22] The economic importance of Nigeria's cities has resulted in migrations of people from their traditional ethnic or cultural homeland to cities outside those territories.[22] Igbo, Hausa-Fulani and Ibibio people have commonly migrated to Lagos and many southerners migrate to the north to trade or work while a number of northern seasonal workers and small-scale entrepreneurs go to the south.[22]

Religion edit

There are two main religions in Nigeria, which are Christianity and Islam, they have both made significant impact on the making of African societies, and played significant roles in such a multi-religious country like Nigeria.[28] There are also other religions practiced in Nigeria.[29]

Sectarianism edit

Ethnic, religious, and regional disputes and tensions have commonly divided Nigerians on political issues.[30] In particular, cultural and political divisions between the Muslim north and the Christian south has politicised religion and caused significant political disputes in Nigeria.[30] Ethnic-motivated and religious-motivated violence by extremists has increased these tensions as well.[23]

However, despite instances of extremism, most Nigerians continue to peacefully coexist, and a common Nigerian identity has been fostered amongst the more educated and affluent Nigerians as well as with the many Nigerians who leave small homogeneous ethnic communities to seek economic opportunities in the cities where the population is ethnically mixed.[23] Although there are cultural divisions amongst Nigerians, the English language is commonly used as their primary language.[23] Also, most Nigerians share a strong commitment to individual liberties and democracy.[23] Even during periods of military rule, such military governments were pressured to maintain democratic stances by the Nigerian people.[23] Nigeria's political figures are commonly known as multiple indigenous languages outside their own indigenous language.[23]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 4 January 2023.
  2. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: As Benin Republic clocks 53: Over 6m Nigerians live in former Dahomey, 200 in jails but Amb Obisakin says 'Nigeria is a power here, there's no doubt about it'". Archived from the original on 2013-10-12.
  3. ^ Mark D. DeLancey, Rebecca Neh Mbuh. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon. Scarecrow Press, 2010. p. 283.
  4. ^ ACS, 2019
  5. ^ "Population of the United Kingdom by country of birth and nationality, July 2020 to June 2021". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 5 February 2023..
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". February 10, 2014.
  7. ^ "Immigrant status and period of immigration by place of birth and citizenship: Canada, provinces and territories and census metropolitan areas with parts". Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada Statistique Canada. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  8. ^ "BILANCIO DEMOGRAFICO NAZIONALE" (PDF). Directorate for social statistics and population census Istat – National Institute of Statistics. p. 10.
  9. ^ mevans, Bild: istockphoto com /. "Demographie". Statista.
  10. ^ Maguire, Ken (30 May 2010). "Nigerians fight bad reps in Ghana". Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". February 10, 2014.
  12. ^ Nigeria - International emigrant stock
  13. ^ "Nigerians in South Africa" (PDF). 2017. Retrieved 2020-04-28.
  14. ^ a b c "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Statistik Austria. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  15. ^ McFadyen 2008, p. 55
  16. ^ "Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
  17. ^ "AthensNews onLine SEARCH". Archived from the original on 2009-02-12. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
  18. ^ "Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre - Tabeller - SSB". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  19. ^ a b Gordon, April A. (2003). Nigeria's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. Ethnic diversity within nations. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 233. ISBN 1576076822.
  20. ^ "History – Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nigeria". Retrieved 2023-06-01.
  21. ^ a b c d Toyin Falola. Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press, 2001. p. 4.
  22. ^ a b c d Toyin Falola. Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press, 2001. p. 8.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h April A. Gordon. Nigeria's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, 2003. p. 233.
  24. ^ "Nigeria Fact Sheet" (PDF). United States Embassy in Nigeria. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  25. ^ a b c d Toyin Falola. Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press, 2001. pp. 15-16.
  26. ^ a b c d e Toyin Falola. Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press, 2001. p. 18.
  27. ^ a b c Toyin Falola. Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press, 2001. p. 6.
  28. ^ Korieh, Chima J. (2018-01-14). "Olufemi Vaughan. Religion and the Making of Nigeria. Duke University Press, 2016. xi + 336 pp. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $94.95. Cloth. ISBN: 978-0-8223-6206-7. $25.95. Paperback. ISBN: 978-0-8223-6227-2". African Studies Review. 61 (1): 274–275. doi:10.1017/asr.2017.140. ISSN 0002-0206.
  29. ^ a b c d "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  30. ^ a b April A. Gordon. Nigeria's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, 2003. p. 111.

External links edit

  Media related to People of Nigeria at Wikimedia Commons