There are over 525 native languages spoken in Nigeria.[1][2][3] The official language and most widely spoken lingua franca is English,[4][5] which was the language of Colonial Nigeria. Nigerian Pidgin – an English-based creole – is spoken by 30 million people in Nigeria.[5][6]

Languages of Nigeria
A map of languages in Nigeria and neighbouring countries
NationalHausa, Igbo, Yoruba
RegionalEfik-Ibibio, Isoko, Edo, Tiv, Fulani, Idoma, Ijaw, Kamwe, Kanuri, Ukwuani, Urhobo, Nupe, Gbagyi
VernacularNigerian Pidgin
ForeignArabic, French
Keyboard layout

The major native languages, in terms of population, are Hausa (over 80 million when including second-language, or L2, speakers), Yoruba (over 54 million, including L2 speakers), Igbo (over 42 million, including L2 speakers), Efik-Ibibio cluster (over 15 million), Fulfulde (13 million), Kanuri (5 million), Tiv (5 million), Nupe (3 million) and approximately 2 to 3 million each of Karai-Karai Kupa, Kakanda, Edo, Igala, Idoma and [[Izon language Kamwe |Izon]].[7] Nigeria's linguistic diversity is a microcosm of much of Africa as a whole, and the country contains languages from the three major African language families: Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan and Niger–Congo. Nigeria also has several as-yet unclassified languages, such as Centúúm, which may represent a relic of an even greater diversity prior to the spread of the current language families.[8]

English and Pidgin edit

English is the single most widely spoken language in Nigeria, spoken by 60 million of the population.[9] It is the main lingua franca of the country and there are a growing number of sole English speakers due to rapid urbanisation and globalisation.[10] English remains the official language and is the major language of communication in government, business and education.[10] Furthermore, the national anthem, constitution and pledge are written in English. Almost all mass media transmit information in English.[11] English became the official language when Nigeria was created from diverse national groups by the British Empire.[11] Despite decolonisation, Nigeria chose to make English the official language to promote national cultural unity[12] and so not to favour any particular native language.[11]

Despite its status, English is not widely spoken in rural areas.[13] Many Nigerians struggle with English, evidenced by the 60 percent fail rate of the WASSCE in English (May/June 2015), an important exam certificate.[10] Nevertheless, many Nigerians hold negative social attitudes towards the country's native languages, combining to lead to the neglect of Nigeria's many native languages. As such, there are fears from prominent linguists that Nigerian native languages are endangered and face eventual extinction.[11]

Many Nigerians speak Nigerian Pidgin, a creole language based on English, which has replaced the native language for many Nigerians. Pidgin is a popular social and cultural language.[11] It has become popular in the mass media and in political slogans.[14][15][11] According to a 2012 study, the replacement of native local languages with Pidgin is inevitable in the areas studied.[16]

Afroasiatic languages edit

A map showing Afroasiatic speaking peoples in Nigeria

The Afroasiatic languages of Nigeria are divided into Chadic, Semitic and Berber.[17] Among these categories, Chadic languages predominate, with more than 700 languages. Semitic is represented by various dialects of Arabic spoken in the Northeast and Berber by the Tuareg-speaking communities in the extreme Northwest.

The Hausa language is the best known Chadic language in Nigeria; though there is a paucity of statistics on native speakers in Nigeria, the language is spoken by 24 million people in West Africa and is the second language of 15 million more. Hausa has therefore emerged as lingua franca throughout much of West Africa, and the Sahel in particular. The language is spoken primarily amongst Northern Nigerians and is often associated with Islamic culture in Nigeria and West Africa on the whole.

Hausa is classified as a West Chadic language of the Chadic grouping, a major subfamily of Afroasiatic. Culturally, the Hausa people became closely integrated with the Fulani following the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate by the Fulani Uthman dan Fodio in the 19th century.[18][19][20][21] Hausa is the official language of several states in Northern Nigeria and the most important dialect is generally regarded as that spoken in Kano, an Eastern Hausa dialect, which is the standard variety used for official purposes.

Eastern dialects also include some dialects spoken in Zaria and Bauchi; Western Hausa dialects include Sakkwatanchi spoken in Sokoto, Katsinanchi in Katsina Arewanchi in both Gobir and Adar, Kebbi and Zamfara. Katsina is transitional between Eastern and Western dialects. Northern Hausa dialects include Arewa and Arawa, whilst Zaria is a prominent Southern version; Barikanchi is a pidgin formerly used in the military.

Hausa is a very atypical Chadic language, with a reduced tonal system and a phonology influenced by Arabic. Other well-known Chadic languages include Mupun, Ngas, Goemai, Mwaghavul, Bole, Ngizim, Bade and Bachama. In the East of Nigeria and on into Cameroon are the Central Chadic languages such as Bura, Kamwe and Margi. These are highly diverse and remain very poorly described. Many Chadic languages are severely threatened; recent searches by Bernard Caron for Southern Bauchi languages show that even some of those recorded in the 1970s have disappeared. However unknown Chadic languages are still being reported, such as the recent description of Dyarim.

Hausa, as well as other Afroasiatic languages such as, Margi, Karai-Karai and Bade (another West Chadic language spoken in northeastern Nigeria), have historically been written in a modified Arabic script known as ajami. However the modern official orthography is now a romanization known as boko introduced by the British regime in the 1930s.

Niger–Congo languages edit

Systematic graphic of the Niger–Congo languages with numbers of speakers

Niger–Congo predominates in the Central, East and Southern areas of Nigeria; the main branches represented in Nigeria are Mande, Atlantic, Gur, Kwa, Benue–Congo and Adamawa–Ubangi.[22] Mande is represented by the Busa cluster and Kyenga in the northwest. Fulfulde is the single Atlantic language, of Senegambian origin but now spoken by cattle pastoralists across the Sahel and largely in the northeastern states of Nigeria, especially Adamawa.

The Ijoid languages are spoken across the Niger Delta and include Ịjọ (Ijaw), Kalabari, Engenni and the intriguing remnant language Defaka. The Engenni language is spoken in the Ahoada-west region of Rivers State and Zarama community in Bayelsa State. The Ibibio language is spoken across the coastal southeastern part of Nigeria and includes the dialects Oron, Annang, and Efik proper. The single Gur language spoken is Baatọnun, in the extreme Northwest.

The Adamawa–Ubangian languages are spoken between central Nigeria and the Central African Republic. Their westernmost representatives in Nigeria are the Tula-Waja languages. The Kwa languages are represented by the Gun group in the extreme southwest, which is affiliated to the Gbe languages in Benin and Togo.

The classification of the remaining languages is controversial; Joseph Greenberg classified those without noun-classes, such as Yoruba, Igbo, and Ibibio (Efik, Oron, and Annang), as 'Eastern Kwa' and those with classes as 'Benue–Congo'. This was reversed in an influential 1989 publication and reflected on the 1992 map of languages, where all these were considered Benue–Congo. Recent opinion, however, has been to revert to Greenberg's distinction. The literature must thus be read with care and due regard for the date. There are several small language groupings in the Niger Confluence area, notably Ukaan, Akpes, Ayere-Ahan and Ọkọ, whose inclusion in these groupings has never been satisfactorily argued.

Former Eastern Kwa, i.e. West Benue–Congo would then include Igboid, i.e. Igbo language proper, Ukwuani, Ikwerre, Ekpeye etc., Yoruboid, i.e. Yoruba, Itsekiri and Igala, Akokoid (eight small languages in Ondo, Edo and Kogi state), Edoid including Edo (sometimes referred to as) Bini in Edo State, Ibibio-Efik, Idomoid (Idoma) and Nupoid (Nupe) and perhaps include the other languages mentioned above. The Idoma language is classified in the Akweya subgroup of the Idomoid languages of the Volta–Niger family, which include Alago, Agatu, Etulo and Yala languages of Benue, Nasarawa and Northern Cross River states.

East Benue–Congo includes Kainji, Plateau (46 languages, notably Gamai language), Jukunoid, Dakoid and some parts of Cross River. Apart from these, there are numerous Bantoid languages, which are the languages immediately ancestral to Bantu. These include Mambiloid, Ekoid of Cross River State, Bendi, Beboid, Grassfields and Tivoid languages.

Within the Benue-Congo languages, the expansive Bantu language family which covers much of central and southern Africa is represented in Nigeria by; Jarawa with around a quarter million speakers, making it the most spoken Bantu language in the country. Others include Mbula-Bwazza (100,000), Kulung (40,000), Labir (13,000), Bile and a few others.

An advert in Igbo in Abia State

The geographic distribution of Nigeria's Niger-Congo languages is not limited to the middle east and south-central Nigeria, as migration allows their spread to the linguistically Afro-Asiatic northern regions of Nigeria, as well as throughout West Africa and abroad. Igbo words such as 'unu' for 'you people', 'sooso' for 'only', 'obia' for 'native doctoring', etc. are used in patois of Jamaica and many Central American nations, Yoruba is spoken as a ritual language in cults such as the Santeria in the Caribbean and South-Central America, and the Berbice Dutch language in Surinam is based on an Ijoid language.

Even the above listed linguistic diversity of the Niger–Congo in Nigeria is deceptively limiting, as these languages may further consist of regional dialects that may not be mutually intelligible. As such some languages, particularly those with a large number of speakers, have been standardized and received a romanized orthography. Nearly all languages appear in a Latin alphabet when written.

The Ibibio, Igbo, and Yoruba languages are notable examples of this process. The more historically recent standardization and romanization of Igbo have provoked even more controversy due to its dialectical diversity, but the Central Igbo dialect has gained the widest acceptance as the standard-bearer. Many such as Chinua Achebe have dismissed standardization as colonial and conservative attempts to simplify a complex mosaic of languages.

Such controversies typify inter- and intra-ethnic conflict endemic to post-colonial Nigeria. Also worthy of note is the Enuani dialect, a variation of the Igbo that is spoken among parts of Anioma. The Anioma are the Aniocha, Ndokwa/Ukwuani, Ika and Oshimilli of Delta state. Standard Yoruba came into being due to the work Samuel Crowther, the first African bishop of the Anglican Church and owes most of its lexicon to the dialects spoken in Ọyọ and Ibadan.

Since Standard Yoruba's constitution was determined by a single author rather than by a consensual linguistic policy by all speakers, the Standard has been attacked regarding for failing to include other dialects and spurred debate as to what demarcates "genuine Yoruba". Linguistically speaking, all demonstrate the varying phonological features of the Niger–Congo family to which they belong, these include the use of tone, nasality, and particular consonant and vowel systems; more information is available here.

Branches and locations edit

Below is a list of major Niger–Congo branches and their primary locations based on Blench (2019).[23]

Distributions of Volta–Niger branches
Branch Primary locations
Akpes Akoko North LGA, Ondo State
Ayere–Ahan Akoko North LGA, Ondo State
Gbe Badagry LGA, Lagos State and adjacent areas
Yoruboid South-west, Central, and South-south states of Nigeria
Edoid Rivers, Edo, Ondo, Delta States
Akoko Akoko North LGA, Ondo State
Igboid Anambra, Rivers, Delta States (excluding Igbo proper)
Ibibioid Akwa Ibom State, Cross River States
Nupoid Niger, Kwara, Nasarawa States, Kogi, FCT
Oko Ogori-Magongo LGA, Kogi State
Idomoid Benue, Cross River, Nasarawa States
Ukaan Akoko North LGA, Ondo State
Distributions of Benue–Congo branches in Nigeria
Branch Primary locations
Cross River Cross River, Akwa Ibom, and Rivers States
Bendi Obudu and Ogoja LGAs, Cross River State
Mambiloid Sardauna LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon
Dakoid Mayo Belwa LGA, Taraba State and adjacent areas
Jukunoid Taraba State
Yukubenic Takum LGA, Taraba State
Kainji Kauru LGA, Kaduna State and Bassa LGA, Plateau State; Kainji Lake area
Plateau Plateau, Kaduna, and Nasarawa States
Tivoid Obudu LGA, Cross River State and Sardauna LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon
Beboid Takum LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon
Ekoid Ikom and Ogoja LGAs, Cross River State; Cameroon
Grassfields Sardauna LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon
Jarawan (Bantu) Bauchi, Plateau, Adamawa, and Taraba States
Distributions of Adamawa branches in Nigeria
Branch Primary locations
Duru (Vere) Fufore LGA, Adamawa State
Leko Adamawa and Taraba States; Cameroon
Mumuye Taraba State
Yendang Mayo Belwa and Numan LGAs, Adamawa State
Waja Kaltungo and Balanga LGAs, Gombe State
Kam Bali LGA, Taraba State
Baa Numan LGA, Adamawa State
Laka Karim Lamido LGA, Taraba State and Yola LGA, Adamawa State
Jenjo Karim Lamido LGA, Taraba State
Bikwin Karim Lamido LGA, Taraba State
Yungur Song and Guyuk LGAs, Adamawa State

In addition, Ijaw languages are spoken in Rivers State, Bayelsa State, and other states of the Niger Delta region. Mande languages are spoken in Kebbi State, Niger State, and Kwara State.[23]

Nilo-Saharan languages edit

In Nigeria, the Nilo-Saharan language family is represented by:

Foreign languages edit

French is compulsory in all schools. In January 2016, the Minister for Education Anthony Anwukah announced a wish to make French the second language of business in Nigeria because the majority of African countries are francophone and all of Nigeria's neighbouring countries are francophone.[10][24]

List of languages edit

This is a non-exhaustive list of languages spoken in Nigeria.[25][26][27][28]

S/N Language Alternate names Number of speakers Native speakers States spoken in Current status Language Varieties
1 Abanyom Abanyum, Befun, Bofon, Mbofon 13,000 Cross River Active 2
Nigerian Pidgin English Broken. Pidgin 80,200,000 all states
2 Abon Abong, Abõ, Ba'ban 1,000 Taraba
3 Abua Odual, Abuan 25,000 Rivers Obulom Port Harcourt, Obulom 2,000 Rivers
4 Abureni Mini 4,000 Bayelsa
5 Achipa Achipawa 5,000 Kebbi
6 Adim Cross River
7 Aduge 30,000 Anambra
8 Adun Cross River
9 Afade Affade, Afadeh, Afada, Kotoko, Moga Borno, Yobe
10 Afo Plateau
11 Afrike Afrerikpe 60,000 Cross River
12 Ajawa Aja, Ajanci Bauchi Extinct
13 Akaju-Ndem Akajuk Cross River Active
14 Akweya-Yachi Benue
15 Alago Arago Plateau
16 Amo
17 Anaguta
18 Anang 1,000,000 Akwa Ibom
19 Angas 368,000 Bauchi, Jigawa, Plateau
20 Ankwei Plateau
21 Arabic Chadian Arabic also known as Shuwa Arabic 1,000,000 100,000 Borno by Baggara Arabs
22 Anyima Cross River
23 Arum Nasarawa
24 Attakar Ataka Kaduna
25 Auyoka Auyokawa, Auyakawa, Awiaka Jigawa
26 Awori Lagos, Ogun
27 Ayu Kaduna
28 Babur Adamawa, Bomo, Taraba, Yobe
29 Bachama Adamawa
30 Bachere Cross River
31 Bada Plateau
32 Bade Yobe
33 Bakulung Taraba
34 Bali
35 Bambora Bambarawa Bauchi
36 Bambuko Taraba
37 Banda Bandawa
38 Banka Bankalawa Bauchi
39 Banso Panso Adamawa
40 Bara Barawa Bauchi
41 Barke
42 Baruba Barba Niger
43 Bashiri Bashirawa Plateau
44 Basa Kaduna, Kogi, Niger, Plateau
45 Batta Adamawa
46 Baushi Niger
47 Baya Adamawa
48 Bekwarra Cross River
49 Bele Buli, Belewa Bauchi
50 Betso Bete Taraba
51 Bette Cross River
52 Bilei Adamawa Rivers
53 Bille 40,000
54 Bina Binawa Kaduna
55 Bini Edo
56 Birom Plateau
57 Bobua Taraba
58 Boki Nki Cross River
59 Bokkos Plateau
60 Boko Bussawa, Bargawa Niger
61 Bole Bolewa Bauchi, Yobe
62 Botlere Adamawa
63 Boma Bomawa, Burmano Bauchi
64 Bomboro
65 Buduma Borno, Niger
66 Buji Plateau
67 Buli Bauchi
68 Bunu Kogi
69 Bura Bura-Pabir Borno, Adamawa, Yobe
70 Burak Bauchi
71 Burma Burmawa Plateau
72 Buru Yobe
73 Buta Butawa Bauchi
74 Bwall Plateau
75 Bwatiye Adamawa
76 Bwazza
77 Challa Plateau
78 Chama Chamawa Fitilai Bauchi
79 Chamba Taraba
80 Chamo Bauchi
81 Cibak Chibbak, Chibok Borno
82 Chinine Borno
83 Chip Plateau
84 Chokobo
85 Chukkol Taraba
86 Cipu Western Acipa 20,000 Kebbi, Niger
87 Daba Adamawa
88 Dadiya Bauchi
89 Daka Adamawa
90 Dakarkari Niger, Kebbi
91 Danda Dandawa Kebbi
92 Dangsa Taraba
93 Daza Dere, Derewa Bauchi
94 Degema Rivers
95 Deno Denawa Bauchi
96 Dghwede 30,000 Borno
97 Diba Taraba
98 Doemak Dumuk Plateau
99 Duguri Bauchi
100 Duka Dukawa Kebbi
101 Duma Dumawa Bauchi
102 Ebana Ebani Rivers
103 Ebirra Igbirra 1,000,000 Edo, Kogi, Ondo
104 Ebu Edo, Kogi
105 Efik Cross River
106 Egbema Rivers
107 Eggon Plateau
108 Egun Gùn Lagos, Ogun
109 Ejagham Jagham Cross River
110 Ekajuk
111 Eket Akwa Ibom
112 Ekoi Cross River
113 Ekpeye Ekpe ye Rivers
114 Engenni Ngene
115 Epie
116 English 178,000,000 40,000,000 4
117 Esan Ishan Edo
118 Etche Rivers
119 Etolu Etilo Benue
120 Etsako Afenmai Edo
121 Etung Cross River
122 Etuno Edo
123 Falli Adamawa
124 French 1,000,000 200,000 Bordering states of Nigeria
125 Fula Fulani, Fulbe, Fulfulde 15,000,000 12,000,000 Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe 7
126 Fyam Fyem Plateau
127 Fyer Fer
128 Ga’anda Adamawa
129 Gade Niger
130 Galambi Bauchi
131 Gamergu Mulgwa, Malgo, Malgwa Borno
132 Ganawuri Qanawuri Plateau
133 Gavako Borno
134 Gbedde Kogi
135 Gbo Agbo, Legbo Cross River
136 Gengle Taraba
137 Geji Bauchi
138 Gera Gere, Gerawa
139 Geruma Gerumawa Bauchi, Plateau
140 Gingwak Bauchi
141 Gira[disambiguation needed] Adamawa
142 Gizigz
143 Goernai Kaduna
144 Gong 100,000 Plateau
145 Gokana Kana Rivers
146 Gombi Adamawa
147 Gornun Gmun Taraba
148 Gonia
149 Gubi Gubawa Bauchi
150 Gude Adamawa
151 Gudu
152 Gure Kaduna
153 Gurmana Niger
154 Gururntum Bauchi
155 Gusu Plateau
156 Gwa Gurawa Adamawa
157 Gwamba
158 Gwandara Kaduna, Niger, Plateau
159 Gwari Gbari Kaduna, Niger, FCT, Nasarawa,Kogi
160 Gwom Taraba
161 Gwoza 40,000 Borno
162 Gyem Bauchi
163 Hausa 80,000,000 57,000,000 Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Kastina, Kebbi, Niger, Taraba, Sokoto, Zamfara 9
164 Humono Kohumono Cross River
165 Holma Adamawa
166 Hona
167 Hyam Ham, Jaba, Jabba Kaduna
168 Ibeno Akwa Ibom
169 Ibibio 12,000,000 9,000,000 Akwa Ibom, Cross River
170 Ichen Adamawa
171 Idoma Benue, Taraba
172 Igala Kogi, Benue, Anambra
173 Igbo 42,000,000 41,000,000 Abia, Anambra, Delta, Ebonyi, Enugu, Imo, Rivers 3
174 Igede Egede Benue
175 Ijaw Bayelsa Engenni Ngene
176 Ijumu Kogi
176 Ika Delta
177 Ikorn Cross River
178 Irigwe Plateau
179 Isoko Delta
180 Isekiri Itsekiri 1,000,000
181 Iyala Iyalla Cross River
182 Izere Izarek, Fizere, Fezere, Feserek, Afizarek, Afizare, Afusare, Jari, Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse, Hill Jarawa, Jos-Zarazon. 100,000 Plateau
183 Izondjo Bayelsa, Delta, Ondo, Rivers
184 Jahuna Jahunawa Taraba
185 Jaku Bauchi
186 Jara Jaar, Jarawa, Jarawa-Dutse
187 Jere Jare, Jera, Jera, Jerawa Bauchi, Plateau
188 Jero Taraba
189 Jibu Adamawa
190 Jidda-Abu Plateau
191 Jimbin Jimbinawa Bauchi
192 Jirai Adamawa
193 Jju Kaje, Kache Kaduna
194 Jonjo Jenjo Taraba
195 Jukun Bauchi, Benue, Taraba, Plateau
196 Kaba Kabawa Taraba
197 Kadara Ajuah, Ajure, Adaa, Adara, Azuwa, Ajuwa, Azuwa,[29] Eda Kaduna,[30] Niger[31]
198 Kafanchan Kaduna
199 Kagoro
20 Kajuru Kajurawa
201 Kaka Manenguba Adamawa
202 Kamaku Karnukawa Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger
203 Kambari Kebbi, Niger
204 Kamwe Adamawa, Borno and Republic of Cameroon Active[32]
205 Kamo Bauchi Active
206 Kanakuru Dera Adamawa, Borno
207 Kanembu Borno
208 Kanikon Kaduna
209 Kantana Plateau
210 Kanufi Kaduna[33]
211 Kanuri Borno, Kaduna, Adamawa, Kano, Niger, Jigawa, Plateau, Taraba, Yobe
212 Karai-Karai (language) Karaikarai, Karekare Bauchi, Yobe
213 Karimjo Taraba
214 Kariya Bauchi
215 Katab Kataf Kaduna
216 Kenern Koenoem Plateau
217 Kenton Taraba
218 Kiballo Kiwollo Kaduna
219 Kilba Adamawa
220 Kirfi Kirfawa Bauchi
221 Koma Taraba
222 Kona
223 Koro Kwaro Kaduna, Niger, Nasarawa
224 Kubi Kubawa Bauchi
225 Kudachano Kudawa Bauchi
226 Kugama Taraba
227 Kulere Kaler Plateau
228 Kunini Taraba
229 Kurama Jigawa, Kaduna, Niger, Plateau
230 Kurdul Adamawa
231 Kushi Bauchi
232 Kuteb Taraba
233 Kutin
234 Kwah Baa 18,000 Adamawa
235 Kwalla Plateau
236 Kwami Kwom Bauchi
237 Kwanchi Taraba
238 Kwanka Kwankwa Bauchi, Plateau
239 Kwaro Plateau
240 Kwato
241 Kyenga Kengawa Sokoto
242 Laaru Larawa Niger
243 Lakka Adamawa
244 Lala
245 Lama Taraba
246 Lamja
247 Lau
248 Ubbo Adamawa
249 Limono Bauchi, Plateau
250 Lopa Lupa, Lopawa Niger
251 Longuda Lunguda Adamawa, Bauchi
252 Mabo Plateau
253 Mada Kaduna, Plateau
254 Mama Plateau
255 Mambilla Adamawa
256 Manchok Kaduna
257 Mandara Wandala Borno
258 Manga Mangawa Yobe
259 Margi Adamawa, Borno
260 Matakarn Adamawa
261 Mbembe Cross River, Enugu
262 Mbol Adamawa
263 Mbube Cross River
264 Mbula Adamawa
265 Mbum Taraba
266 Memyang Meryan Plateau
267 Miango
268 Miligili Migili
269 Miya Miyawa Bauchi
270 Mobber Borno
271 Montol Plateau
272 Moruwa Moro’a, Morwa Kaduna
273 Muchaila Adamawa
274 Mumuye Taraba
275 Mundang Adamawa
276 Mupun 1,000,000 Plateau
278 Mushere
279 Mwahavul Mwaghavul
280 Ndoro Taraba
281 Ngamo Bauchi, Yobe
282 Ngizim Yobe
283 Ngweshe Ndhang, Ngoshe-Ndhang Adamawa, Borno
284 Ningi Ningawa Bauchi
285 Ninzam Ninzo Kaduna, Plateau
286 Njayi Adamawa
287 Nkim Cross River
288 Nkum
289 Nokere Nakere Plateau
290 Nsukka Enugu State and some parts of Kogi state
291 Nunku Kaduna, Plateau
292 Nupe Niger, Kwara, Kogi, FCT
293 Nyandang Taraba
294 Obolo Andoni Akwa Ibom, Rivers
295 Ogba Ogba 1000+ Rivers
296 Ogbia Bayelsa
297 Ofutop Ofutop (okangha(2) 5,000 4,000 Ikom, Okuni, Cross River
298 Ogori Kwara
299 Okobo Okkobor Akwa Ibom
300 Okpamheri Edo
301 Okpe Okpe 1,000,000 Delta
302 Olulumo Cross River
302 Oro Oron 1,000,000 Akwa Ibom
303 Owan Edo
304 Owe Kwara
305 Oworo
306 Pa’a Pa’awa, Afawa Bauchi
307 Pai Plateau
308 Panyam Taraba
309 Pero Bauchi
310 Pire Adamawa
311 Pkanzom Taraba
312 Poll
313 Polchi Habe Bauchi
314 Pongo Pongu Niger
315 Potopo Taraba
315 Pyapun Piapung Plateau
317 Qua Cross River
318 Rebina Rebinawa Bauchi
319 Reshe Kebbi, Niger
320 Rindire Rendre Plateau
321 Rishuwa Kaduna
322 Ron Plateau
323 Rubu Niger
324 Rukuba Plateau
325 Rumada Kaduna
326 Rumaya
327 Sakbe Taraba
328 Sanga Bauchi
329 Sate Taraba
330 Saya Sayawa, Za’ar Bauchi, Plateau, Kaduna, Abuja, Niger, Kogi
331 Segidi Sigidawa Bauchi
332 Shanga Shangawa Sokoto
333 Shangawa Shangau Plateau
334 Shan-Shan Plateau
335 Shira Shirawa Kano
336 Shomo Taraba
337 Shuwa Adamawa, Borno
338 Sikdi Plateau
339 Siri Sirawa Bauchi
340 Srubu Surubu Kaduna
341 Sukur Adamawa
342 Sura Plateau
343 Tangale Bauchi
344 Tarok Plateau, Taraba
345 Teme Adamawa
346 Tera Terawa Bauchi, Bomo
347 Teshena Teshenawa Kano
348 Tigon Adamawa
349 Tikar Taraba
350 Tiv 5,000,000 Benue, Plateau,adamawa, Taraba, Nasarawa 2
351 Tula Bauchi
352 Tur Adamawa
353 Ufia Benue
354 Ukelle Kele, Kukelle Cross River
355 Ukwani Kwale,Aboh Delta
356 Uncinda Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto
357 Uneme Ineme Edo
358 Ura Ula Niger
359 Urhobo 1,000,000 Delta
360 Utonkong Benue
361 Uvwie 100,000 Delta
362 Uyanga Cross River
363 Vemgo Adamawa
364 Verre
365 Vommi Taraba
366 Wagga Adamawa
367 Waja Bauchi
368 Waka Taraba
369 Warja Jigawa
370 Warji Bauchi
371 Wula Adamawa
372 Wurbo
373 Wurkun Taraba
374 Yache Cross River
375 Yagba Kwara
376 Yakurr Yako Cross River
377 Yalla Benue
378 Yandang Taraba
379 Yergan Yergum Plateau
380 Yoruba 54,000,000 48,000,000 Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Kogi, Edo 2
381 Yott Taraba
382 Yumu Niger
383 Yungur Adamawa
384 Yuom 250,000 Plateau
385 Zabara Niger
386 Zaranda Bauchi
387 Zarma Dyerma, Dyarma, Dyabarma, Zabarma, Adzerma, Djerma, Zarbarma, Zerma, Zarmawa Kebbi
388 Zayam Zeam Bauchi
389 Zul Zulawa

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ "Language data for Nigeria". Translators without Borders. Retrieved 2022-12-12.
  2. ^ "Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-07-14.
  3. ^ Blench, Roger (2014). An Atlas Of Nigerian Languages. Oxford: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  4. ^ "Language data for Nigeria". Translators without Borders. Retrieved 2022-12-12.
  5. ^ a b "Nigeria: languages by number of speakers 2021". Statista. Retrieved 2023-02-24.
  6. ^ "Africa: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2020-06-21.
  7. ^ "Nigeria". Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  8. ^ Adeleke, Dr Wale. "Languages of Nigeria - Regions". NaijaSky. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  9. ^ "Nigeria: languages by number of speakers 2021". Statista. Retrieved 2023-02-24.
  10. ^ a b c d Obiukwu, Onyedimmakachukwu. "Nigeria has a massive, largely overlooked, language crisis". Ventures Africa. Retrieved 2023-02-24.
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Bibliographies edit

  • Crozier, David & Blench, Roger (1992) An Index of Nigerian Languages (2nd edition). Dallas: SIL.mbembe language in cross river
  • Blench, Roger (1998) 'The Status of the Languages of Central Nigeria', in Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Endangered languages in Africa. Köln: Köppe Verlag, 187–206. online version
  • Blench, Roger (2002) Research on Minority Languages in Nigeria in 2001. Ogmios.
  • Blench, Roger (n.d.) Atlas of Nigerian Languages, ed. III (revised and amended edition of Crozier & Blench 1992)
  • Kwache, Iliya Yame (2016) Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria :Origin, History and Culture
  • Chigudu, Theophilus Tanko (2017); Indigenous peoples of North clCentral Nigeria Area: an endangered race.
  • Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  • Emenanjo, E. N. (2019). Four Decades in the Study of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics: A Festschrift for KayWilliamson.
  • Lamle, Elias Nankap, Coprreality and Dwelling spaces in Tarokland. NBTT Press. Jos Nigeria in "Ngappak" journal of the Tarok Nation 2005

External links edit