Edo State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria, located in the southern region of the country.[4] As of 2006 National population census, the state was ranked as the 24th populated state (3,233,366) in Nigeria.[5] Edo State is the 22nd largest State by landmass in Nigeria.[6] The state's capital and city, Benin City, is the fourth largest city in Nigeria, and the centre of the country's rubber industry.[7][8] Created in 1991 from the former Bendel State, is also known as the heart beat of the nation.[9] Edo State borders Kogi State to the northeast, Anambra State to the east, Delta State to the southeast and southsouth and Ondo State to the west.[10]

Edo
Auchi central mosque.jpg
Flag of Edo
Seal of Edo State
Nicknames: 
Location of Edo State in Nigeria
Location of Edo State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 6°30′N 6°00′E / 6.500°N 6.000°E / 6.500; 6.000Coordinates: 6°30′N 6°00′E / 6.500°N 6.000°E / 6.500; 6.000
CountryNigeria
Date created27 August 1991
CapitalBenin City
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Edo State
 • Governor
(List)
Godwin Obaseki (PDP)
 • Deputy GovernorPhilip Shaibu (PDP)
 • LegislatureEdo State House of Assembly
 • SenatorsC: Clifford Ordia (PDP)
N: Francis Alimikhena (PDP)
S: Matthew Urhoghide (PDP)
 • RepresentativesList
Area
 • Total17,802 km2 (6,873 sq mi)
 • Rank22nd of 36
Population
 (2006 census)
 • Total3,233,366[1]
 • Rank27th of 36
DemonymEdos or Idar
GDP (PPP)
 • Year2007
 • Total$11.89 billion[2]
 • Per capita$3,623[2]
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
postal code
300001
Dialing Code+234
ISO 3166 codeNG-ED
HDI (2018)0.622[3]
medium · 12th of 37
Websiteedostate.gov.ng

The modern borders of Edo State encompass regions that were formerly the site of various empires and kingdoms formed in the 11th century AD, the Benin Empire.[11] The ancient city of Edo, the site of modern-day Benin City, was home to some of the largest earthworks in the world.[12] In 1897, the British Empire conducted a punitive expedition of the region, destroying most of the ancient city of Edo and incorporating the territory into what would become the Southern Nigeria Protectorate.[13][14]

Edo State is a diverse state that is predominantly inhabited by the Edoid peoples, including the Edo (or Bini),[15] Esan, Owan and Afemai people.[16] The most common Edoid language spoken is the Edo language, which is commonly spoken in Benin City.[17] Christianity is the dominant religion in Edo State. It was first introduced to the region by Portuguese missionaries during the 15th century. Islam and traditional religions are also practised.[18]

HistoryEdit

The Mid-Western Region was a division of Nigeria from 1963 to 1991, formally known as Bendel state from 1976. It was formed in June 1963 from Benin and Delta provinces of the Western Region, and its capital was Benin City.[19] It was renamed a province in 1966, and in 1967 when the other provinces were split up into several states, it remained territorially intact, becoming a state.[20]

During the Nigerian Civil War, the Biafran forces invaded the new Mid-Western state, en route to Lagos, in an attempt to force a quick end to the war. While under Biafran occupation, the state was declared as the “Republic of Benin” as Nigerian forces were to retake the region.[21] The republic collapsed a day after the declaration as Nigerian troops overtook Benin City. Edo State was established on 27 August 1991 when Bendel State was split into Edo and Delta States.[22][23]

PeopleEdit

 
Burial in Edo State

With Benin City as capital, the population of the entire state is approximately 8 million.[24] It is made up of four major ethnic groups; namely Edo (Binis), Owan, Esan and Afemai (Etsako & Akoko Edo). However the State has a high presence of residents from across the country and the world because of its cosmopolitan tendencies. Benin City has a history of being one of the foremost destinations of Europeans during their exploration of Africa continent many centuries ago. Some of these flash points have remained enviable tourists’ attraction sites for the state.[25]

DemographicsEdit

The main ethnic groups in Edo State are Bini, Etsako, Esan, Owan, and Akoko Edo.[19] Virtually all the groups trace their origin to Benin City, hence their dialects vary with their distance from Benin City. The Bini speaking people occupy seven out of the 18 Local Government Areas of the state and constitute 57.54% of the total population. Others are as follows: Esan (17.14%), Etsako (12.19%), Owan (7.43%), and Akoko Edo (5.70%).[19] There are also Igbira speaking communities in Akoko Edo, Itsekiri communities in Ikpoba-Okha, and Ijaw Izons and Urhobos in Ovia North East and South West Local Government Areas, especially in the borderlands. Also, Igbo speaking communities exist in Igbanke (Ika) in Orhionmwon LGA.[26]

GovernorsEdit

Name Title Took office Left office Party Notes
Colonel John Ewerekumoh Yeri Governor August 1990 January 1992 (Military)
John E.K. Odigie Oyegun Governor January 1992 November 1993 SDP
Colonel Mohammed Abul-Salam Onuka Administrator 9 December 1993 14 September 1994 (Military)
Colonel Bassey Asuquo Administrator 14 September 1994 22 August 1996 (Military)
Group Captain Baba Adamu Iyam Administrator 22 August 1996 7 August 1998 (Military)
Navy Captain Anthony Onyearugbulem Administrator 7 August 1998 29 May 1999 (Military)
Chief Lucky Igbinedion Governor 29 May 1999 29 May 2007 PDP
Professor Oserheimen Osunbor Governor 29 May 2007 12 November 2008 PDP Removed by court judgment invalidating his election[27]
Comrade Adams A. Oshiomhole Governor 12 November 2008 12 November 2016 AC which later merged with some other political parties to become APC (All Progressive Congress) in 2013
Godwin Obaseki Governor 12 November 2016 present APC then decamped to the PDP on 19 June 2020 to seek re-election[28] Reelcted 20 September 2020.[29]
 
Ososo Hills

Local Government AreasEdit

Edo State consists of eighteen (18) Local Government Areas. They are:

Edo State House Of Assembly (Fifth Assembly) Division List, 2013Edit

Edo State House Of Assembly Division List 2013, consists of twenty-four (24) divisions:[30]

Edo State JudiciaryEdit

The Judiciary is the third arm of Government in the State, vested with the power to interprete the laws and resolve disputes in both civil and criminal matters in the State. The State Judiciary is headed by a Chief Judge. On the 16 of May, 2021, Edo State Governor, Godwin Obaseki swore in Justice Joe Acha as Acting Chief Judge of Edo State, following the retirement of Justice Esther Edigin[31]

PoliticsEdit

Governor Godwin Obaseki is the current governor of Edo State and was sworn into office on the 12th November, 2016.[32] His deputy is Rt. Hon. Comrade Philip Shaibu.[33]

LanguagesEdit

English is the official language of the state. The major tribal languages spoken in the state are Edo language, Igarra, Etsako/Afemai, Esan and Okpamheri.[34] Edo State is home to several ethnicities, they are the Edo, Okpe, Esan, Afemai/Etsako, Ora, Akoko-Edo, Igbanke, Ema[35]i.[36][37]

The Etsako/Afemai people of Edo state have the highest population of Muslims. They live in Six local government areas within the state and their major occupation is farming.[35]

 
Areal view of the ancient city of Benin

Languages of Edo State listed by LGA:[38]

LGA Languages
Akoko-Edo Aduge; Akuku; Ebira; Enwan; Igwe; Ikpeshi; Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe; Okpamheri; Okpe; Oloma; Ososo; Sasaru; Ukaan; Uneme
Esan Central Esan
Esan North East Esan
Esan South East Esan
Esan West Esan
Etsako Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe; Uneme[35]
Etsako Central Etsako
Etsako East Etsako
Etsako West Etsako
Igueben Esan
Ikpoba-Okha Edo, Itsekiri
Oredo Edo
Orhionmwon Edo; Ika;
Ovia North East Edo
Ovia South West Edo
Owan East Emai-Iuleha-Ora; Ghotuo; Idesa; Ihievbe
Owan West Emai - Iuleha, Ora
Uhunmwonde Edo; Ika

Religion Practiced In Edo StateEdit

Christianity is the major religion Practiced in Edo State, Although minority of the population practice Islam and traditional worship.[39][40]

EconomyEdit

Tourist attractions in Edo State include the Emotan Statue in Benin City, Ise Lake and River Niger Beach in Agenebode, Etsako-East; Mike Akhigbe Square at fugar, Ambrose Alli Square, Ekpoma, River Niger Beaches at Ilushi, BFFM Building at Ewu, Igun Bronze Caster at Igun Street in Benin City, College of Agriculture and Aqua Culture Technology, Agenebode, Okpekpe with its hills and scenes and the Usomege Hills at Apana-Uzairue, Somorika hills in Akoko Edo, where a government-run tourist center at Ososo is set among spectacular scenery.[41][42]

The state produces crude oil,[43] and other mineral resources like limestone and quarry. The state has a cement factory at Okpilla[44] and a Flour Mill at Ewu which is moribound.[44]

Mineral Resources In Edo StateEdit

The following are the Mineral Resources found in Edo State[45]

EducationEdit

Notable tertiary learning institutions in Edo state include:

HealthcareEdit

List of Edo State Medical zones and associated local government areas.[30]

Medical Zone Local Government Name Of Hospital Medical Zone Local Government Name Of Hospital Medical Zone Local Government Name Of Hospital
Abudu Orhionmwon General Hospital, Abudu[60] Benin Oredo Central Hospital B/City[61] Igarra Akoko Edo General Hospital, Igarra
Abudu Orhionmwon General Hospital, Igbanke[62] Benin Oredo Cottage. Hospital Obayantor[63][64] Igarra Akoko Edo Government Hospital, Ibillo
Abudu Orhionmwon General Hospital, Uronigbe[65] Benin Oredo Stella Obasanjo Hospital[66][67][64] Etete Layout Road, Benin City Dist. Hospital, Uneme-Osu
Abudu Orhionmwon Cot. Hospital Oben Ekpoma Esan West General Hospital, Ekpoma[68] Iguobazuwa Ovia South West General Hospital. Iguobazuwa
Abudu Orhionmwon Cot. Hospital Egbokor Ekpoma Esan West General Hospital, Iruekpen Iguobazuwa Ovia South West Government Hospital Usen
Abudu Uhunmwode Dist. Hospital, Egba Ekpoma Esan Central Dist. Hospital, Usugbenu Iguobazuwa Ovia North East Dist. Hospital, Ekiadolor
Afuze Owan East General Hospital, Afuze[69] Ekpoma Esan Central Dist. Hospital, Ewu Ossiomo Leprosy Clinic in All L.G.A Specislist Hospital, Ossiomo
Afuze Owan East Dist. Hospital, Otuo Fugar Etsako East General Hospital, Fugar Ubiaja Esan South West General Hospital, Ubiaja
Afuze Owan West General Hospital, Sabogida Ora[70] Fugar Etsako East General Hospital, Agenebode Ubiaja Esan South West Dist. Hospital, Ewohimi
Afuze Owan West Dist. Hospital, Uzebba Fugar Etsako East Dist. Hospital, Apana Ubiaja Igueben Government Hospital, Igueben
Auchi Estako West Central. Hospital, Auchi[71] Fugar Etsako West Government Hospital, Agbede Uromi Esan North East Central Hospital Uromi

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2006 PHC Priority Tables – NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION". population.gov.ng. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Edo | state, Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-09-16.
  5. ^ "Nigeria Census - Nigeria Data Portal". nigeria.opendataforafrica.org. Retrieved 2021-07-08.
  6. ^ "World Gazetteer: Nigeria - administrative divisions (per geographical…". archive.ph. 2013-01-05. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  7. ^ "Benin City | History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  8. ^ admin (2018-06-08). "Obaseki Revives N5.1bn Urhonigbe Rubber Plantation". THISDAYLIVE. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  9. ^ "Edo state: The heartbeat of the Nation". Channels Television. Retrieved 2022-08-14.
  10. ^ "Edo | state, Nigeria | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  11. ^ Strayer 2013, pp. 695–696.
  12. ^ Koutonin, Mawuna (2016-03-18). "Story of cities #5: Benin City, the mighty medieval capital now lost without trace". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  13. ^ Obinyan, T. U. (September 1988). "The Annexation of Benin". Journal of Black Studies. Sage . 19 (1): 29–40. doi:10.1177/002193478801900103. JSTOR 2784423. S2CID 142726955.
  14. ^ Koutonin, Mawuna (2016-03-18). "Story of cities #5: Benin City, the mighty medieval capital now lost without trace". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  15. ^ "Edo" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-05-30.
  16. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Nigeria: Esan ethnic group; whether it is a sub-group of the Yoruba; religions practised; whether members of this ethnic group engage in Ogboni practices". Refworld. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  17. ^ "Edo language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  18. ^ "Benin kingdom/Edo state Religions". www.edoworld.net. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  19. ^ a b c "About Edo". Edo State. 2019-07-11. Retrieved 2021-07-08.
  20. ^ "Edo state: The heartbeat of the Nation". Channels Television. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  21. ^ "The Republic of Benin was one of the shortest-lived countries in history". The Vintage News. 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  22. ^ "Unveiling Nigeria - state". www.unveilingnigeria.ng. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  23. ^ Bondarenko, Dmitri M.; Roese, Peter M. (1999). "Benin Prehistory: The Origin and Settling down of the Edo". Anthropos. 94 (4/6): 542–552. ISSN 0257-9774. JSTOR 40465021.
  24. ^ "About Edo". Edo State. 2019-07-11. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  25. ^ "About Edo". Edo State. 2019-07-11. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  26. ^ "Edo: Igbo community in Edo declare support for Obaseki". Peoples Daily Newspaper. 2020-07-17. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  27. ^ "The grand conspiracy that removed me as governor- Prof Osunbor". Vanguard News. 2011-04-03. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  28. ^ "BREAKING: EDO 2020: Governor Obaseki formally joins PDP". www.vanguardngr.com. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  29. ^ "Nigerian opposition governor wins re-election". news.yahoo.com. AFP. 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  30. ^ a b "Edo State OpenData – …open government". Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  31. ^ "EDO: Obaseki appoints new Acting Chief Judge, urges commitment to oath of office". Vanguard News. 2021-05-17. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  32. ^ "Edo State Governor". www.nggovernorsforum.org. Retrieved 2022-08-20.
  33. ^ "Obaseki begins vacation, transfers powers to deputy". Punch Newspapers. 2022-06-24. Retrieved 2022-08-20.
  34. ^ Seibert, Uwe (24 April 2000). "Languages of Edo State". University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
  35. ^ a b c "Full List of Tribes in Edo State Nigeria | AllNigeriaInfo". Retrieved 2022-01-31.
  36. ^ "Benin: City of tradition and culture". Vanguard News. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  37. ^ "Edo » Facts.ng". Facts.ng. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  38. ^ "Nigeria". Ethnologue (22 ed.). Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  39. ^ "Edo 2020: Group vows to boycott poll if Muslim candidate is not fielded". Tribune Online. 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  40. ^ "Benin: City of tradition and culture". Vanguard News. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  41. ^ "Edo State". NigeriaGalleria. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  42. ^ "70 Exciting Tourist Spots". OnlineNigeria. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  43. ^ Ogbeifun, Greg U (April 2006). "Importance of a Sea Outlet for Edo State". Retrieved 10 November 2007. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  44. ^ a b "CEMENT MANUFACTURING /PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA. A CASE STUDY OF EDO CEMENT FACTORY, UKPILLA, EDO STATE". NAU :: Open Educational Resources. Retrieved 2022-08-15.
  45. ^ "Natural Resources – Welcome To The Embassy of Nigeria". Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  46. ^ "Welcome to the Auchi Polytechnic". www.auchipoly-online.com. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  47. ^ "2015-06-16 Ambrose Alli University". Scholars at Risk. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  48. ^ "NUC approves new courses for BIU". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2019-08-01. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  49. ^ "Edo poly to resume February 1". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2021-01-25. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  50. ^ "Edo University, Iyamho". Times Higher Education (THE). 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  51. ^ "Igbinedion University Okada Nigeria". campus.africa. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  52. ^ "Kings Polytechnic kingspoly| School Fees, Courses & Admission info". universitycompass.com. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  53. ^ "Samuel Adegboyega University Nigeria". campus.africa. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  54. ^ "Shaka Polytechnic| School Fees, Courses & Admission info". universitycompass.com. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  55. ^ "University of Benin on The Conversation". theconversation.com. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  56. ^ keetu (2018-02-01). "Wellspring University School Fees For New Students 2021/2022 Academic Session". Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  57. ^ "College of Education, Ekiadolor courses, details and contact information - CoursesEye.com". www.courseseye.com. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  58. ^ "Edo College of Agriculture to takeoff first quarter 2021, Obaseki reassures". Businessday NG. 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  59. ^ "Obaseki performs groundbreaking ceremony of College of Agriculture in Edo". Vanguard News. 2019-10-23. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  60. ^ "For 14-Years Now, BEDC Has Not Supplied Us Electricity – MD, Abudu General Hospital". Nigerian Observer. 2019-08-27. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  61. ^ "PDP flays Gov Obaseki over Central Hospital, says it's fraud". Vanguard News. 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  62. ^ "In Terms of Infrastructure, There Was Igbanke!". Nigerian Voice. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  63. ^ Eshemokha, Udomoh (2020-05-09). "73 Accredited List of NHIS Hospitals in Benin city with their Addresses". Nigerian Health Blog. Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  64. ^ a b "Distribution of Hopital in Edo State – Edo State OpenData". Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  65. ^ "Odubu canvasses votes for APC". Nigerian Observer. 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  66. ^ "Stella Obasanjo Hospital Isolation Centre will be best — Obaseki". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2020-05-17. Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  67. ^ "Stella Obasanjo Women & Children Hospital • Hospitals - Private • Benin City, Benin City". www.medpages.info. Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  68. ^ "ClinicStandard". clinicstandard.com. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  69. ^ "General and Teaching Hospitals in Delta State Nigeria Information & Guide". www.nigeriagalleria.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  70. ^ "Edo communities where constituency projects are living testimonies". The Sun Nigeria. 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  71. ^ "NHIS Providers – EDO STATE | Integrated Health Care Limited". Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  72. ^ "Oba of Benin emerges TROMPCOM chairman". Punch Newspapers. 2017-08-24. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  73. ^ "Odigie-Oyegun bemoans agitations for Nigeria's breakup". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2021-06-14. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  74. ^ "Oyegun to APC: Give Nigerians the change they desire". TheCable. 2021-06-13. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  75. ^ "'Make we stop to dey play di ostrich' - See Obaseki response to FG claims on Nigerian economy". BBC News Pidgin. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  76. ^ "BBL - Using technology to improve teacher performance and education quality in Edo State, Nigeria". World Bank. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  77. ^ "Obomeghie shines in American hospitality industry, inducted into world hotelier's guild". Tribune Online. 2021-11-21. Retrieved 2022-05-10.
  78. ^ "Erhabor Ogieva Emokpae; Unforgettable master of African art". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  79. ^ "Mike Akhigbe, ex-Vice President of Nigeria, is dead, elder brother says | Premium Times Nigeria". 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  80. ^ "34 years after murder, Dele Giwa's family seeks justice, colleague insists on govt investigation". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2020-10-20. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  81. ^ Reuters (1986-10-20). "PARCEL BOMB KILLS NIGERIAN JOURNALIST ACCUSED OF PLOTTING". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  82. ^ "Update: Ex-Deputy Senate President, Legogie, dies at 66 | Premium Times Nigeria". 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  83. ^ "Pa Michael Imoudu, a selfless labour leader". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2019-10-20. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  84. ^ "History of Nigeria Ambassadors to US – US-NIGERIA Trade Council USA". Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  85. ^ "Major General Agbazika Innih". www.edoworld.net. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  86. ^ "Afemai People | Hometown.ng™". 2017-11-24. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  87. ^ "Aigboje Aig-Imoukhuede Soldiers on at 53". THISDAYLIVE. 2019-09-28. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  88. ^ "Aig-Imoukhuede: How Access Bank designed a winning business model for MTN". TheCable. 2021-05-06. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  89. ^ "The rise and fall of a Nigerian labor hero". africasacountry.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  90. ^ "'I dey kampe' - See Oshiomhole reaction to Obaseki election victory". BBC News Pidgin. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  91. ^ "Pastor Oyakhilome has come again | The Nation Nigeria". Latest Nigeria News, Nigerian Newspapers, Politics. 2021-03-31. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  92. ^ "Oyakhilome condemns regulation of church services". Punch Newspapers. 2020-07-31. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  93. ^ "Tinubu, Mohammed, Gani Adams, others mourn Momoh". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2021-02-03. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  94. ^ "Ex-information minister Tony Momoh is dead". Punch Newspapers. 2021-02-01. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  95. ^ "Maymunah Kadiri". New Voices Fellowship. 2021-01-25. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  96. ^ "WOMAN OF THE MONTH: Dr. Maymunah Yusuf Kadiri – Pinnacle Medical Services". Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  97. ^ "Prof. Ambrose Folorunsho Alli". www.edoworld.net. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  98. ^ "Buhari jailed my father unjustly — Ambrose Alli's daughter". Punch Newspapers. 2016-06-18. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  99. ^ "John Momoh | PeaceTech Lab". PeaceTech Lab | Putting the Right Tools in the Right Hands to Build Peace. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  100. ^ "Mr. John Momoh". Constituency for Africa. 2017-08-22. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  101. ^ "Oshodin formally hands over to new Uniben VC". Vanguard News. 2014-12-03. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  102. ^ Perishable. "Uniben: Oshodin's Footprints News - TELL Magazine". tell.ng. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  103. ^ Usuanlele, Uyilawa; Falola, Toyin (1994). "The Scholarship of Jacob Egharevba of Benin". History in Africa. 21: 303–318. doi:10.2307/3171890. ISSN 0361-5413. JSTOR 3171890. S2CID 161203337.
  104. ^ "Midwest/Bendel/Edo state Governors 1963-Date". www.edoworld.net. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  105. ^ "My father dug his grave years ago — Son". Vanguard News. 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  106. ^ "Eulogies as Samuel Ogbemudia is buried". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2017-03-18. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  107. ^ "Chief Anthony Enahoro". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  108. ^ "REMEMBERING THE "FATHER OF NIGERIA STATE" CHIEF ANTHONY ENAHORO". Fatherland Gazette. 2019-07-24. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  109. ^ "South Africa, Nigeria dominate African Region for Commonwealth Writers' Prize". Vanguard News. 2011-02-21. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  110. ^ Nwakobi, Emeka (2019-10-02). "Five Times Nigerian Writers Won The Commonwealth Best Book Prize". eelive. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  111. ^ "Odia: I have never been celibate, ask my girlfriends". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2020-03-15. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  112. ^ "Buhari celebrates Poet Odia Ofeimun at 70". 2020-03-15. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  113. ^ "Ex-INEC Boss, Guobadia Dies". P.M. News. 2011-02-04. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  114. ^ "Breaking News: Abel Guobadia ex-INEC boss dies". Vanguard News. 2011-02-04. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  115. ^ "Price, Rt Hon. George (Cadle), (15 Jan. 1919–19 Sept. 2011), Senior Minister, 1998–2003, and former Minister of Defence and National Emergency Management, Belize", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 2007-12-01, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u31415, retrieved 2021-06-21
  116. ^ "Godwin Abbe: At 70, I Have Learnt to Be Patient, Satisfied and to Shun Materialism". THISDAYLIVE. 2019-01-12. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  117. ^ "Politics and Legacies- Arch-Bishop John Enoyogiere Edokpolo and the verdict of history- a text presented at Edokpolo Grammar School Old Boys 50th Anniversary Ceremony- 4thDecember 2010 by Comrade Aiyamenkhue Edokpolo- SSA to the Gov of Edo State". Nigerian Voice. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  118. ^ "Overview of Edo – Niger Delta Budget Monitoring Group". Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  119. ^ "Sir Victor Uwaifo music, videos, stats, and photos". Last.fm. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  120. ^ "Our Founder". Benson Idahosa University. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  121. ^ "Idahosa, Benson Andrew". dacb.org. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  122. ^ Martin, Douglas (2008-06-25). "Sonny Okosuns, 61, Musician With Message, Is Dead". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  123. ^ "Okosuns, Sonny | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  124. ^ "Augustine Eguavoen biography, net worth, age, family, contact & picture". www.manpower.com.ng. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  125. ^ "Felix Idubor | Art Auction Results". www.mutualart.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  126. ^ "Professional Basketball Player Festus Ezeli Works to Brighten the Future for Youth". Kindhumans. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  127. ^ "As Modupe Ozolua Dumps 'First Love'". THISDAYLIVE. 2019-10-27. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  128. ^ "The Rise of Cosmetic Surgery in Nigeria". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2018-10-30. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  129. ^ None (2018-10-29). "Free to read | FW: Tony Anenih, former Nigerian Minister of Works, is dead". www.stearsng.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  130. ^ "Tony Anenih – Channels Television". Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  131. ^ "CHIEF (SIR) GABRIEL OSAWARU IGBINEDION CELEBRATES 86TH BIRTHDAY IN GRAND STYLE". Ovation Magazine. 2021-01-18. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  132. ^ "Itv benin contact". enseignements.william-marrion-branham.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  133. ^ "DAAR Communications say na politics make goment destroy dia Abuja building". BBC News Pidgin. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  134. ^ "Nigeria shuts down private TV, radio stations tied to opposition". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  135. ^ "Raymond Dokpesi Honoured with 'Zuoje' Title in Liberia". THISDAYLIVE. 2019-12-27. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  136. ^ "Lancelot Oduwa Imasuen". Culture Intelligence from RED. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  137. ^ africaindialogue (2020-02-05). "Pushing Frontiers In African Speculative And Fantasy Fiction: A Dialogue With Suyi Davies Okungbowa". Africa in Dialogue. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  138. ^ "Suyi Davies Okungbowa". Hachette Book Group. 2020-09-08. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  139. ^ "MR P and ex-Nigerian striker Peter Odemwingie gbas-gbos ontop social media". BBC News Pidgin. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  140. ^ Adeoye, Aanu (2021-01-28). "A tribute to Peter Odemwingie, a wonderful player unfairly remembered". Planet Football. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  141. ^ "CHRIS AIRE: A Nigerian can succeed any where in the World". Vanguard News. 2013-03-10. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  142. ^ "How I started top jewellery business in US with just $5, 000 — Nigerian-born international bizman Chris Aire". Latest Nigeria News, Nigerian Newspapers, Politics. 2015-10-30. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  143. ^ "Kamaru Usman Net Worth 2021, Salary & Endorsements". www.sportskeeda.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  144. ^ "Portsmouth Great Yakubu Aiyegbeni Reveals New Career After Retirement". Soccernet.ng. 2020-10-30. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  145. ^ "Yakubu Aiyegbeni: How NFF, Everton and fans celebrated Super Eagles legend at 38 | Goal.com". www.goal.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  146. ^ Adeoye, Aanu (2020-11-22). "A tribute to Yakubu, the one-man Premier League wrecking ball". Planet Football. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  147. ^ "Nigeria's Mavin Records launches executive talent program, Mavin Future Five". Music Business Worldwide. 2021-05-10. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  148. ^ "Page 15". METROWATCH. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  149. ^ "Eghosa Asemota Agbonifo speak on what inspired him to join Edo State politics, as campaign kicks off". Businessday NG. 2019-01-21. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  150. ^ "Prof. T. M. Yesufu, pioneer UNIBEN vice chancellor passes on". Vanguard News. 2014-10-09. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  151. ^ "THE pioneer vice chancellor of the University of Benin, Prof | Encomium Magazine". Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  152. ^ "Odion Ighalo Biography Facts, Childhood, Net Worth, Life". SportyTell. 2020-02-11. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  153. ^ "Victor Osimhen: How football celebrated Africa's most expensive player at 22 | Goal.com". www.goal.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  154. ^ "Most expensive Nigerian footballer Victor Osimhen biography, net worth, cars, & latest news!". naijauto.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  155. ^ Adenuga, Pete (2021-02-24). "The Problematic Mentality Of Aisha Yesufu's LGBTQ Activism". Medium. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  156. ^ "Nigerian Female Activists Press to Overcome Biases | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  157. ^ actor., Jombo, Nelson, producer, executive producer. Eme, Emmanuel Mang, director. Kalu, Ijeoma Cinthia, screenwriter. Akindele, Seun, actor. McNwizu, Bayray, actor. Ogbonna, LK, actor. Jegede, Yvonne, actress. Ade, Adunni, Housegirl Lover., OCLC 906611470, retrieved 2022-03-18
  158. ^ "As Nigeria's Guardian of Arabic retires from Unilorin to Auchi". Daily Trust. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  159. ^ "Chief Mike Ozekhome, SAN". Tribune Online. 2022-03-02. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  160. ^ "Why Jonathan's CoS, Oghiadomhe resigned". Vanguard News. 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  161. ^ "Breaking: Jonathan appoints retired General Arogbofa as new Chief of Staff | Premium Times Nigeria". 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  162. ^ "DIG Solomon Arase appointed acting IGP". Vanguard News. 2015-04-21. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  163. ^ "Police reform: Buhari wished Arase worked with him longer, says Femi Adesina". TheCable. 2020-10-23. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  164. ^ "Julius Aghahowa explains why he shunned coaching". Vanguard News. 2020-04-01. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  165. ^ "Julius Aghahowa biography, net worth, age, family, contact & picture". www.manpower.com.ng. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  166. ^ "Six years after death, veteran actor, Sam Loco, comes alive in 'The Diary of Mimicko' | Premium Times Nigeria". 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  167. ^ "Remembering legendary Nollywood actor 7 years after death". Pulse Nigeria. 2018-08-08. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  168. ^ "Nigerians react as Admiral Augustus Aikhomu dies @72". Vanguard News. 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  169. ^ "Helen Paul, Tatafo, Comedian, Actress, Singer, Nigeria Personality Profiles". www.nigeriagalleria.com. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  170. ^ Sanusi, Sola (2017-03-17). "Nollywood actors get appointment with Nigerian Communications Commission". Legit.ng - Nigeria news. Retrieved 2021-07-10.
  171. ^ Nosakhare., Igbinedion, Lucky (2001). A mid-term report of Lucky Nosakhare Igbinedion, Executive Governor, Edo State. Ministry of Information, Youth & Sports. OCLC 49861823.
  172. ^ Osunbor, Oserheimen (2010). Deepening democracy in Nigeria through law : an analysis of some contemporary issues in national transformation. Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. ISBN 978-978-8407-21-8. OCLC 805381036.
  173. ^ "Dr. E. Osagie Ehanire". Home. Retrieved 2022-05-25.
  174. ^ "Dr. Osagie E. Ehanire". TY Danjuma Foundation. Retrieved 2022-05-25.

External linksEdit