West Chadic languages

The West Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken principally in Niger and Nigeria. They include Hausa, the most populous Chadic language and a major language of West Africa.

West Chadic
Geographic
distribution
Nigeria, Niger
Linguistic classificationAfro-Asiatic
Subdivisions
Glottologwest2785
West Chadic Languages.jpg
West Chadic per Newman (1977)
Main Chadic-speaking peoples in Nigeria.
Hausa-speaking areas in Nigeria and Niger

LanguagesEdit

The branches of West Chadic go either by names or by letters and numbers in an outline format.[1]

In addition, Poki is unclassified within West Chadic.

Internal structureEdit

George Starostin's (2010) internal classification of West Chadic[6] as presented in Blažek (2010):[7]

Roger Blench's (2021) internal classification of West Chadic:[8]

DistributionEdit

Distributions of West Chadic branches:[9]

Branch Code Primary locations
Distributions of West Chadic branches[9]
Hausa–Gwandara A1 Northern Nigeria and Niger
Bole–Tangale A2 Darazo LGA, Bauchi State; Yobe, Taraba, Gombe, Borno states
Angas A3 Shendam and Mangu LGAs, Plateau State
Ron A4 Mangu LGA, Plateau State
Bade B1 Bade LGA, Borno State
South Bauchi B2 Darazo and Ningi LGAs, Bauchi State
North Bauchi B3 Bauchi State (Toro, Dass, Tafawa Balewa, Bauchi LGAs)

ReconstructionEdit

Although no full reconstruction of West Chadic has been published, reconstructions of numerals for West Chadic and its subgroups have been proposed by Václav Blažek (2018).[7]

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[10]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A, A.1 Gwandara da bi úkù / úɡú (Nimbia dialect) huru / furu (Nimbia dialect) bìyàri / bìyàr (Nimbia dialect) ʃídà / ʃídə́ (Nimbia dialect) bákwè / boʔo (Nimbia dialect) tákùʃì / táɡə́r (Nimbia dialect) tárà / tãrã (Nimbia dialect) ɡóm̀ / ɡóŋ̀ / ɡwóm (Nim. dialect)
A, A.1 Hausa ɗájá bíjú ʔúkù / ʔúkkù (West Hausa) fúɗú bìjár ʃídà / ʃíddà (West Hausa) bákwài tákwàs tárà ɡóːmà
A, A.2, Bole Bele móoɗì bòló kùnú fòɗɗó bàaɗì bàccímóoɗì báawùló ɓóorùɗó (2 x 4) ɓòowùnò bìmbáɗí
A, A.2, Bole, Karekare Karekare wáɗí bèːlú kúːnùː fèːɗú bàːɗú bàcóːɗì (5 + 1) bàcíbèːlú (5 + 2) fífèːɗú (2 x 4) ɓànnù mbáɗ
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Bole móoɗì bòláu kúnùm pòɗɗó bàɗì bàššimóoɗì báawúló póorɗó (2 x 4) ɓòonùm bìmbáɗí
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Bure (Bubure) móɗé máló kúnú ʄóɗó báɗé básúmé básùmáló (5+ 2) ʄórʄóɗó (2 x 4) ɓárdzìmóɗé (10 - 1) bárbáɗè
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Galambu múuri m̀bàál kúun páryá bòorí bɪ́címɪ́n bùcù m̀bàl (5+ 2) hórró bàryà múuri (10 - 1) bár
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Gera móóyi mbùlú kúnú fúɗú bàaɗì bèeshím bìccìmbùlú (5+ 2) húrɗú ɓànìnjà / barija bàrɗí / barr
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Geruma mô / mon m̀bàalú / mbàalúŋ kúnú / kúnúŋ fúɗú / húɗúŋ bàaɗì / bàalí bècə́m bàzə̀mbàalú (5+ 2) húrɗú / úrɗúŋ ɓár jà ɓáráɗì / ɓárári
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Kholok (Widala) ɗók pèlòw bùnùm pèeròw faàt / faàr foòròmìnì paàlìlàw bìrbìròw / pìrpìròw kómbóy ɓùmmò
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Kirfi (Giiwo) móoɗì mbàlú kúnú fáɗáu bòoɗ bìccúuni bìcímbàlu (5+ 2) fórfáɗó (2 x 4) bàr jà móoɗi (10 - 1) pàtà
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Maaka mōɗì bòllu kūǹ paɗɗu bìnkinù nɡā̀nù or bákwài (< Hausa) jìlai kwàlak bìmba
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Ngamo mòɗi bòlò kùnû hɔ̀ɗò bât bàʔàʃìmòɗi (5 + 1) babìlò (5 + 2) hɔɔrɗò (2 x 4) ɓònù bimbaɗ (2 x 5) ?
A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nyam mɔ̀dɔ́ fùllúk kùnúŋ hɔ̀dúk hwàt fármé fáró fùllúk (5 + 2) húrú ɡùdùk (2 x 4) láɡó mɔ̀dɔ́ (10 - 1)  ? kùumò (litː ' kumo ' = ear)
A, A.2, Tangale, Dera Dera (Kanakuru) ɗuwey rap kunu paraw bât byême bwelà torìmen wanɗumwe (10 - 1) ɡûm
A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Kupto (Kutto) ɗékkíré fáláw/ páláw kùnùŋ fàɗàw / pàɗàw fáat / páat fáyɗìn / páyɗìn fáyláw / páyláw fàrfìɗòw lèbìɗà kómó
A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Kushi ɗòk pə̀llòw tàat péeròw fwàt / fúwàt fàràɡbànàŋ fàrlów pìdiɗòw fɔ̀jèràw kpèmù
A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Kwaami múndí póllów / fóllów kúnúm póɗòw / fóɗòw páaɗí / fáaɗí páyíndì / fáyíndì (5 + 1) pópíllów / fófíllów (5 + 2) pówùrɗòw / fówùrɗòw (2 x 4) ? làmbáɗà kúmó
A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Pero (Pipero) ɗók bélòw ɡ͡bónòŋ béeɗòw púat / fwát páttira múndi páttira bélòw bídìdow kómpòy / kómvòy kó / k͡púmmò
A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Piya mùndí pèelów ɡbùnùm pèeɗòw fàat pàtìrà mùndí (5 + 1) pàtìrà pèelów (5 + 2) pèdìpìɗów (2 x 4) ??? kòmbòy kùmmó
A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Po Tangale (1) dɔk ràp kúnuŋ pàdàó fùwàt pàíndì pèláù pàpádà (2 x 4) làmbùdà ɡ͡bɔmɔ
A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Tangale (Shongom) (2) dɔ́k ráp kúnúŋ sɛ́rɛɪ̀ pʊ́wàd páyɪ̀nɗɪ́ péelòu párpàɗá (2 x 4) lámɓɗà ɡ͡bɔ́mɔ́
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Angas (Ngas) ɡàk báp kʷán fír pɛ̀t pìmí (5 + 1) pòbáp (5 + 2) pòkʷún (5 + 3) pòfár (5 + 4) sàr
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Kofyar vəl kún féer paàt pèmə (5 + 1) pòɡòvəl (5 + 2) pòɡòkun (5 + 3) pòɡòfár (5 + 4) sàr
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Miship (Chip) (1) kəme vəl kun feer baat pemee (5+ 1) pokvəl (5+ 2) pokkun (5+ 3) pokfaar (5+ 4) sár
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Miship (Chip) (2) me vɨl kun fɛr paàt pemɛ (5+ 1) pɔ̀ɡɔ̀vɨl (5+ 2) pɔ̀ɡɔ̀kun (5+ 3) pɔ̀ɡɔ̀far (5+ 4) sə̀r
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Cakfem-Mushere kume vel kun feer paat peemee (5+ 1) feermeekum (4+ 3) ?? feertiit (4 x 2) ?? paatmeefeer (5+ 4) kakapaat (5 x 2) ??
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Mwaghavul (Mupun / Sura) mə́ndòŋ və́l kún féer páat péemè (5 + 1) póvə̀l (5 + 2) pòkún (5 + 3) pòféer (5 + 4) kàapàt və́l (5 x 2)  ???
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Goemai (Ankwe) mée, ɡə̀mée və́l kún fə́r pʰá:t pʰə̀mə́ (5 + 1) pʰə̀və́l (5 + 2) pʰùkún (5 + 3) pʰə̀fár (5 + 4) sár
A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Tal [mɛ́nɛ] [vɨ́ɛ́l] [kún] [fɛi] [pàːt] [pɨ̀mɛ́] [mɛ́fɛ́imɛ́kúːn] [pàːfɛ́i] [mɛ́ːpàː] [sár]
A, A.4, Ron Proper Ron (Daffo) ɗaŋɡât ful / fulál yuhún púʔ hárá makoŋ melok mafwaráʔ yèlâm hùrè
B, B.1, Duwai Duwai ɡùɗìyò ʃirì fə̀ɗú vā̀ɗ ə̀jdə̀ɡərma sə̀və̀sə̀ri / tlə̀və̀sə̀ri ə̀jldàakò wā̀rìyà ɡùumà
B, B.1, Bade Proper Bade ɡàɗi sərən kwan fəɗu vàɗì ə̀zdù ɡatkasà ɬədàakwà warayà ɡuumà
B, B.1, Bade Proper Ngizim kə́ɗə́n (counting), ɡàyí (enumat.) ʃírín kwán fə́ɗú vàaɗ zə̀dù ɡátkásà dándàfə́ɗú (2 x 4) kúɗkûvdà ɡúmà
B, B.2 Dira (Diri) num rɔp mɪyaxkən wupsɛ nəmtəm mukkə̀ ŋyɪniŋɡì wùzupsè (2 x 4) ? vwanùm (10 - 1) ? kwuɬ
B, B.2 Miya wútə̀ tsə̀r kìdi fə̀ɗə vàaɬə màaha (5+1) ? mààtsə̀r (5+2) fə́rfəɗə (2 x 4) kùcìyà də́rɓitim
B, B.3 Dass (of Dott) nə̀m rwáp mààɣí wùupsí nàmtám màamaɣ / muumáɣ wúsúrmàɣè wúsúpsì (2 x 4) nàturə́psi / nàtàrə́psi zùp
B, B.3, Boghom Boghom nyìm ɓáap / pā́p / ɡbwàap mói múpsí ndàuní / ndóoní màak nyàŋɡí ɓóopsí ʔáamsóyìm (10 -1) ŋəmàs / wuur nyìm
B, B.3, Boghom Mangas nim ɓíin mween ùpsi tùun màɣà nyíŋɡi ɡàamzi kúrúmsa zúp
B, B.3, Eastern Jimi nintóo rwá mwaikán / mwenkán ihyú namtáŋ / namtám máakoo inkóo ɡuhyú (2 x 4) kə́skəníntoo / kə́zə̀kə̀níntò (10 -1) ndəɓóo / ɗúbó
B, B.3, Guruntum Guruntum ʃàak raap miyaŋ ooso kʸuwun môon nʸeene ɡèesau ɗáar zùp
B, B.3, Guruntum Zangwal (Zangur) nə́m kwáap màyà wúusù nàmtàm màaɡa nyínìɡì ʔáasuʔáasù (2 x 4) áatə̀nə̀n súp
B, B.3, Zaar Proper Geji (Gyazi) (1) nə̀m lôp mèkan wupsì nàmtan mukkà nitɡi wùsupsì (2 x 4) ? topsi kuɬ
B, B.3, Zaar Proper Geji (Gezawa) (2) nɨ̀m lôp mèkən wupsì nə̀mtəŋ mukkə̀ nininɡi wùsupsì (2 x 4) ? nə̀topsi kuɬ
B, B.3, Zaar Proper Polci (Palci) nɨ̀m rǒp miyèn wupsɨ̀ nə̀mtəm maɣà wusɨ̀rmìyen (4 + 3) ? wɨsɨpsɨ̀ (2 x 4) ? nàtoropsɨ̀ zup
B, B.3, Zaar Proper Saya nàmbə́ŋ mbə̀ɬíŋ máajìi wúpsə̀ nândə̀m lîim wátsə̀maí tántán tɔ́knándə́m zúp

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Blench, Roger. 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List (ms)
  2. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). "Jakato: an undocumented language of Central Nigeria".
  3. ^ a b Blench, Roger. 2017. Current research on the A3 West Chadic languages.
  4. ^ Blench, Roger. Comparative Ron wordlist.
  5. ^ Blench, Roger. 2012. Linguistic and cultural background to the North Bauchi region and the Wiihə people.
  6. ^ Starostin, George. 2010. Afroasiatic classification: preliminary results of the modified glottochronological test. Manuscript.
  7. ^ a b Blažek, Václav. 2018. The numerals of West Chadic. Topics in Chadic Linguistics IX. Papers from the 8th Biennial International Colloquium on the Chadic Languages, Bayreuth, February 4-5, 2016.
  8. ^ Blench, Roger. 2021. The erosion of number marking in West Chadic Roger Blench. WOCAL, Leiden.
  9. ^ a b Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  10. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Afro-Asiatic Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

External linksEdit