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Borno, also known as Borno State, is a state in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the split of the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State. It is the homeland of the Kanuri people in Nigeria.


Flag of Pornonupğ State
Location of Borno State in Nigeria
Location of Borno State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 11°30′N 13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000Coordinates: 11°30′N 13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000
Country Nigeria
Date created3 February 1976
 • Governor[1]Babagana Umara Zulum (APC)
 • Senators
 • Total57,799 km2 (22,316 sq mi)
Area rank2nd of 36
 • Total4,171,104
 • Rank12th of 36
 • Density72/km2 (190/sq mi)
 • Year2007
 • Total$5.18 billion[2]
 • Per capita$1,214[2]
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
ISO 3166 codeNG-BO
HDI (2016)0.328[3] · 32nd of 36


Dancers in Borno state attire

The state has a predominance of Kanuri people. Other ethnic groups such as Lamang, Babur/Bura and Marghi are also found in the southern part of the state. Shuwa Arabs are mainly the descendants of Arab people[4] and is an example of the endurance of traditional political institutions in some areas of Africa, where the emirs of the former Kanem-Bornu Empire have played a part in the politics of this area for nearly 1,000 years.[5] The current Kanemi dynasty gained control of the Borno Emirate in the early 19th century after the Fulani jihad of Usman dan Fodio. Conquered by Rabih in 1893, Borno was invaded by the British, French and Germans at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1902, the British officially incorporated Borno into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate[6] and established a new capital at Maiduguri or Yerwa in 1907, which remains the capital to this day.[7]

After Nigerian independence in 1960, Borno remained fairly autonomous until the expansion of the number of states in Nigeria to 12 in 1967. Local government reform in 1976 further reduced the power of the emirs of the former dynasty, and by the time of Nigeria's return to civilian rule in 1979, the emirs' jurisdiction has been restricted solely to cultural and traditional affairs. The emirs still exist, and serve as advisers to the local government. Mala Kachallah was elected governor of Borno State in 1999 under the flagship of the then APP(All Peoples Party) later ANPP. Ali Modu Sheriff was elected governor of Borno State in Nigeria in April 2003. He is a member of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). Ali Sheriff was the first governor in Borno state to win the seat two consecutive times.[8]

On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Northeast Nigeria,[9] including Borno State along with the neighboring states of Adamawa and Yobe.[10] This happened after fighting between Boko Haram and the state armed forces killed as many as 200 people in the town of Baga. A spokesman for the Nigerian Armed Forces declared that the offensive would continue "as long as it takes to achieve our objective of getting rid of insurgents from every part of Nigeria."[11]

In July 2014, Borno state governor Kashim Shettima said that "176 teachers had been killed and 900 schools destroyed since 2011."[12] After the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping in April 2014, most schools in Borno State were closed. They were scheduled to reopen in November 2014.[13]

In November 2014, UNICEF reported it has increased its Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) centres in Borno State "from 5 to 67 and is planning to increase this to 100."[14] In Borno State, the agricultural sector has suffered mostly because of the ongoing Boko Haram Insurgency since 2009 and many people experienced acute food insecurity.[15]

Local Government AreasEdit

Borno State consists of twenty-seven (27) Local Government Areas, grouped into three Senatorial Districts (shown below with their areas and 2006 Census population figures):[16]

Borno Central
Senatorial District
Area in
1,666,541 Borno South
Senatorial District
Area in
1,245,962 Borno North
Senatorial District
Area in
Maiduguri 137.36 540,016 Askira/Uba 2,431.83 143,313 Abadam 4,172.27 100,065
Ngala 1,519.82 236,498 Bayo 985.78 79,078 Gubio 2,575.09 151,286
Kala/Balge 1,962.13 60,834 Biu 3,423.86 175,760 Guzamala 2,631.44 95,991
Mafa 2,976.99 103,600 Chibok 1,392.00 66,333 Kaga 2,802.46 89,996
Konduga 6,065.89 157,322 Damboa 6,426.18 233,200 Kukawa 5,124.41 203,343
Bama 5,158.87 270,119 Gwoza 2,973.15 276,568 Magumeri 5,057.61 140,257
Jere 900.72 209,107 Hawul 2,160.99 120,733 Marte 3,280.02 129,409
Dikwa 1,836.89 105,042 Kwaya Kusar 754.69 56,704 Mobbar 3,280.02 116,633
Shani 1,238.93 100,989 Monguno 1,993.20 109,834
Nganzai 2,572.35 99,074

In addition, there are Eight Emirate Councils (Borno, Damboa, Dikwa, Biu, Askira, Gwoza, Shani and Uba Emirates),[17] which advise the local governments on cultural and traditional matters.[18]


Religion in Borno State of Nigeria is mainly Islam with few adherent of Christianity. The Sharia is valid in the entire state. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Maiduguri has its seat in the state. Ekklesiar Yan'Uwa A Nigeria (EYN) in Maiduguri were destroyed by Boko Haram[19] as a part of 2009 Nigerian sectarian violence.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ See List of Governors of Borno State for a list of prior governors
  2. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
  3. ^ "National Human Development Report 2018" (PDF).
  4. ^ Scheinfeldt, L.B.; Soi, S.; Tischkoff, S.A. (2010). The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. p. 96.
  5. ^ Barkindo, Bawuro, and Dierk Lange, ‘The Chad Region as a Crossroads’, in General History of Africa, ed. by M Elfasi and I Hrbek (London: Unesco, Heinemann, 1988), III, 436–60.
  6. ^ Ikime, Obaro, ‘The Fall of Borno’, in The Fall of Nigeria: The British Conquest (London: Heinemann Educational, 1977), pp. 178–84
  7. ^ Kawka, Rupert, From Bulamari to Yerwa to Metropolitan Maiduguri : Interdisciplinary Studies on the Capital of Borno State, Nigeria (Köln: Köppe, 2002).
  8. ^ "Governor Ali Modu Sheriff of Borno State". Nigeria Governors Forum. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
  9. ^ "Nigeria: State of Emergency Declared". The New York Times. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  10. ^ "Army crackdown on Nigeria's Islamist militants". BBC News. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  11. ^ "Nigeria army's offensive to continue 'as long as it takes'". BBC News. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  12. ^ "Nigeria: Shettima Orders Investigation Into Mass Abduction of Women". 26 June 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  13. ^ Michael Olugbode. Nigeria: Borno Public Schools to Reopen Soon,, 27 August 2014.
  14. ^ Nigeria: Humanitarian Update on the North East Nigeria,, November 2014.
  15. ^ Actionagainsthunger. “Action Against Hunger Logo.” Nigeria. Actionagainsthunger, n.d. Web. 03 May 2016.
  16. ^ 2006 Population Census, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original Archived July 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine on 25 March 2009.
  17. ^ Borno State overview Archived July 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Borno State Government
  18. ^ Borno State information Archived October 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics; accessed 28 September 2015.
  19. ^


  • Aborisade, Oladimeji; Robert J. Mundt (2001). Politics in Nigeria. White Plains, New York: Longman. ISBN 9780321085610.

External linksEdit