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Borno, also known as Borno State, is a State in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital and largest city is Maiduguri. The State was formed in 1976 under General Olusegun Obasanjo, who was before then the Vice President under General Muritala Muhammed. Borno State was split from the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State. The motto or slogan of the State is "Home of Peace". Borno is the homeland of the Kanuri people in Nigeria and several other ethnic groups.
|Date created||3 February 1976|
|• Body||Government of Borno State|
|• Governor||Babagana Umara Zulum (APC)|
|• Deputy Governor||Umar Usman Kadafur (APC)|
|• Legislature||Borno State House of Assembly|
|• Senators||C: Kashim Shettima (APC)|
N: Abubakar Kyari (APC)
S: Mohammed Ali Ndume (APC)
|• Total||70,898 km2 (27,374 sq mi)|
|Area rank||2nd of 36|
|• Rank||12th of 36|
|• Density||83/km2 (210/sq mi)|
|• Total||$5.18 billion|
|• Per capita||$1,214|
|Time zone||UTC+01 (WAT)|
|ISO 3166 code||NG-BO|
low · 25th of 37
Borno has been the epicenter of the Islamist group Boko Haram since it began its insurgency in 2009. The conflict in Borno drew media attention in 2009 after clashes between Boko Haram and government security forces in which the founder of Boko Haram, Mohammed Yusuf was reportedly captured alongside 300 of its members. Days later Mohammed Yusuf was announced dead after he reportedly attempted to escape from detention.
After a decade of a protracted conflict that has destroyed economic activities and normal life, the governor of the State Babagana Umara Zulum in 2019 commenced a multi-pronged strategy of his own recruiting 10,000 hunters with "voodoo powers" to help government forces rout the insurgents.
This section needs to be updated.(April 2020)
The State has a predominance of Kanuri people. Other ethnic groups such as Lapang, Babur/Bura and Marghi are also found in the southern part of the State. Shuwa Arabs are mainly the descendants of Arab people and is an example of the endurance of traditional political institutions in some areas of Africa, where the emirs of the former Kanem–Bornu Empire have played a part in the politics of this area for nearly 1,000 years. The current Kanemi dynasty gained control of the Borno Emirate in the early 19th century after the Fulani jihad of Usman dan Fodio. Conquered by Rabih in 1893, Borno was invaded by the British, French and Germans at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1902, the British officially incorporated Borno into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and established a new capital at Maiduguri or Yerwa in 1907, which remains the capital to this day.
After Nigerian independence in 1960, the State of Borno remained fairly autonomous until the expansion of the number of States in Nigeria to 12 in 1967. Local government reform in 1976 further reduced the power of the emirs of the former dynasty, and by the time of Nigeria's return to civilian rule in 1979, the emirs' jurisdiction has been restricted solely to cultural and traditional affairs. The emirs still exist and serve as advisers to the local government. Mala Kachallah was elected governor of Borno State in 1999 under the flagship of the then APP (All Peoples Party) later ANPP. Ali Modu Sheriff was elected governor of Borno State in Nigeria in April 2003. He is a member of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). Ali Sheriff was the first governor in Borno State to win the seat two consecutive times.
Boko Haram's insurgency began in 2009, with Borno being the worst-affected area. On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in northeastern Nigeria, including Borno State along with the neighboring states of Adamawa and Yobe. This happened after fighting between Boko Haram and the state armed forces killed 200 people in the town of Baga. A spokesman for the armed forces declared that the offensive would continue "as long as it takes to achieve our objective of getting rid of insurgents from every part of Nigeria."
In July 2014, Borno State governor Kashim Shettima said that "176 teachers had been killed and 900 schools destroyed since 2011." After the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping in April 2014, most schools in Borno State were closed. They were scheduled to reopen in November 2014.
In November 2014, UNICEF reported it has increased its Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) centres in Borno State "from 5 to 67 and is planning to increase this to 100." In Borno State, the agricultural sector has suffered mostly because of the insurgency, and many people experienced acute food insecurity.
Local Government AreasEdit
|Askira-Uba||Putai; Bura-Pabir; Gude; Kibaku; Marghi Central; Marghi South; Nggwahyi; Nya Huba|
|Bama||Shuwa Arabic; Yerwa Kanuri; Wandala; Mafa|
|Biu||Bura-Pabir; Dera; Ga'anda; Jara; Putai|
|Damboa||Kibaku; Marghi Central; Putai; Mulgwai; Kanuri|
|Gwoza||Cineni; Dghwede; Glavda; Guduf-Gava; Gvoko; Hide; Yerwa Kanuri; Lamang; Mafa; Sukur; Waja; Wandala|
|Hawul||Bura,Hwana, Putai mafa|
|Kaga||Yerwa Kanuri; Putai|
|Kala/Balge||Shuwa Arab; kanuri; Afade|
|Konduga||Shuwa Arabic; Yerwa Kanuri; Maffa; Putai; Wandala|
|Kwaya-Kusar||Bura, Putai, Marghi South|
|Maiduguri||Yerwa Kanuri; Mafa|
|Monguno||Yerwa Kanuri; Mafa|
|Ngala||Shuwa Arabic; Yerwa Kanuri|
Other languages of Borno State are Lala-Roba, Tarjumo, Yedina, and Tedaga.
Islam continues to be the dominant faith practiced in Borno State, with an equally large number of adherents of Christianity and other faiths spread throughout and living within the region. Sharia operates as the primary foundation for the development, interpretation, and enforcement of most civic codes and laws. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Maiduguri has its seat in the State. Ekklesiar Yan'Uwa A Nigeria (EYN) in Maiduguri were destroyed by Boko Haram as a part of their uprising which was later rebuilt.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Borno State.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Bornu".|
- Boko Haram Fighting for their Last Territorial Stronghold, midwestdiplomacy.com, 23 April 2015