Maiduguri /mˈdɡʊri/ is the capital and the largest city of Borno State in north-eastern Nigeria, on the continent of Africa. The city sits along the seasonal Ngadda River which disappears into the Firki swamps in the areas around Lake Chad.[2] Maiduguri was founded in 1907 as a military outpost by the British Empire during the colonial period. As of 2022, Maiduguri is estimated to have a population of approximately two million.[3]

Statue of Rabih az-Zubayr at Maiduguri National Museum
Statue of Rabih az-Zubayr at Maiduguri National Museum
Maiduguri is located in Nigeria
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 11°50′N 13°09′E / 11.833°N 13.150°E / 11.833; 13.150
Country Nigeria
 • Total105.5 km2 (40.7 sq mi)
320 m (1,050 ft)
 (2022 projection)[1]
 • Total791,200
 • Density7,500/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
One of the roundabout in Maiduguri

History edit

Early period edit

The region was home to the Kanem-Bornu Empire for centuries. Maiduguri actually consists of two cities: Yerwa to the West and Old Maiduguri to the east.

Yerwa was founded in 1907 by Abubakar Garbai of Borno as the capital of the Bornu Kingdom.[4] The location had before that been a small village known as Kalwa. This involved the transfer of the capital of the Kanuri people from Kukawa.

A photograph of a man and child in Maiduguri during 1930-31, from the collection of ETH Library in Switzerland. The town had become a center for commerce and colonial administration by the early 20th century.

Old Maiduguri was selected by the British as their military headquarters in 1908 replacing Mafoni.[2] The same year it became the location for the British Resident Commissioner over British Bornu.

In 1957 Yerwa became the designated name for the urban centre while Maiduguri was officially applied as the name of the surrounding rural area.

In 1964 the railway was extended here which led to its rise as a major commercial center in the region.

The city was once known as a "hub of Islamic scholarship in West Africa that ... [taught] tolerance and hospitality like its welcoming neem trees."[5]

Maiduguri is one of the fifteen Local Government Areas (LGAs) that constitute the Borno Emirate, a traditional state located in Borno State, Nigeria.[6]

Islamist violence edit

Since the mid-1960s, Maiduguri has witnessed outbreaks of large inter-religious riots with members of religious sects leading intercommunal violence in 1982 and 2001.[7][8]

On 18 February 2006, riots related to the Muhammad cartoons published by the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten left at least 15 people dead, and resulted in the destruction of approximately 12 churches. Soldiers and police quelled the riots, and the government temporarily imposed a curfew.[9][10]

In 2002, Muslim cleric Mohammed Yusuf founded the Islamist group Boko Haram in Maiduguri, establishing a mosque and a madrasa that attracted children from poor Muslim families from both Nigeria and neighboring countries.[11][12]

Boko Haram attacks edit

The city is the heart of the Boko Haram insurgency[13] and is the city which is most often attacked by the group.[14] In late July 2009, Maiduguri was the worst-hit location of major religious violence in northern Nigeria committed by Boko Haram, which left over 700 people dead.

An internally displaced persons camp near the city sheltering people who are escaping harassment from Boko Haram

On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in northeast Nigeria, including Borno State, due to the militant activity of Boko Haram.[15] The entire city was under overnight curfew, and trucks have been prevented from entering the city. Twelve areas of the city that are known to be strongholds of Boko Haram are under permanent curfew.[16] On 18 June 2013, Boko Haram militants attacked a school as students were taking an exam; nine students were killed.[17]

In 2014, Boko Haram bombed Maiduguri in January, July and November.

On 10 January 2015, a bomb attack was executed at the Monday Market in Maiduguri, killing 19 people.[13] In the early hours of 25 January, Boko Haram launched a major assault on the city.[18] On 26 January, CNN reported that the attack on Maiduguri by "hundreds of gunmen" had been repelled, but the nearby town of Monguno was captured by Boko Haram.[19] The Nigerian Army claimed to have successfully repelled another attack on Maiduguri on 31 January 2015.[20] On 17 February 2015, Monguno subsequently fell to the Nigerian military in a coordinated air and ground assault. [21] On 7 March 2015, five suicide bomb blasts left 54 dead and 143 wounded.[22] On 30 May 2015, Boko Haram launched another attack on the city, killing thirteen people.[23] In March 2017 Boko Haram again bombed Maiduguri.[14]

Giwa barracks edit

The Giwa barracks and detention centre in Maiduguri has been subject to multiple attacks by Boko Haram. In 2014, reports suggested that 600 people were killed in an attack, though most were detainees killed by soldiers.[24][25] It was attacked in January/February 2015, bombed in March 2015, and attacked again in May 2015.[26]

In May 2016, Amnesty International released a report on the Giwa barracks detention centre, calling it a "place of death." The report alleges the facilities house about 1,200 people (including 120 children) and that many of these were detained arbitrarily. It further claims that 149 detainees had died in the first half of 2016, including 11 children.[27] In 2019, Amnesty International (AI) and Concerned Nigerians (CN) called for investigation into alleged abuse of women and children in the facility.[28]

Tramadol addiction has become a concern in the Maiduguri region, as Boko Haram fighters and local residents turn to the drug to cope with physical pain, personal loss, and the emotional consequences of violence.[29]

Climate edit

A boy navigating the nearby Ngadda River in a traditional canoe design.

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot semi-arid (BSh).

The highest record temperature was 47 °C (116.6 °F) on 28 May 1983, while the lowest record temperature was 5 °C (41 °F) on 26 December 1979.[30]

Tree planting was a priority of the city's colonial administration, and large trees along major roads give protection from intense sun.[31]

Normal temperature in Maiduguri edit

The hot season goes on for 2.4 months, from March 13 to May 26, with a typical everyday high temperature above 102 °F or 38.9 °C. The most blazing month of the year in Maiduguri is May, with a typical high of 103 °F or 39.4 °C and low of 79 °F or 26.1 °C.

The cool season goes on for 2.1 months, from July 20 to September 23, with a typical everyday high temperature underneath 92 °F or 33.3 °C. The coldest month of the year in Maiduguri is January, with a typical low of 59 °F or 15 °C and high of 92 °F or 33.3 °C.

Climate data for Maiduguri
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.8
Average low °C (°F) 12.6
Record low °C (°F) 8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.6 4.0 7.0 10.7 10.7 6.8 1.4 0.0 0.0 42.7
Average relative humidity (%) (at 15:00 LST) 15.4 11.2 12.0 17.5 28.4 38.4 55.5 63.4 54.8 30.2 19.0 19.6 30.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 266.6 249.2 257.3 237.0 263.5 249.0 217.0 204.6 225.0 285.2 282.0 275.9 3,012.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.6 8.9 8.3 7.9 8.5 8.3 7.0 6.6 7.5 9.2 9.4 8.9 8.3
Source 1: NOAA,[32] Climate Charts (latitude: 11°51'N; longitude: 013°05'E; elevation: 354m, 1161')[33]
Source 2: Voodoo Skies for record temperatures[30]

Demographics edit

Maiduguri is estimated to have a population of 1,907,600, as of 2007.[34] It grew in size by 15.1 km2 (5.8 sq mi) between 2002 and 2012.[citation needed]

Its residents are mostly Muslim including Kanuri, Hausa, Shuwa, Bura, Marghi, and Fulani ethnic groups. There is also a considerable Christian population and people from Southern states such as the Igbo, Ijaw, and Yoruba.

Maiduguri had 22 internally displaced persons camps in 2019, including Shagari camp with 48 households, and Cherubim & Seraphim camp with 65 households.[35] The NYC (National Youth Service) in Maiduguri housed 4,800 displaced people in 2016.[36] Goni Kachallari had 340 families in 2016.[37]

Languages spoken in the camps include Fulani, Fulfulde, Gamargu, Hausa (8.4% native speakers), Kanuri (53.5% native speakers), Shuwa Arabic, and Marghi (15.6%). About a third of survey respondents had comprehension of a simple English audio sample; close to 100% had comprehension of audio messaging in either Hausa or Kanuri.[38]

Air Pollution edit

As a result of chemical reactions involving moving vehicles and the release of gases that can cause inhalation into the deepest parts of the lung, Maiduguri is currently experiencing particulate dust, a harmful air pollutant.[39][40][41]

Transport edit

Old Rail Carriages at the Maiduguri rail station. The station is the end of line for connecting Maiduguri with other major cities.

The city lies at the end of a railway line connecting Port Harcourt, Enugu, Kafanchan, Kuru, Bauchi, and finally Maiduguri.[42][43]

The city is served by the Maiduguri International Airport.

Economy edit

Baga Road Market Maiduguri

Maiduguri is the principal trading hub for north-eastern Nigeria. Its economy is largely based on services and trade with a small share of manufacturing.

Maiduguri is home to three markets which include a modern "Monday market". that has a spectacular image view.

The city gate to the city of Maiduguri, with location transportation and larger personal vehicles. Maiduguri is a regional trading hub with traffic and goods flowing in and out of the city from all directions, as communities bring goods to trade.

The city has an appealing layout,[44][45] with wide, well-maintained streets, sidewalks and flood management ditches. Electricity is provided by grid connections, solar power and by generators.[35] The values of land and properties are high.[46] A 2009 survey of property markets in Nigeria positioned Maiduguri as the third most expensive for buying and renting in after Abuja and Lagos.

A journalist who described local commerce wrote that "on the edge of the city, never-ending lines of lorries spend days waiting to take their cargoes to Dikwa and beyond to neighbouring Cameroon."[46]

"Transport of goods to land-locked countries such as Chad, Central African Republic and Sudan" has suffered due to road ambushes.[46]

Rural-urban migration to Maiduguri, combined with migration from Chad, Niger and Cameroon, has led to increases in poverty and unemployment[47]

Firewood gathering is a source of income for newer residents who have been displaced by violence, and the harvest shortfalls resulting from climate change. Members of Maiduguri's official Association of Firewood Sellers provide labor for tree replanting efforts.[48]

An additional source of support for displaced persons is a mobile phone-based cash distribution site which was set up by the World Food Programme and the Nigerian Government.[36]

Education edit

Main Gate of Ramat Polytechnic.

The University of Maiduguri was founded in 1975. There is also the College of Medical Sciences. Other higher institutions include the Borno State University, Ramat Polytechnic, College of Agriculture and College of Education, Muhammad Goni College of Legal and Islamic Studies, College of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Technology and El-kanemi College of Islamic Theology, Annahada College of Science and Islamic Studies.

As of 2011, the Future Prowess Islamic School provided a free, co-ed Western and Islamic education to orphans and vulnerable children.[49]

Places of worship edit

Among places of worship are predominantly Muslim mosques.[50] There are also Christian churches and temples: Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion), Church of the Brethren in Nigeria (EYN),[36] Presbyterian Church of Nigeria (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Nigerian Baptist Convention (Baptist World Alliance), Living Faith Church Worldwide, Redeemed Christian Church of God, Assemblies of God, Roman Catholic Diocese of Maiduguri (Catholic Church).

Sports and leisure edit

It is home to the El-Kanemi Warriors, a football team and the city has an active local football league.[51] The Kyarimi Park is the oldest and largest zoo in Nigeria. The zoo attracts thousands of visitors per year. The city is within a short driving distance to picnic areas in Alo Lake and Zambiza game reserve.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Borno (State, Nigeria) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map and Location". Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  3. ^ Olanrewaju, Timothy (13 April 2023). "Borno faces new challenges". The Sun Nigeria. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  4. ^ Hiribarren, Vincent (2017). A History of Borno: Trans-Saharan African Empire to Failing Nigerian State. London: Hurst & Company. p. 106. ISBN 9781849044745.
  5. ^ Salkida, Ahmad (24 September 2012). "Tears From Maiduguri". Sahara Reporters. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  6. ^ Nigeria (2000). Nigeria: a people united, a future assured. Vol. 2, State Surveys (Millennium ed.). Abuja, Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Information. p. 106. ISBN 9780104089.
  7. ^ Phillips, Barnaby (10 January 2001). "Eclipse Triggers Nigeria Riot". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  8. ^ "Around the World: Nigerian Toll Put at 452 in Religious Riots". The New York Times. 1 November 1982. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Al Jazeera: Fifteen killed in Nigerian cartoon riots". Archived from the original on 23 March 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  10. ^ "ReliefWeb: Nigeria's northeast state imposes curfew after religious crisis". 20 February 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  11. ^ Chothia, Farouk (4 May 2015). "Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamists?". BBC Online. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  12. ^ Allison, Simon (28 January 2015). "Why Maiduguri city is key to Boko Haram's future". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  13. ^ a b Nossiter, Adam (10 January 2015). "In Nigeria, New Boko Haram Suicide Bomber Tactic: "It's a Little Girl"". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  14. ^ a b Blasts kill 4, injure 18 in northeastern Nigeria
  15. ^ "Nigeria: State of Emergency Declared". New York Times. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  16. ^ "Nigeria army's offensive to continue 'as long as it takes'". BBC News. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  17. ^ "Nigeria militants kill school children in Maiduguri". BBC News. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  18. ^ Mark, Monica (25 January 2015). "Nigerian City Under Attack from Suspected Boko Haram Militants". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  19. ^ Faith Karimi and Aminu Abubakar (26 January 2015). "Nigerian soldiers save one city from Boko Haram but a nearby one is seized". Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  20. ^ "Nigeria army 'repels' new Boko Haram attack on Maiduguri". BBC News. 1 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  21. ^ "African allies claim gains against Boko Haram". BBC News. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  22. ^ "5 suicide bomb blasts rock Maiduguri city in northeast Nigeria, 54 dead, 143 wounded: official". AP. 7 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  23. ^ Abubakar, Aminu (30 May 2015). "Boko Haram launches deadly attack on north-eastern Nigerian city". CNN. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  24. ^ "Amnesty International: 1,500 Nigerians Killed in Boko Haram Violence in 2014". Voice of America. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  25. ^ Nossiter, Adam (20 March 2014). "Nigerian Army Facing Questions as Death Toll Soars After Prison Attack". BBC Online. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  26. ^ Ola, Lanre (13 May 2015). "Suspected Boko Haram militants attack Nigeria's Maiduguri". Reuters. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  27. ^ "Nigeria Giwa barracks 'a place of death' says Amnesty – BBC News". BBC Online. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  28. ^ Ewepu, Gabriel (26 September 2019). "Nigeria: Amnesty, CN Urge Govt to Investigate Alleged Children, Women Detention Camp in Maiduguri - HRW Report". Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  29. ^ "The drug fuelling death, despair and Boko Haram". BBC News Africa. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  30. ^ a b "Maiduguri, Nigeria". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  31. ^ "Greening, Cleaning, and Conserving the Environment for Sustainable Development". Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  32. ^ "Maiduguri Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  33. ^ "Maiduguri, Nigeria Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Climate Charts. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  34. ^ "The World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  35. ^ a b Hill, Roxane (20 February 2019). "Maiduguri". Church of the Brethren. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  36. ^ a b c World Food Programme West Africa (27 June 2016). "Maiduguri - A city of camps". Medium - World Food Programme Insight. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  37. ^ Advertorial (29 November 2016). "Maiduguri, Nigeria: 'Everything we left behind is lost'". The Mail & Guardian Online. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  38. ^ Translators without Borders (2017). "Language profile of five IDP sites in Maiduguri, north-east Nigeria" (PDF). Translators without Borders. Retrieved 19 October 2019. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  39. ^ "Air Quality & Pollen Forecast for Maiduguri". meteoblue. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  40. ^ project, The World Air Quality Index. "Air Pollution in Maiduguri: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map". Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  41. ^ "Maiduguri Air Quality Index (AQI) and Nigeria Air Pollution | IQAir". 21 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  42. ^ " Revamping the Nigerian Railway". Archived from the original on 16 December 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  43. ^ "Buhari approves $15b loan negotiation for Port Harcourt-Maiduguri rail". 21 March 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  44. ^ Maiduguri: The jewel in the Sahara. Ikenna Emewu. Daily Sun (Nigeria), 7 August 2004.
  45. ^ Waziri, Muhammad (2009). "Spatial Pattern of Maiduguri City. Researchers' Guide". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  46. ^ a b c "Maiduguri: living in Boko Haram territory". eNCA. 22 July 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  47. ^ Ajaero, Chukwuedozie K.; Onokala, Patience C. (2013). "The Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Rural Communities of Southeastern Nigeria". International Journal of Population Research. 2013: 1–10. doi:10.1155/2013/610193.
  48. ^ Samson, Alicia Prager, Simpa (18 October 2019). "The fight against Nigeria's northeast terrorism is also a battle against climate change". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 19 October 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. ^ Collyer, Rosie (22 November 2011). "Slideshow: Nigerian School Defies Boko Haram". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  50. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 2107
  51. ^ Egbejule, Eromo (27 September 2016). "Defiance on the dancefloor: clubbing in the birthplace of Boko Haram". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 October 2019.

Further reading edit

11°50′N 13°09′E / 11.833°N 13.150°E / 11.833; 13.150