Gombe State (Fula: Lesdi Gommbe 𞤤𞤫𞤴𞤣𞤭 𞤺𞤮𞤥𞥆𞤦𞤫;) is a state in northeastern Nigeria, bordered to the north and northeast by the states of Borno for 93 km in the vicinity of Gongola River and Lake Dadin Kowa and Yobe in the vicinity of Gongola River for 140 km, to the south by Taraba State for 58 km, to the southeast by Adamawa State for 95 km, and to the west by Bauchi State for 277 km (172 miles). Gombe is the state capital of Gombe state and it was formed from a part of Bauchi State on 1 October 1996. Of the 36 states in Nigeria, Gombe is the 21st largest in area and the 32nd most populous, with an estimated population of about 3.25 million as of 2016.[5] The state bears a slogan "Jewel in the Savannah".[6]

Gombe State
Flag of Gombe State
Seal of Gombe State
Location of Gombe State in Nigeria
Location of Gombe State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°15′N 11°10′E / 10.250°N 11.167°E / 10.250; 11.167
Country Nigeria
Date created1 October 1996
 • BodyGovernment of Gombe State
 • GovernorMuhammad Inuwa Yahaya (APC)
 • Deputy GovernorManasseh Daniel Jatau (APC)
 • LegislatureGombe State House of Assembly
 • SenatorsC: Mohammed Danjuma Goje (APC)
N: Ibrahim Hassan Dankwambo (PDP)
S: Anthony Yaro (PDP)
 • RepresentativesList
 • Total18,768 km2 (7,246 sq mi)
 • Rank21st of 36
 (2006 census)1
 • Total2,365,040[1]
 • Estimate 
 • Rank33rd of 36
 • Year2021
 • Total$13.58 billion[3]
 • Per capita$3,553[3]
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
ISO 3166 codeNG-GO
HDI (2021)0.408[4]
low · 34th of 37
^1 Preliminary results

Geographically, the state is within the tropical West Sudanian savanna ecoregion.[7] Important geographic features include the Gongola River — which flows through Gombe's north and east into Lake Dadin Kowa — and part of the Muri Mountains, a small range in the state's far south. Among the state's nature are a number of snake species, including carpet viper, puff adder, and Egyptian cobra populations along with hippopotamus, Senegal parrot, and grey-headed kingfisher populations.[8][9]

The state is inhabited by various ethnic groups, primarily the Fulani people living in the north and center of the state, while the state's diverse eastern and southern regions are populated by the Cham, Dadiya, Jara, Kamo, Pero, Tangale, Tera, and Waja peoples. Religiously, between 65% and 70% of the state's populations are Muslim while the Christian minority comprises between 30% and 35%.[10]

In the pre-colonial period, the area that is now Gombe State was split up between various states until the early 1800s, the Fulani jihad seized much of the area and formed the Gombe Emirate under the Sokoto Caliphate. In the 1910s, British expeditions occupied the Emirate and the surrounding areas, incorporating them into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate which later merged into British Nigeria before becoming independent as Nigeria in 1960.[11] Originally, modern-day Gombe State was a part of the post-independence Northern Region until 1967 when the region was split and the area became part of the North-Eastern State. After the North-Eastern State was split, Bauchi State was formed in 1976 alongside ten other states. Twenty years afterward, a group of LGAs in the Bauchi's west were broken off to form the new Gombe State.

Economically, Gombe State is largely based around agriculture, mainly of sorghum, maize, groundnuts, millet, beans, rice and tomatoes. Other key industries are services, especially in the city of Gombe, and the herding of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep. Gombe has the fourth lowest Human Development Index and one of the lowest GDPs in the country.[12]

Gombe is the best and friendliest city for doing business due to its excellent modern infrastructure, secure and stable serenity, transparency and easier accessibility of information, regulatory environment, skills and labour and economic opportunities. These earned her the World Bank's yearly appraisal, "The Ease of Doing Business", in 2021 and 2023.[13]

Overview edit

The state has an area of 20,265 km2 and a population of around 2,365,000 people as of 2006.[1]

It was formed in October 1996, from part of the old Bauchi State by the Abacha military government.[14] The state is located in Nigeria's Guinea savannah and Sudan savannah belts. Undulating hills, sandy rocks, and a few volcanic rocks make up the landscape. Its location in the north eastern zone, right within the expansive savannah, allows the state to share common borders with the states of Borno, Yobe, Taraba, Adamawa and Bauchi.[15]

Gombe has two distinct climates, the dry season (November–March) and the rainy season (April–October) with an average rainfall of 850mm.[16]

Local Government Areas edit

Gombe State consists of eleven local government areas. They are:

LGA Area (km2) Census 2006
Administrative capital Postal
Akko 2,627 337,853 Kumo 771
Balanga 1,626 212,549 Tallase 761
Billiri 737 202,144 Billiri 771
Dukku 3,815 207,190 Dukku 760
Funakaye 1,415 236,087 Bajoga 762
Gombe 52 268,000 Gombe (city) 760
Kaltungo 881 149,805 Kaltungo 770
Kwami 1,787 195,298 Mallam Sidi 760
Nafada 1,586 138,185 Nafada 762
Shongom 922 151,520 Boh 770
Yamaltu/Deba 2,181 355,248 Deba 761

Demographics edit

Gombe State is a multi-ethnic society that consists of the majority Fulani tribe, who inhabit the Northern and central part of Gombe State. They dominate 7 out of the 11 Local Government Areas of the state. This include Dukku, Kwami, Funakaye, Nafada, Akko, Yamaltu and Gombe LGAs. Apart from the Fulani, there are also the Tangale, found in Billiri and Kaltungo areas. Other ethnicities include the Hausa, Tula, Tera (Yamaltu-Deba), Waja, Bolewa, and Kanuri, with their different cultural as well as lingual affiliations.[17]

Religion edit

65-70% Muslim, 30-35% Christian, including the Anglican Diocese of Gombe (1999) led by Bishop Cletus Tambari (2020), within the Province of Jos of the Church of Nigeria. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bauchi (1996) includes Gombe with 92,620 followers in 28 parishes under Bishop Hilary Nanman Dachelem (2017).

Politics edit

The state government is led by a democratically elected governor who works closely with members of the state's house of assembly.[18]

The capital city of the state is Gombe.

The electoral system of each state is selected using a modified two-round system. To be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive the plurality of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least two-thirds of the state local government areas. If no candidate passes threshold, a second round will be held between the top candidate and the next candidate to have received a plurality of votes in the highest number of local government areas.[18]

Languages edit

Languages of Gombe State, listed by LGA:[19]

LGA Languages
Akko Fulani, Jukun
Balanga Bangwinji, Centúúm, Dadiya, Dera, Dikaka, Dza, Kyak, Longuda, Moo, Tangale, Tso, Waja
Billiri Tangale
Dukku Fulani, Bolewa
Funakaye Fulani
Kaltungo Awak, Tangale, Tula, Kamo
Kwami Fulani, Kanuri
Nafada Fulani, Bolewa
Shongom Tangale, Kushi, Moo, Loo, Wurkun, Pipero
Yamaltu-Deba Fulani, (katsinawa), Tera

Politics edit

The state is headed by the Executive Governor Muhammad Inuwa Yahaya and also has 24 State House Assembly members. Gombe has 11 local government areas and 14 emirates/chiefdoms. It has three Senators and six Members in the National Assembly.[17]

Governors edit

This is a list of administrators and governors of Gombe State.

Name Title Took office Left office Party
Group Captain Joseph Orji Administrator 7 October 1996 Aug 1998 Military
Abubakar Habu Hashidu Governor 29 May 1999 29 May 2003 APP
Mohammed Danjuma Goje Governor 29 May 2003 May 2011 PDP
Ibrahim Hassan Dankwambo Governor May 2011 29 May 2019 PDP
Muhammad Inuwa Yahaya Governor May 2019 Date APC

State agencies edit

Water Board edit

Main entrance of Gombe State Waterboard

Gombe State Water Board is a state government organisation that provides water for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes. It is governed by a board of directors appointed by the state governor, with a chairman, a chief executive or chief manager, and nine other members.[20] They all serve on a part-time basis, other than the General Manager.[20]

Gombe Geographic Information System edit

Gombe Geographic Information System (GOGIS) is a digitalised land administrative system that carried out the process of determining, recording, disseminating information about land acquisition, ownership, its value and land management policies in Gombe State.

Gombe State Urban Planning and Development Authority edit

Gombe State Urban Planning and Development Authority (GOSPUDA) facilitates and enforces planning regulations for the development of the Gombe State by issuing and regulating building approval for individuals or organizations that wish to develop their land.

Climate edit

The dry season in Gombe is partly cloudy, and the city has year-round high temperatures. The wet season is unpleasant and overcast. The temperature rarely falls below 52 °F or rises over 105 °F throughout the year, often ranging from 57 °F to 100 °F.[21][22][23]


The Gombe State Government has started a four million tree planting programme as part of a renewed effort to stop deforestation in the North Central Zone.

It is anticipated that the four-year plan, which would be implemented in parts, will last. The first part of the scheme has already seen the government plant 1.3 million tree saplings.[24][25][26]

Flood Control

As a result of these studies, the state government has taken preventive steps to lessen the impact of the impending floods and other environmental problems that are expected to hit the state.

In order to protect people and property while minimizing the effects of upcoming weather events and their potentially fatal consequences, Governor Muhammadu Inuwa Yahaya has ordered the Ministry of Environment and Forest Resources to coordinate with pertinent stakeholders and activate state emergency response and management resources.[27][28]

Erosion edit

Gombe State is still reeling from the devastating effects of a gully erosion that destroyed farmlands worth millions of Naira and damaged more than 200 homes. Despite state government efforts to lessen its effects, the gully erosions which particularly affected the Bogo neighborhood within the city has not been fully controlled .[29][30]

Air pollution edit

In Gombe, the air quality is acceptable except for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution, to whom some pollutants may pose a moderate health risk.[31][32][33]

Education edit

Secondary Schools.

  • JIBWIS Islamic Science and Secondary School, Gombe.



Transport edit

Federal highways are:

  • A338 north from Gombe 118 km as the Ashaka-Bajago Rd and the Tonde-Ngalda-Badejo Rd to Yobe State at Ngalda as the Jangadoli-Fuka-Ngalalda Rd, and
  • A345 as the Bachi-Bara-Gombe Rd east from Bauchi State at Wuro Dole and south and east from Gombe as the Gombe-Yola Rd via Kumo, Kalmai, Kaltungo Boha and Bambam as the Lafia-Ture-Wuro-Biriji Rd to Adamawa State near Tiksir.

Other major roads include:


  • The 1067 mm Cape gauge Eastern Line east from Bauchi State via Gombe to Borno State, and the Gombe Line into downtown Gombe.


Sports edit

Notable people edit

Economy edit

Most of the population in Gombe State are farmers. Both food and cash crops are produced by them. Yam, cassava, maize, tomatoes, and groundnuts are some of its food crops, while cotton is grown for each.[45]

These goods supply the raw materials for the state's agricultural industries, including the groundnut oil mill, cotton gin, and tomato plant. Cement production, furniture manufacturing, block production, and other small-scale businesses are additional industries.

Gombe has natural resources like uranium, gypsum, and limestone.

Recently, petroleum deposits were reported to have been discovered in the state.[45]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "2006 PHC Priority Tables – NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION". population.gov.ng. Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  2. ^ "Gombe State: Subdivision". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  3. ^ a b Okeowo, Gabriel; Fatoba, Iyanuoluwa, eds. (13 October 2022). "State of States 2022 Edition" (PDF). Budgit.org. BudgIT. Retrieved 7 March 2023.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Population 2006-2016". National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  6. ^ Etemiku, MajiriOghene Bob (20 November 2022). "Barde, Inuwa: who better to run Gombawa from 2023?". iNigerian.com. Retrieved 3 September 2023.
  7. ^ Zida, D.; Tigabu, M.; Sawadogo, L.; Oden, P.C. (1 October 2005). "Germination requirements of seeds of four woody species from the Sudanian savanna in Burkina Faso, West Africa". Seed Science and Technology. 33 (3): 581–593. doi:10.15258/sst.2005.33.3.06. ISSN 0251-0952.
  8. ^ Azubuike, Chima (19 October 2021). "Gombe govt to establish hippopotamus colony". The Punch. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  9. ^ Adang, K. L; Nsor, C. A.; M, Tela (30 April 2015). "Checklist of bird species at the Dadin Kowa Dam, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria". Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 4. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  10. ^ Higazi, Adam; Lar, Jimam (February 2015). "Articulations of belonging: The politics of ethnic and religious pluralism in Bauchi and Gombe States, North-East Nigeria". Cambridge University Press. 85 (1): 103–130. doi:10.1017/S0001972014000795. S2CID 144713143. ProQuest 1647755004. Retrieved 19 August 2023. In Gombe State, the population is estimated to be about 65 per cent to 70 per cent Muslim and 30 per cent to 35 per cent Christian
  11. ^ Ikimẹ, Obaro (June 1974). "The British in Bauchi, 1901-1908: an episode in the British occupation and control of Northern Nigeria". Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria. 7 (2): 271–290. JSTOR 41857013. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  12. ^ "Human Development Indices". Global Data Lab. Archived from the original on 14 March 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  13. ^ "As Gombe leads Nigeria again in ease of doing business". dailytrust.com. Daily Trust. April 2023. Retrieved 3 September 2023.
  14. ^ Diala, Sam; THEWILL (9 November 2021). "State Of The States: Gombe State". Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  15. ^ Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003 (Report). 18 October 2004. doi:10.2172/1206622. OSTI 1206622.
  16. ^ "Gombe Climate, Weather By Month, Average Temperature (Nigeria)". weatherspark.com. Weather Spark. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  17. ^ a b "Gombe | Location, Facts, & Population". www.britannica.com. Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  18. ^ a b Oguntola, Tunde (27 September 2022). "2023: Next President, Govs Must Get Two-thirds Spread, Says INEC". Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  19. ^ "Nigeria". Ethnologue (22 ed.). Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  20. ^ a b "GOMBE STATE WATER BOARD « HEYPLACES.COM.NG". heyplaces.com.ng. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  21. ^ "Gombe Climate, Weather By Month, Average Temperature (Nigeria)". weatherspark.com. Weather Spark. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  22. ^ Nasir Ayitogo (18 May 2021). "Gombe trains farmers on weather forecast, cropping techniques". www.premiumtimesng.com. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  23. ^ "Gombe, NG Climate Zone, Monthly Weather Averages and Historical Data". tcktcktck.org. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  24. ^ Nigeria, Guardian (17 August 2020). "Gombe to tackle deforestation with four million trees". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  25. ^ Nasir Ayitogo (12 July 2020). "Governor Yahaya launches second phase of 'Gombe Goes Green' project". www.premiumtimesng.com. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  26. ^ Nejo, Abiodun (27 March 2023). "Groups advocate renewed interest in tree planting". Punch Newspapers. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  27. ^ Michael, Ishola (4 July 2023). "3 LGAs in Gombe at high risk of flooding, NiMet, NHSA warn". Tribune Online. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  28. ^ Azubuike, Chima (25 September 2022). "Flood displaces over 500 in Gombe communities". Punch Newspapers. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  29. ^ "Tales of sorrow as perenial [sic] erosion consumes 300 houses in Gombe". dailytrust.com. Daily Trust. 5 July 2023. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  30. ^ Nwafor, Uchechukwu (16 July 2021). "1000 trees, waste collection points to control erosion in Gombe university". Tribune Online. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  31. ^ "Air Quality Forecast for Gombe, Gombe". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  32. ^ "Gombe Air Quality Index (AQI) and Nigeria Air Pollution". www.iqair.com. IQAir. 18 September 2023. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  33. ^ "Air Quality and Pollen in Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria". Tomorrow.io Weather. Tomorrow.io. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  34. ^ "Nigeria's Amina Mohammed reappointed UN Deputy Secretary-General". 11 January 2022. Archived from the original on 11 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  35. ^ Nwachukwu, John Owen (18 December 2020). "Buhari reacts to death of first military governor, Northwestern State, Usman Faruk". Daily Post Nigeria. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  36. ^ Agencies (16 February 2020). "Governor Buhari congratulates Sheikh Bauchi over doctorate degree". TODAY. Archived from the original on 11 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  37. ^ BellaNaija.com (2 April 2018). "Gombe Senator reportedly held Captive by Constituents". BellaNaija. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  38. ^ Staff, Daily Post (17 May 2015). "Any imposed Senate President or Speaker may be removed - Nafada warns APC". Daily Post Nigeria. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  39. ^ "Justice Zainab Bulkachuwa Archives". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  40. ^ Nwafor (20 March 2022). "2023: Gombe APC still in disarray - Goje insists". Vanguard News. Retrieved 27 December 2022.
  41. ^ Amodu, Taiwo (18 May 2023). "Senator Goje remains member of APC family in Gombe — APC NWC". Tribune Online. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  42. ^ "FULL LIST: Okonjo-Iweala, Abba Kyari... FG nominates 437 persons for national honours". TheCable. 2 October 2022. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  43. ^ Dabai, Deen (14 July 2023). "Kuma dai: Ba soyayya ba ce tsakanina da Hamisu Breaker - Jaruma Momee Gombe". Legit.ng - Nigeria news. (in Hausa). Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  44. ^ "Things to know about Sa'idu Alkali, three-term Senator nominated as minister". Daily Trust. 2 August 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  45. ^ a b "Gombe State of Nigeria :: Nigeria Information & Guide". www.nigeriagalleria.com. Retrieved 30 August 2023.

External links edit