Zeem language

Zeem, or Chaari, is an endangered Chadic dialect cluster of Nigeria, whose speakers are shifting to Hausa.[2] Dyarim is closely related.

RegionBauchi State
Native speakers
400 (2003)[1]
  • Zeem (†)
  • Caari
  • Danshe (†)
  • Lushi (?)
  • Dyarim
  • Tule (†)
Language codes
ISO 639-3zua
Glottologzeem1242  Zeem
dyar1234  Dyarim

The Zeem language is spoken in Toro LGA, Bauchi State. The Tulai and Danshe dialects are no longer spoken.[1] It is also called Chaari, Dokshi, Dyarum, Kaiwari, Kaiyorawa, Lukshi, and Lushi.[3]

Dyarim had been influenced by Beromic languages during a time when Beromic was more widespread.[4]


Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim cluster varieties listed by Blench (2019):[5]

  • Zeem (extinct)
  • Tule (extinct)
  • Danshe
  • Chaari
  • Dyarim
  • Dokshi (Lukshi, Lushi)
  • Jimi

Blench reports in 2019 that only 3 very elderly speakers of the Dokshi (or Lukshi[6]) language remain in the village of Lukshi, Bauchi State.


  1. ^ a b Zeem at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Newman, Paul (1990). Nominal and verbal plurality in Chadic. Walter de Gruyter. p. 3. ISBN 978-90-6765-499-9. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
  3. ^ OLAC resources in and about the Zeem language
  4. ^ Blench, Roger. 2005. The Dyarim language of Central Nigeria and its affinities.
  5. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger. 2020. The South Bauchi languages of Central Nigeria: a fresh view based on recent fieldwork. CALL 50. Leiden University, August 31, 2020.