Bauchi State (Fula: Leydi Bauchi 𞤤𞤫𞤴𞤣𞤭 𞤦𞤢𞤵𞤷𞥅𞤭) is a state in the North-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria, bordered by Jigawa to the north, Yobe to the northeast, Gombe to the east, Taraba and Plateau to the south, Kaduna to the west and Kano to the northwest. It takes its name from the historic town of Bauchi, which also serves as its capital city. The state was formed in 1976 when the former North-Eastern State was broken up. It originally included the area that is now Gombe State, which became a distinct state in 1996.

Bauchi State
Seal of Bauchi State
Nicknames: 
Location of Bauchi State in Nigeria
Location of Bauchi State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°30′N 10°00′E / 10.500°N 10.000°E / 10.500; 10.000
Country Nigeria
Date created3 February 1976
CapitalBauchi
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Bauchi State
 • GovernorBala Mohammed (PDP)
 • Deputy GovernorAuwal Jatau (PDP)
 • LegislatureBauchi State House of Assembly
 • SenatorsC: Halliru Dauda Jika (NNPP)
N: Adamu Bulkachuwa (APC)
S: Lawal Yahaya Gumau (NNPP)
 • RepresentativesList
Area
 • Total45,893 km2 (17,719 sq mi)
 • Rank5th of 36
Population
 (2006 census)
 • Total4,676,465
 • Estimate 
(2022)
8,308,800[1]
 • Rank7th of 36
 • Density100/km2 (260/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)
 • Year2021
 • Total$17.01 billion[2]
22th of 36
 • Per capita$2,194[2]
29th of 36
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
Postal code
740001
Dialing Code+234
ISO 3166 codeNG-BA
HDI (2021)0.425[3]
low · 31st of 37
Websitewww.bauchistate.gov.ng

Of the 36 states, Bauchi is the fifth largest in area and fith most populous with an estimated population of over 8,308,800 as of 2022. Geographically, the state is divided between the West Sudanian savanna in the south and the drier, semi-desert Sahelian savanna in the north with a small part of the montane Jos Plateau in the southwest.[4] A key defining characteristic of the state’s landscape is Yankari National Park, a large wildlife park in southern Bauchi State that contains large populations of waterbuck, African buffalo, patas monkey, hippopotamus, roan antelope, and western hartebeest along with some of Nigeria's last remaining West African lion, African leopard, and African bush elephant populations.[5]

What is now Bauchi State has been inhabited for years by various ethnic groups, including the Bolewa, Butawa, and Warji in the central region; the Fulani, Kanuri, and Karai-Karai in the north; the Fulani and Gerawa in and around the city of Bauchi; the Zaar (Sayawa) in the south; the Tangale in the southeast; and the Jarawa in the southwest. Religiously, the vast majority of the state's population (~85%) are Muslim with smaller Christian and traditionalist minorities at about 6% and 9%, respectively.[6] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bauchi includes Gombe State. The Anglican Diocese of Bauchi is part of the Province of Jos, within the Church of Nigeria.

In the early 1800s, the Fulani jihad seized much of modern-day Bauchi State and formed the Bauchi Emirate under the Sokoto Caliphate. About 90 years later, a British expedition occupied the Emirate and incorporated it as Bauchi Province into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate which later merged into British Nigeria before becoming independent as Nigeria in 1960. Originally, modern-day Bauchi State was a part of the post-independence Northern Region until 1967 when the region was split and the area became part of the North-Eastern State.[7] After the North-Eastern State was split, Bauchi State was formed on 3 February 1976 alongside ten other states. Twenty years after statehood, a group of LGAs in the state's west was broken off to form the new Gombe State.

As a major agriculture-based state, the Bauchi State economy partially relies on livestock and crops, such as cotton, groundnuts, millet, tomatoes, and yams with advanced irrigation schemes increasing agricultural production since statehood. Other industries include food processing and canning facilities, tin and columbite mining, and tourism in Yankari National Park and its Wikki Warm Springs.[8]

Etymology edit

According to tradition, it was named after a hunter known as Baushe, who settled in the region before the arrival of Yakubu, the first traditional ruler of Bauchi emirate (founded 1800–10).[9] Bauchi and Adamawa were the two main sources of freedom and tourism for the Fulani empire of Sokoto.[10]

History edit

What is now known as Bauchi was until 1976 a province in the then North-Eastern State of Nigeria. According to the 2006 census, the state has a population of 4,653,066.[11]

Bauchi State has gone through tremendous transformation over the years. The Ajawa language was spoken in Bauchi State, but became extinct by 1940 as speakers shifted to Hausa.[12]

During the colonial era up to independence, it formed part of the Bauchi Plateau of the then Northern Region, until the 1967 state creation exercise, when the Bauchi, Borno, and Adamawa provinces constituted the former North-Eastern State.[citation needed]

With the creation of Bauchi State in 1976, then comprising present Bauchi and Gombe State, it included 16 local government areas. The number of local government areas in the then Bauchi State was increased to 20 and later to 23. However, in 1997 when Gombe State was created out of Bauchi and additional local governments were created in the country, Bauchi State was left with 20 local government areas as shown below.[citation needed]

Sharia law was adopted in June 2001.[13]

Local Government Areas edit

Bauchi State consists of twenty Local Government Areas (LGAs). They are:

 
Yankari National Park
LGA Area (km2) Census 2006
population
Administrative capital Postal
code
Bauchi 3,687 493,810 Bauchi 740
Tafawa Balewa 2,515 219,988 T/Balewa 740
Dass 535 89,943 Dass 740
Toro 6,932 350,404 Toro 740
Bogoro 894 84,215 Bogoro 741
Ningi 4,625 387,192 Ningi 742
Warji 625 114,720 Warji 742
Ganjuwa 5,059 280,468 Kafin Madaki 742
Kirfi 2,371 147,618 Kirfi 743
Alkaleri 5,918 329,424 Alkaleri 743
Southern region totals 33,161 2,497,782
Darazo 3,015 251,597 Darazo 750
Misau 1,226 263,487 Misau 750
Giade 668 156,969 Giade 750
Shira 1,321 234,014 Yana 750
Jamaare 493 176,883 Jamaare 751
Katagum 1,436 295,970 Azare 751
Itas/Gadau 1,398 229,996 Itas 751
Zaki 1,476 191,457 Katagum 752
Gamawa 2,925 286,388 Gamawa 752
Damban 1,077 150,922 Damban 752
Northern region totals 15,035 2,178,683

Geography edit

Bauchi State occupies a total land area of 49,119 km2 (18,965 sq mi) representing about 5.3% of Nigeria's total land mass and is located between latitudes 9° 3' and 12° 3' north and longitudes 8° 50' and 11° east.

The state is bordered by seven states, Jigawa to the north, Taraba for 54 km and Plateau for 360 km (220 mi) to the south, Gombe for 277 km (172 mi) to the east, Yobe for 188 km (117 mi) to the north-east, Kaduna to the west for 32 km (20 mi), and Kano for 131 km (81 mi) to the north-west.[14]

Bauchi state is one of the states in the northern part of Nigeria that span two distinctive vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan savannah and the Sahel savannah. The Sudan savannah type of vegetation covers the southern part of the state. Here, the vegetation gets richer and richer towards the south, especially along water sources or rivers, but generally the vegetation is less uniform and grasses are shorter than what grows even farther south, that is, in the forest zone of the middle belt.

The Sahel type of savannah, also known as semi-desert vegetation, becomes manifest from the middle of the state as one moves from the state's south to its north. This type of vegetation comprises isolated stands of thorny shrubs.

On the other hand, the southwestern part of the state is mountainous as a result of the continuation of the Jos Plateau, while the northern part is generally sandy.

The vegetation types as described above are conditioned by the climatic factors, which in turn determine the amount of rainfall received in the area. For instance, the rainfall in Bauchi state ranges between 1,300 millimetres (51 in) per annum in the south and only 700 millimetres (28 in) per annum in the extreme north. This pattern is because in the West Africa sub-region, rains generally come from the south as they are carried by the southwesterlies. There is therefore a progressive dryness towards the north, culminating in the desert condition in the far north. So also is the case in Bauchi state.

 
Sumu Wildlife Park

Consequently, rains start earlier in the southern part of the state, where rain is heaviest and lasts longer. Here the rains start in April with the highest record amount of 1,300 millimetres (51 in) per annum. In contrast, the northern part of the state receives the rains late, usually around June or July, and records the highest amount of 700 millimetres (28 in) per annum.

In the same vein, the weather experienced in the south and the north varies considerably. While it is humidly hot during the early part of the rainy season in the south, the hot, dry and dusty weather lingers up north.

In addition to rainfall, Bauchi state is watered by a number of rivers. They include the Gongola and Jama'are rivers.

The Gongola River crosses Bauchi state in Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area in the south and in Kirfi and Alkaleri Local Government Areas in the eastern part of the state, while the Jama’are River cuts across a number of Local Government Areas in the northern part of the state. Moreover, a substantial part of the Hadeja-Jama'are River basin lies in Bauchi state, which along with various fadama (floodplain) areas in the state provides suitable land for agricultural activities. These are further supported by the number of dams meant for irrigation and other purposes. These include the Gubi and Tilde-Fulani dams. There also lakes such as the Maladumba Lake in Misau Local Government Area that further provide the necessary conditions to support Agriculture.

Climate edit

Bauchi has oppressive wet season while the dry season is partly cloudy, and it is hot year round. Over the year, the temperature also varies.[15][16] Lik

ke every other state in Nigeria, Bauchi state have not been spared in devastating effects of climate change. On 11 July 2022, the acting Director-general of the Bauchi State Emergency Management Agency (BASEMA), Mr Bala Lame, said "no fewer than 100 houses and several farmlands have been destroyed by devastating floods in Darazo LGA of the state". This he attributed to flooding after three days of persistent rainfall in the area.[17] The average annual temperature ranges from 57 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, with occasional exceptions when it falls below 51 or rises over 104.

The greatest time of year to visit Bauchi for warm-weather activities, according to the tourist score, is from early December to early February.

Average Temperature in Bauchi edit

From February 28 to May 10 is the hot season, which lasts 2.5 months and has an average daily high temperature of over 96 °F. Averaging a high of 99 °F and a low of 74 °F, April is the hottest month of the year in Bauchi.

From July 15 to October 1, the cool season, which has an average daily high temperature below 86 °F, lasts for 2.6 months. With an average low of 58 °F and high of 90 °F, January is the coldest month of the year in Bauchi.[4]

Air Pollution in Bauchi edit

Particulate matter, which has a diameter of less than 10 microns and is 1/7th the thickness of a human hair, is a significant source of air pollution in Bauchi. These particles, which can include smoke, soot, dust, salt, acids, and metals, pose a serious threat to health because they may be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lung.[18][19][20]

Erosion edit

Gully erosion, which has swept away bridges, culverts, and homes, is causing alarm among residents of the settlements of Alkaleri and Kirfi in Bauchi State.[21][22][23]

Population edit

Bauchi State has a total of 55 tribal groups which include Gerawa, Sayawa, Jarawa, Kirfawa, Turawa Bolewa, Karekare, Kanuri, Fa'awa, Butawa, Warjawa, Zulawa, Boyawa MBadawa. But the Fulani are the main tribe. This means that they have backgrounds, occupational patterns, beliefs and many other things that form part of the existence of the people of the state.

There are cultural similarities in the people's language, occupational practices, festivals, dress and there is a high degree of ethnic interaction especially in marriage and economic existence. Some of the ethnic groups have joking relationships that exist between them, e.g. Fulani and Kanuri, Jarawa and Sayawa, etc.

The Durbar Festival is a major annual attraction.[24]

Education edit

The Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University[25] is located in the capital city Bauchi. Other educational institutions located in the state include Bauchi State University,[26] Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic[27] and Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.[28] Federal university of health science Azare[29]

Transport edit

Federal Highways:

Other major roads:

  • the Yana-Azare Rd north from A237 at Yana to Azare.
  • the Azare-Katagum Rd north from Azare via Gadau, Chibiyyi and Sakwa to Katagum.
  • southeast from Katagum via Gamawa and Lafia to Yobe State at Zindiwa.
  • the Azare-Potiskum Rd east from Azare via Bulkachuwa, Damban and Dagauda to Yobe State.
  • the Alkeleri-Kirfi Rd north from A345 at Budawaire along the east bank of the Gongola River to Gombe State as the Kunde-Riban-Gau Rd.
  • the Ningi Rd north from A3 in Bauchi via Kafin Madaki to Miya.
  • the Miya-Warji Rd north from Miya via Baima
  • the Warji-Gwaram Rd east to Jigawa State
  • the Jengre-Ningi Rd north from Plateau State at Zarya to Ningi.
  • the Ningi-Zakara Rd east to Zakara where the Zakara-Miya Rd continues east.
  • the Ningi-Shamaki Rd north to Jigawa State at Shabaki.
  • the Munchia-Zanabi-Jerkoya-Matugiwa Rd.
  • the Lumbu-Fulani Rd east via Jigawa and Gwom to Shabaki.
  • northeast from A3 at Darazo to Jigawa State at Basirka.

Railways:

Airport:

Languages edit

West Chadic language groups spoken in Bauchi State:[30]

Languages of Bauchi State listed by LGA:[31]

LGA Languages
Alkaleri Dass; Bole; Duguri; Giiwo; Guruntum-Mbaaru; Labir; Tangale
Bauchi Bankal; Duguri; Dulbu; Galambu; Gera; Geruma; Giiwo; Guruntum-Mbaaru; Ju; Kir-Balar; Labir; Luri; Mangas; Mbat; Pa'a; Polci; Shiki; Tala; Zangwal
Bogoro Sayawa(Za'ar)
Darazo Bole; Deno; Diri; Giiwo; Mburku; Ngamo; Zumbun
Dass Bankal; Dass; Gwak; Polci; Saya; Shall-Zwall; Zari
Dukku Bole
Gamawa Karekare
Ganjuwa Ciwogai; Gera; Geruma; Jimi; Kariya; Kubi; Miya
Kirfi Bure
Misau Fulato/Borno; Shuwa; Kanuri; Hausa; Fulani
Ningi Diri; Gamo-Ningi; Kudu-Camo; Pa'a; Siri; Warji; Geruma
Tafawa Balewa Sur; Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri; Zari; Bankal; Gwak; Izere; Sayawa(Za'ar)
Toro Bankal; Dass; Geji; Geruma; Gwa; Gyem; Iguta; Izere; Jere; Lame; Lemoro; Mawa; Panawa; Polci; Sanga; Saya; Shau; Tunzuii; Zari; Zeem; Ziriya
Zaki Bade

Other languages of Bauchi State are Ajawa, Beele, Berom, Kanuri, Kwaami, Manga, Pero, and Piya-Kwonci.[31]

Government edit

See also: List of governors of Bauchi State

The Governor of Bauchi State is the Executive, while the State Legislature, Bauchi State House of Assembly is located in Bauchi.

Governor edit

The current governor of Bauchi State is Mr. Bala AbdulKadir Mohammed who emerged victorious in the 9 March 2019 Governorship election with the political party PDP. He was sworn in on 29 May 2019, making him the 6th democratic governor of Bauchi State and the 16th governor of Bauchi State overall. Baba Tela is serving as the deputy governor of Bauchi State.[32][33]

Politics edit

The State government is led by a democratically elected governor who works closely with members of the state's house of assembly. The Capital city of the State is Bauchi.[34]

The electoral system of to the state is selected using a modified two-round system. To be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive the plurality of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least two -third of the State local government Areas. If no candidate passes threshold, a second round will be held between the top candidate and the next candidate to have received a plurality of votes in the highest number of local government Areas.[35]

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Bauchi State: Subdivision". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  2. ^ a b Okeowo, Gabriel; Fatoba, Iyanuoluwa, eds. (13 October 2022). "State of States 2022 Edition" (PDF). Budgit.org. BudgIT. Retrieved 7 March 2023.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Bauchi | state, Nigeria | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Yankari Game Reserve". WCS Nigeria. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  6. ^ "Azare Town | Bauchi State". www.fmcazare.gov.ng. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Bauchi State". Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  8. ^ "Bauchi - state, Nigeria". britannica.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Bauchi - state, Nigeria". britannica.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  10. ^ Johnston, Hugh A.S. (1967). The Fulani Empire of Sokoto. Oxford University Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-19-215428-1.
  11. ^ "Member Countries | COMMONWEALTH PARLIAMENTARY ASSOCIATION AFRICA REGION". www.cpaafricaregion.or.tz. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  12. ^ Ajawa at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022)  
  13. ^ "Issue Paper:Nigéria / Protection offerte par l'état". irb-cisr.gc.ca. Research Directorate of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, April 2003. Archived from the original on 20 March 2005. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  14. ^ distances from Google Maps
  15. ^ "Bauchi Climate, Weather By Month, Average Temperature (Nigeria) - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 30 June 2023.
  16. ^ "Bauchi Annual Weather Averages". WorldWeatherOnline.com. Retrieved 30 June 2023.
  17. ^ "Climate Watch: Flood destroys 100 houses, farmlands in Bauchi". TheCable. 18 July 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  18. ^ "Air Quality & Pollen Forecast for Bauchi". meteoblue. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  19. ^ "Bauchi Air Quality Index (AQI) and Nigeria Air Pollution | IQAir". www.iqair.com. 21 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  20. ^ "Air Quality and Pollen in Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria | Tomorrow.io". Tomorrow.io Weather. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  21. ^ Nabordo, Muhammad Alabira (28 August 2023). "Residents of Bauchi communities panic as erosion washes away bridges, threatens houses". Premium Times Nigeria. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  22. ^ Abdulhamid, Hafsat (4 August 2020). "Erosion threatening our lives - Bauchi community". Daily Post Nigeria. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  23. ^ "FERMA: Bauchi-Jos highway needs urgent intervention - Daily Trust". dailytrust.com. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  24. ^ "A 100-Year-Old Muslim Festival of Horse Riding". Folio Nigeria. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  25. ^ keetu (8 March 2018). "List Of Accredited Courses Offered In ATBU Bauchi". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  26. ^ "List Of BASUG Courses and Programmes Offered - MySchoolGist". www.myschoolgist.com. 9 October 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  27. ^ "Bauchi poly secures accreditation for 53 courses". The Nation. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  28. ^ keetu (23 November 2017). "List Of Accredited Courses Offered In Federal Poly Bauchi". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  29. ^ "Federal University Of Health Sciences Azare Matriculate 760 Pioneer Students | Independent Newspaper Nigeria". independent.ng. Retrieved 25 December 2023.
  30. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  31. ^ a b Nigeria in Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2022). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (25th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  32. ^ "Huge Crowd Gather for Bala Mohammed's Inauguration in Bauchi". THISDAYLIVE. 29 May 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  33. ^ "Nigerian States". www.worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  34. ^ Oguntola, Tunde (27 September 2022). "2023: Next President, Govs Must Get Two-thirds Spread, Says INEC". Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  35. ^ Oguntola, Tunde (27 September 2022). "2023: Next President, Govs Must Get Two-thirds Spread, Says INEC". Retrieved 24 February 2023.

External links edit