South Bauchi languages

  (Redirected from Barawa languages)

The South Bauchi languages (also called the B.3 West Chadic or Barawa languages) are a branch of West Chadic languages that are spoken in Bauchi State and Plateau State, Nigeria.

South Bauchi
Barawa; B.3 West Chadic
Geographic
distribution
Toro, Dass, Tafawa Balewa, Bauchi LGAs of Bauchi State and Kanam Plateau, Wase Plateau LGAs Plateau State, Nigeria
Linguistic classificationAfro-Asiatic
Glottologwest2800
West Chadic Languages.jpg
West Chadic per Newman (1977)
Main Chadic-speaking peoples in Nigeria

An extensive lexical survey of the South Bauchi languages had been carried out by Kiyoshi Shimizu from 1974 to 1975.[1] Another early survey was that of Gowers (1907), which included 42 languages of Bauchi.[2]

LanguagesEdit

The South Bauchi languages include:[3]

South Bauchi languages

Roger Blench (2020) counted around 38 South Bauchi languages.[4]

International classificationEdit

Shimizu (1978) classifies the South Bauchi languages as follows.[1] Individual languages are highlighted in italics.

  • South Bauchi
    • East branch
      • Boghom subgroup
        • Bòghòm (Burrum)
        • Kir cluster
          • Kiir (Kir); Laàr (Balàr)
          • Mánsi (Mangas)
      • Guruntum subgroup
        • Guruntum cluster
          • Mbaarù
          • Gùrùntùm
        • Tala cluster
          • Sòòr (Zaŋwal); Zaŋwal of Zungur
          • Lungu (Tala)
          • Shò (Jù); Jimi
    • West branch
      • Barawa subgroup
        • North Barawa
          • Geji cluster
            • Mɨ̀gang (Booluu), Pelu; Gyaanzi (Gèèjì)
            • Buu (Zàràndaa)
          • Polci cluster
            • Zùl; Barang (Baram), Dììr (Baram Dutse)
            • Bɨ̀lɨ̀ (Bùlì); Nyámzàx (Laŋas), Lundur; Posɨ (Polci)
        • South Barawa
          • Zeem cluster
            • Zeem; Tule (Tulai); Chaari
            • Dokshì (Lushi)
          • Dass cluster
            • Dɨkshi (Bàraza?); Bàndas (Dur)
            • Boòdlɨ (Zumbul); Wangdày (Wanɗì); Zòdì (Dwàt)
          • Saya cluster
            • Zàksɨ̀ (Zàkshì); Bòòt (Boto); Zaarɨ (Zari); Sigidi
            • Zaar of Kàl; Zaar of Gàmbar Lèère; Zaar of Lùsa

Names and locationsEdit

Below is a comprehensive list of South Bauchi language names, populations, and locations from Blench (2019).[5]

Language Branch Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s) Notes
Aja (extinct) Zaar North Bauchi Ajanci Extinct: formerly spoken at Kworko, Bauchi State no data
Das cluster Zaar Das Ɓarawa 8,830 (LA 1971) Bauchi State, Toro and Dass LGAs
Lukshi Zaar Das Dәkshi 1,130 (LA 1971)
Durr–Baraza Zaar Das Bandas 4,700 (LA 1971); 30–40,000 (Caron 2005) Bauchi State, Das LGA, Durr and Baraza villages
Zumbul Zaar Das Boodlә Zumbulawa, Dumbulawa See Wandi Bauchi State, Das LGA, Zumbul town
Wandi Zaar Das Wangday 700 (including Zumbul) (LA 1971) Bauchi State, Das LGA, Wandi town
Dot Zaar Das Dwat Zoɗi shérә́m zoɗi Dott 2,300 (LA 1971); a single large village. 37,582 (local census 2003). 7 wards (out of 11) speak Zoɗi South of Bauchi on the Dass road
Geji cluster Zaar Geji Kayauri, Kaiyorawa Ɓarawa Bauchi State, Toro LGA
Mәgang Zaar Geji Bolu, Buli Mәg̣ àŋ 1,250 (LA 1971), 'a few hundred' (Caron 2005)
Pyaalu Zaar Geji Pelu, Belu Pyààlù
Geji Zaar Geji Gyaazә Bagba Gezawa, Gaejawa 650 (LA 1971), 1000 (Caron 2005). 20 villages (2007) Toro, Bauchi LGAs, Bauchi State
Buu Zaar Geji Zaranda Bùù 750 (LA 1971), 'a few hundred' (Caron 2002)
Guus Zaar Guus Ɓarawa Sayanci 50,000 (1971 Schneeberg); 50,000 (1973 SIL) Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. West of Tafawa Balewa town.
Guus Zaar Guus mur gúús (one person); Gùùs (people) vìì kә gúús (mouth of Guus) Sigidi, Sugudi, Sigdi, Segiddi 775 (1950 HDG). 17 villages (Caron 2002)
Polci cluster Zaar Polci Ɓarawa, Palsawa 6,150 or more (1971) Bauchi State, Bauchi and Toro LGAs
Zul Zaar Polci Zul is mutually comprehensible with Mbaram Bi Zule Nya Zule pl. Man Zule Mbarmi, Barma Zulawa 2,400 (LA 1971). 15 villages (2007) Bauchi State, Bauchi and Toro LGAs
Mbaram Zaar Polci Barang, Mbaram 250 CAPRO (1995a). One settlement only Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA
Dir Zaar Polci Diir 'a few hundred' (Caron 2005)
Buli Zaar Polci Bәlә 600 (LA 1971), 4000 (CAPRO 1995a), 'a few hundred' (Caron 2005)
Langas Zaar Polci Nyamzax Lundur 200 (LA 1971), 'a few hundred' (Caron 2005)
Luri Zaar Polci Lúr 30 (1973 SIL), 2 (Caron 2002) Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA
Polci Zaar Polci Posә, Polshi, Palci, Pәlci 2,950 (LA 1971); 70,000 (Caron 2005)
Zaar Zaar Kal, Gambar Leere, Lusa Zaʼr, Zar Vìk Zaar, Vigzar Zaar pl. Zàrsɛ̀ Sáyánci Bàsáyè pl. Sáyáːwá, Saya, Seya, Seiyara [Saya terms are now considered derogatory] 50,000 (1971 Schneeberg); 50,000 (1973 SIL) Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. West of Tafawa Balewa town.
Zari cluster Zaar Zari Ɓarawa Bauchi State, Toro and Tafawa Balewa LGAs; Plateau State, Jos LGA
Zakshi Zaar Zari Zaksә 2,950 (1950 HDG)
Boto Zaar Zari Boot Bibot 1,000 (1950 HDG)
Zari Zaar Zari Kopti, Kwapm
Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim cluster Zaar Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim Ɓarawa Bauchi State, Toro LGA
Zeem (extinct) Zaar Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim Extinct (Caron 2005)
Tule (extinct) Zaar Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim Tulai Extinct (Caron 2005)
Danshe Zaar Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim Extinct (Caron 2005)
Chaari Zaar Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim Tulai a 'few hundred' speakers (Caron 2005)
Dyarim Zaar Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim one person Mәn Dyarim, people Dyarim Ndyarim Tә Kaiwari About 2000 ethnic Dyarim with about 100 fluent speakers (Blench 2005 est.) Their main settlement is about 7 km south of Toro town in Toro LGA (N10˚ 02, E 9˚ 04).
Lushi? Zaar Zeem-Caari-Danshe-Dyarim Lukshi Dokshi
Jimi Zaar 250 (LA 1971); 400 (1973 SIL) Bauchi State, Darazo LGA
Kir–Balar cluster Boghom Kir–Balar 360 (LA 1971) (Kir only) Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA no data
Kir Boghom Kir–Balar no data
Balar Boghom Kir–Balar Larbawa 50 CAPRO (1995a) no data
Boghom Boghom Burom, Burrum, Burma, Borrom, Boghorom, Bogghom, Bohom, Bokiyim Burumawa 9,500 (1952 W&B), 50,000 (1973 SIL) Plateau State, Kanam LGA
Mangas Boghom Maás 180 (LA 1971) Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA no data
Guruntum–Mbaaru Guruntum By settlements Dookà, Gàr, Gayàr, Kàràkara, Kuukù, and Mbaarù Gurutum Gùrduŋ 10,000 (1988 Jaggar) Bauchi State, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs
Ju Guruntum 150 (LA 1971) Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA
Tala Guruntum Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Zungur district
Zangwal Guruntum Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA no data

PhonologyEdit

Consonants

Like the other West Chadic languages, South Bauchi languages have a rich consonant inventory. They also generally have the lateral fricatives /ɬ, ɮ/, whereas the West Chadic A languages have not preserved such consonants.[4]

  • Stops: p t k b d g ʔ
  • Nasals: m n ɲ ŋ
  • Implosives: ɓ ɗ
  • Fricatives: f v s z (ʃ) (ʒ) ɣ (h)
  • Tap: r
  • Approximants: l j w
  • Lateral fricatives: ɬ ɮ
Vowels

Blench (2020) proposes that Proto-South Bauchi had a 6-vowel system consisting of /i, ɨ, u, ɛ, ɔ, a/, with length contrast.[4]

Tones

South Bauchi languages have 2-3 tone levels, with Proto-South Bauchi likely having three tones like the nearby A3 West Chadic languages. Some languages also have contour tones (falling or rising).[4]

MorphologyEdit

Like the neighbouring A3 West Chadic languages but unlike Hausa, South Bauchi languages do not usually have plural nouns, although certain words for persons such as ‘woman’, ‘child’, and sometimes ‘man/person’ have suppletive nominal forms.[4] Blench (2021) hypothesises that this may be due to contact with Adamawa languages.[6]

Stop consonants at the ends of morphemes are underlyingly voiceless.[4]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1978. The Southern Bauchi group of Chadic languages: a survey report. (Africana Marburgensia: Sonderheft, 2.) Marburg/Lahn: Africana Marburgensia. 48pp.
  2. ^ Gowers, W.F. 1907. Forty-two vocabularies of languages spoken in Bauchi Province, N. Nigeria. Ms. 77pp.
  3. ^ Blench, Roger. 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List (ms)
  4. ^ a b c d e f Blench, Roger. 2020. The South Bauchi languages of Central Nigeria: a fresh view based on recent fieldwork. CALL 50. Leiden University, August 31, 2020.
  5. ^ Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger. 2021. The erosion of number marking in West Chadic Roger Blench. WOCAL, Leiden.

  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 3.0 license.

BibliographyEdit

  • Caron, Bernard 2002. Review of Ɓarawa lexicon: a wordlist of eight South Bauchi (West Chadic) languages: Boghom, Buli, Dott, Geji, Sayanci and Zul by Ronald Cosper, Munich: LINCOM EUROPA, 1999. Chadic Newsletter, 23: 46–80.
  • Cosper, Ronald 1999. Barawa lexicon: a wordlist of eight South Bauchi (West Chadic) languages; Boghom, Buli, Dott, Geji, Jimi, Polci, Sayanci and Zul. (LINCOM Studies in African Linguistics, 39.) München: Lincom.
  • Kraft, Charles H. 1981. Chadic Wordlists: Volume I (Plateau-Sahel). Marburger Studien zur Afrika- und Asienkunde: Serie A: Afrika, 23. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.

External linksEdit